Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "National geographic"

See other formats


TORONi 
LlBRAkY 


VOLUME  XXXVII 


JAN.-JUNE,  1920 


NATIONA 

GEOGRAPHI 
MAGAZIN 


INDEX 


January  to  June,  1920 


VOLUME  XXXVII 


PUBLISHED   BY  THE 

NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY 

HUBBARD  MEMORIAL  HALL 
\VASHINGTON,  D.C. 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY 

GEOGRAPHIC  ADMINISTRATION  BUILDINGS 
SIXTEENTH  AND  M  STREETS  NORTHWEST,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 

GILBERT  GROSVENOR,  President  HENRY  WHITE,  Vice-President 

JOHN  JOY   EDSON,  Treasurer  •  O.   P.   AUSTIN,  Secretary 

BOYD  TAYLOR,  Assistant  Treasurer  GEORGE  W.  HUTCHISON,  Associate  Secretary 

EDWIN  P.  GROSVENOR,  General  Counsel 


EXECUTIVE  STAFF  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 
GILBERT  GROSVENOR,  EDITOR 

JOHN  OLIVER  LA  GORGE,  Associate  Editor 


WILLIAM  J.  SHOWALTER 
Assistant  Editor 


CHARLES  j.  BELL 

President  American  Security  and 
Trust  Company 

JOHN  JOY  EDSON 

Chairman  of  the  Board,  Wash- 
ington Loan  &  Trust  Company 

DAVID  FAIRCHILD 

In  Charge  of  Agricultural  Ex- 
plorations, U.  S.  Department 
of  Agriculture 

C.  HART  MERRIAM 

Member  National  Academy  of 
Sciences 

O.  P.  AUSTIN 
Statistician 

GEORGE  R.  PUTNAM 

Commissioner  U.  S.  Bureau  of 
Lighthouses 

GEORGE  SHIRAS,  30 

Formerly  Member  U.  S.  Con- 
gress, Faunal  Naturalist,  and 
Wild-game  Photographer 

GRANT  SQUIRES 

Military  Intelligence  Division, 
General  Staff,  New  York 


RALPH  A.  GRAVES 
Assistant  Editor 

JESSIE  L.  BURRALL 
Chief  of  School  Service 


BOARD    OF   TRUSTEES 


C 


Star 

T.  L.  MACDONALD 
M.  D.,  F.  A.  C.  S. 

S.  N.  D.  NORTH 

Formerly  Director  U.  S.  Bureau 
of  Census 

JOHN  OLIVER  LA  GORGE, 
Associate  Editor  National  Geo- 
graphic Magazine. 


FRANKLIN  L.  FISHER 

Chief  of  Illustrations  Division 


ALEXANDER  GRAHAM  BELL 
Inventor  of  the  telephone 

J.  HOWARD  GORE 

Prof.  Emeritus  Mathematics, The 
George  Washington  University 

A.  W.  GREELY 

Arctic  Explorer,  Major  General 
U.  S.  Army 

GILBERT  GROSVENOR 

Editor  of  National  Geographic 
Magazine 

ROBT.  E.  PEARY    (Died  Feb.  20) 
Discoverer   of   the    North    Pole, 
Rear  Admiral,  U.  S.  Navy 

GEORGE  OTIS  SMITH 

Director  of  U.  S.  Geological 
Survey 

O.  H.  TITTMANN 
Formerly  Superintendent  of  U.  S. 
Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey 

HENRY  WHITE 

Member  American  Peace  Com- 
mission, and  Recently  U.  S. 
Ambassador  to  France,  Italy, 
etc. 


ORGANIZED  FOR  "THE  INCREASE  AND  DIFFUSION  OF  GEOGRAPHIC  KNOWLEDGE" 

To  carry  out  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  founded  thirty-two  years  ago,  the  National  Geographic  So- 
ciety publishes  this  Magazine.  All  receipts  from  the  publication  are  invested  in  the  Magazine  itself  or  ex- 
pended directly  to  promote  geographic  knowledge  and  the  study  of  geography.  Articles  or  photographs 
from  members  of  the  Society,  Or  other  friends,  are  desired.  For  material  that  the  Magazine  can  use,  gener- 
ous remuneration  is  made.  Contributions  should  be  accompanied  by  an  addressed  return  envelope  and  post- 
age, and  be  addressed:  Editor,  National  Geographic  Magazine,  i6th  and  M  Streets,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Important  contributions  to  geographic  science  are  constantly  being  made  through  expeditions  financed 
by  funds  set  aside  from  the  Society's  income.  For  example,  immediately  after  the  terrific  eruption  of  the 
world's  largest  crater,  Mt.  Katmai,  in  Alaska,  a  National  Geographic  Society  expedition  was  sent  to  make 
observations  of  this  remarkable  phenomenon.  So  important  was  the  completion  of  this  work  considered 
that  four  expeditions  have  followed  and  the  extraordinary  scientific  data  resultant  given  to  the  world.  In 
this  vicinity  an  eighth  wonder  of  the  world  was  discovered  and  explored — "The  Valley  of  Ten  Thousand 
Smokes,"  a  vast  area  of  steaming,  spoilting  fissures,  evidently  formed  by  nature  as  a  huge  safety-valve  for 
erupting  Katmai.  By  proclamation  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  this  area  has  been  created  a 
National  Monument.  The  Society  organized  and  supported  a  large  party,  which  made  a  three-year  study 
of  Alaskan  glacial  fields,  the  most  remarkable  in  existence.  At  an  expense  of  over  $50,000  it  has  sent  a 
notable  series  of  .expeditions  into  Peru  to  investigate  the  traces  of  the  Inca  race.  The  discoveries  of  these 
expeditions  form  a  large  share  of  the  world's  knowledge  of  a  civilization  which  was  waning  when  Pizarro 
first  set  foot  in  Peru.  Trained  geologists  were  sent  to  Mt.  Pelee,  La  Soufriere,  and  Messina  following  the 
eruptions  and  earthquakes.  The  Society  also  had  the  honor  of  subscribing  a  substantial  sum  to  the  historic 
expedition  of  Admiral  Peary,  who  discovered  the  North  Pole  April  6,  1909.  Not  long  ago  the  Society 
granted  $20,000  to  the  Federal  Government  when  the  congressional  appropriation  for  the  purchase  was 
insufficient,  and  the  finest  of  the  giant  sequoia  trees  of  California  were  thereby  saved  for  the  American 
people  and  incorporated  into  a  National  Park. 


Copyright,   1920,  by  National  Geographic  Society,  Washington,  D.  C.     All  rights  reserved. 


CONTENTS 

PAGE 
Around  the  World   with   the   Salvation   Army.     By   EVANGELINE   BOOTH,    Commander 

Salvation  Army    346 

Asia  Minor  in  the  Time  of  the  Seven  Wise  Men.    By  MARY  MILLS  PATRICK,  President' 

of  the  American  College  for  Girls,  Constantinople 47 

By  Motor  Through  the  East  Coast  and  Batak  Highlands  of  Sumatra.     By  MELVIN  A. 

HALL 68 

Common  Mushrooms  of  the  United  States.    By  LOUIS  C.  C.  KRIEGER 387 

Crow,  Bird  Citizen  of  Every  Land,  The:   A  Feathered  Rogue  Who  Has  Many  Fascinat- 
ing Traits  and  Many  Admirable  Qualities  Despite  His  Marauding  Propensities.    By 

E.  R.  KALMBACH,  Assistant  Biologist,  U.  S.  Biological  Survey 322 

Formosa  the  Beautiful.     By  ALICE  BALLANTINE  KIRJASSOFF 246 

Hurdle  Racing  in  Canoes :    A  Thrilling  and  Spectacular  Sport  Among  the  Maoris  of 

New  Zealand.    By  WALTER  BURKE 440 

Last  Israelitish  Blood   Sacrifice,  The :    How  the  Vanishing  Samaritans  Celebrate  the 

Passover  on  Sacred  Mount  Gerizim.    By  JOHN  D.  WHITING I 

Malta:  The  Halting  Place  of  Nations:  First  Account  of  Remarkable  Prehistoric  Tombs 

and  Temples  Recently  Unearthed  on  the  Island.    By  WILLIAM  ARTHUR  GRIFFITHS..  445 

Massachusetts— Beehive  of  Business.    By  WILLIAM  JOSEPH  SHOW  ALTER 203 

Mind's-Eye  Map  of  America,  A.    By  FRANKLIN  K.  LANE 479 

Mushrooms,  United  States.     Color  insert.    XVI  plates 423 

National  Geographic  Society's  Notable  Year,  The 338 

Our  National  Parks.    Color  insert.     VIII  plates 511 

Peary  as  a  Leader:    Incidents  from  the  Life  of  the  Discoverer  of  the  North  Pole  Told 
by   One   of    His    Lieutenants   on   the   Expedition   Which    Reached   the   Goal.     By 

DONALD  B.   MACMILLAN 293 

Peary's    Explorations   in   the   Far    North.     By   GILBERT   GROSVENOR,    President   of   the 

National  Geographic  Society v 319 

Peru's  Wealth-Producing  Birds :  Vast  Riches  in  the  Guano  Deposits  of  Cormorants, 

Pelicans,  and  Petrels  Which  Nest  on  Her  Barren,  Rainless  Coast.  By  R.  E.  COKER.  537 
Removal  of  the  North  Sea  Mine  Barrage,  The.  By  Lieutenant-Commander  NoEL 

DAVIS,  U.  S.  Navy . ....  103 

Saving  the  Redwoods.  By  MADISON  GRANT 519 

Skiing  Over  the  New  Hampshire  Hills :  A  Thrilling  and  Picturesque  Sport  Which  Has 

a  Thousand  Devotees  in  the  Dartmouth  Outing  Club.  By  FRED  H.  HARRIS 151 

When  the  Father  of  Waters  Goes  on  a  Rampage:  An  Account  of  the  Salvaging  of 

Food-Fishes  from  the  Overflowed  Lands  of  the  Mississippi  River.     By  HUGH  M. 

SMITH,  United  States  Commissioner  of  Fisheries 369 

Where  the  World  Gets  Its  Oil :  But  Where  Will  Our  Children  Get  it  When  American 

Wells  Cease  to  Flow?    By  GEORGE  OTIS  SMITH,  Director  United  States  Geological 

Survey    181 

Winter  Rambles  in  Thoreau's  Country.     By  HERBERT  W.  GLEASON 165 

Winter  Scenes.     Duotone  insert.     XVI  plates .-...-..•.•.. -.-..; 135 


INDEX  FOR  VOL.  XXXVII   (JANUARY-JUNE),   1920 


AN  ALPHABETICALLY  ARRANGED  INDEX 


ENTRIES  IN  CAPITALS  REFER  TO  ARTICLES 


Page 

Aberdeen,    Scotland    303 

Abishua  Codex:   First  photograph  of ill.     12 

Abishua,   Great-grandson   of   Aaron:   Reference   to 

the  Abishua  Codex 12,     23 

Abortive    Clitopilus   mushroom    (Clitopilus   aborti- 

vtts)   ill.  396 

Abu    el    Hassan,    Son    of    the    late    High    Priest 

Jacob :  Photograph  of   ill.     1 3 

Achin,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 79 

Achinese  war   79 

Acre,   Syria:   Knights  of  St.   John 453 

Acropolis   of   Samaria,    Palestine ill.       5 

Adalia,  Asia   Minor 54 

Adams,  John :   Reference  to 209 

Adirondack  Mountains,  N.  Y. :    Victory  Park.. ill.  508 

Adriatic   445 

^Egean  Sea,  Islands  of 47,  49,  51,     67 

Aerial    trolley    used    for    conveying    guano,    Peru 

ill.    561;   text  564 

.fljsop  fables    57 

Afghan,    Persia    101 

Afiun-Karahissar,   Asia   Minor ill.   62;   text     58 

Africa    51 

Africa,  South:   Salvation  Army.  .ill.  353,  364;  text  363 
Africa,  South:   Salvation  Army  workers  and  their 

native  associates   ill.  364 

Africa,  South:  Zulu  wards  of  the  Salvation  Army 

ill.   353 

Agassiz  Basin,   N.   H 158 

Agriculture,  Massachusetts   204-206 

Agrippina,  Julia:  Mention  of Plate  IX,  423-438 

Ahab's  palace,  Samaria,  Palestine:   Reburying.  .ill.       6 

Ai,   Palestine    13 

Aidin,   Asia   Minor    50 

"Aiyue"   (guardsmen)   Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean....    274 

"Akid  eh   Niyeh"    (Samaritan   prayer) 33 

Ak-Kom-Mo-Ding-Wa :    Smith   Sound   native.  ..  .ill.   310 

Alaska    482-483,  487,  519 

Albatrosses,   Peru    559 

Albert  I,  King  of  the  Belgians:   Mention  of.. 498,   504 
Albert  Hall,  London,  England:   International  Con- 
gress of  the  Salvation  Army 363,  368 

Alcatraz,  see  Pelicans. 

Alcott,   Louisa:  "Thoreau's   Flute"    169 

Alert  (Steamship)   311 

Alkaios,  Poet:  Reference  to   57 

Alkman :   Choir  song  for  girls   61 

Almond    groves,     Goodnoe    Hills,     Klickitat    Co., 

Wash.:   Destruction   of  by  crows    337 

Almost  a  Dog  Mountain,   Glacier   National   Park, 

Mont 501 

Al-Ning-Wa:  An  Eskimo  woman   ill.  308 

Altar  of  Seth,  Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine 31 

Altar,  Tarxien  Temple,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 

ill.  475;   text  474-475 
Amanita  mushroom  species:  Underground  portions 

of  the    ill.  389 

Amazons,  Legend  of  the    66 

American  Falls,  Idaho 496 

Americanism    479,   510 

Americanization 479 

Amherst  College,  Amherst,  Mass 207 

Ami   savages,    Formosa,   Pacific   Ocean:  Dance   of 

the   ill.   291 

Amsterdam-Deli  Company,  Medan,  Sumatra,  Dutch 

East   Indies    75,  79,  81 

Amundsen,  Capt.   Roald:  National  Geographic  So- 
ciety Banquet,   1913   ill.   320 

Anak   kajoe    (poles    for   tobacco    drying)    Sumatra, 

Dutch   East  Indies    69 

Anatolia   (Asia  Minor) 52,  59 

Anchobetas,  Peru 543,   552-553 

Andover,  Mass 245 

Andrews   Glacier,   Rocky   Mountain   Park,    Colo. . .    502 
Anglo-Bavarian    Langues,     Malta,    Mediterranean 

Sea  453 

Animals'    tracks   in   the   snow,    Massachusetts . .  ill.   1 76- 

177,   179 
Animals,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean   274-275 


Page 

Animals,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies    ill.     74 

Antaeus :   Strength    received    from   the    earth 510 

Antigua,  Nicaragua:  Delegates  to  Salvation  Army 

International  Congress,  London   368 

Antiochus  II :  Reference  to 50 

Ants  as  cultivators  of  mushrooms    399,  401 

Apache  Indians,  Arizona 495-496 

Appistoki  Mountain,  Glacier  National  Park,  Mont. : 

Summit  of   ill.  485 

Apples,  Washington   487 

Arabs    63,  86 

Arabs,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 453 

Aragon,  Spain:  Knights  of  St.  John   453 

Aratiatia  Rapids,  North  Island,  New  Zealand 440 

"Arbutus":  Crow  roost  near  Baltimore,  Md 325 

Arcata,   Calif. :   Redwood   trees    525 

Archaeology,    Malta,    Mediterranean   Sea. 111.466-468, 

470-472,    474-478;    text    448-450,    455-457,    459,    463, 
465-469,    473-475,    477-478 

Archilochus:  Poems  of   61 

Arctic   Circle    482 

Arctic  stove:  Admiral  Peary's 308 

Arizona:   Vice-President   Stevenson's   visit   to 495 

Armington  Pond,   N.   H 158 

Armistice,  The   104-105 

Armstrong  Grove,  Calif. :  Redwood  trees 527 

Archangel,  Russia 340 

Arrow  Rock  Dam,  Idaho 496 

AROUND  THE  WORLD  WITH  THE  SALVA- 
TION ARMY.  BY  EVANGELINE  BOOTH, 

COMMANDER  SALVATION  ARMY   346 

Arctic  archipelago 340 

Argentina:  Delegates  to  Salvation  Army  Inter- 
national Congress,  London  - 368 

Arkansas:  Fishes  rescued  by  government 375 

Arlington,  Va. :   Crow  roosts 325-326 

Arklio :  An  Eskimo  dog-driver   308 

Asia  Island,  Peru:  Guano   559 

ASIA  MINOR  IN  THE  TIME  OF  THE  SEVEN 
WISE  MEN.  BY  MARY  MILLS  PATRICK, 
PRESIDENT  OF  THE  AMERICAN  COL- 
LEGE FOR  GIRLS,  CONSTANTINOPLE...  47 

Asia  Minor,  Map  of 46 

Asia  Minor  market-place,  Arriving  at  an ill.     48 

Askar  (Ancient  Sychar)  Palestine,  .ill.  16;  text   17,  31 

Assuan  Dam,  Nile,  Egypt  498 

Astronomy:  Thales'  School  of  Philosophy,  Miletus, 

Asia  Minor 64 

Astrup,   Eivind:  Mention  of    319 

Atap,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 69 

Atayal  savages,   Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  282; 

text  275 

Athens,    Greece 51 

Attleboro,  Mass.:  Jewelry  trade  ". . .   242 

Audubon,  John  James:  Mention  of  331 

Augusta  Sandstone  Bridge,  Utah  491 

Augustus,   Emperor:  Presentation   of   Shechem   to 

Herod  the  Great   5,  21 

Auckland,  New  Zealand    440 

Auk    (Mine-sweeper)    124 

Australia   202 

Automobile  difficulties,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  In- 
dies   .92-95,  97,  99 

Automobiles,   United  States 187 

Awerta,   Palestine    31 

Axel  Heiberg  Land,   Arctic   Region.. 294,  299-300,  314 
Ayasoulouk,  Asia  Minor ill.     59 


Baffin  Bay,  Arctic  Region    301 

Baffin  Land,   Canada    307 

Baffin,    William,    British    navigator:   Discovery    of 

Hakluyt  Island,   Greenland    302 

Bahria,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea   456 

Balanced   Rock,    Colo ill.  503 

Bale  of  cotton,  A    ill.  206 

Bale-breaker,    Cotton    ill.   207;    text  211 

Ballestas  Islands,  Peru ill.  540,  559,  561;  text  545, 

547,  554,  559,  561-562 


INDEX  FOR  VOLUME  XXXVII,  1920 


Page 

Baltimore,    Md. :   Crow   roosts    325 

Bamboo    poles,    Formosa,    Pacific    Ocean:   Savages 

carrying  water   in    ill.  288 

Bamboo   rafts,    Formosa,   Pacific   Ocean ill.   246; 

text  247 

Band  of  the  Salvation  Army,  India ill.  352 

Bandar  Baroe,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies. ..  .81,  84 

Bandjarese     71,  99 

Bandoening,   Java,    Dutch    East   Indies:   Children's 

home  established  by  the  Salvation  Army 363 

Banquets,   Ancient    61 

Barents,   William:   Mention   of    319 

Barnyards,   Sumatra,   Dutch  East  Indies    ill.     78 

Baros,   Sumatra,    Dutch   East   Indies    83 

Bartlett,    Capt.    Robert   A.:   Reference   to.... 296,  305, 

309,  314,  3!7 

Batak  Highlands,   Sumatra,   Dutch  East  Indies...     83 
Bataks,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies.. 80,  83-86,  89,  94 

Batavia,  Java:  Dutch  East  Indies   70 

Battle  Harbor,  Labrador 317 

Battle  of  the  Nile 454 

Battleship,    German    ill.    112 

"Battleship,  The,"  Grand  Canyon  of  the  Colorado 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VIII,  511-518 

Bay  of  Independencia,  Peru   •  -553,   558 

Bay  of  Marsa  Scirocco,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 

455-456 
Bay  State,  see  Massachusetts. 

Bears,  Polar ill.  312;  ill.  (duotone  insert)  Plate 

IX,  135-150 

Beaufort  Sea,  Arctic  Region   340 

Beef-tongue  mushroom   (Fisttilina  hepatica)  . . .  .ill.  407 

Beetles,  May:   Crows'  destruction  of 332-333 

Begbie,   Harold:   Mention   of    351 

Belawan,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 73,   102 

Belgium 185 

Bellevue,   Iowa:   Fishes  rescued  by  government...    375 

Bengalis,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies   79 

Benihi  trees,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean   ill.  257 

Berenger,    M. :    Quotation 185 

Bering  Strait,   Siberia    340 

Berkeley:   Quotation   on   mushrooms    418 

Bernadotte,  Prince:   Mention  of   363 

Besdeguma,  Aidin  Vilayet,  Asia  Minor   ill.     52 

Bethesda,  Md 230 

Betrothed    ill.     34 

Bias  of  Priene    47,   67 

Biblical   salutation,   Palestine    ill.     44 

Bibliotheque   Nationale,   Paris    67 

Big   Basin,   Calif.:   Redwood  trees 527 

Big  Lagoon,  Orick,  Calif.:  Redwood  Trees 531 

Bigelow,  Erastus:   Mention  of   243 

Bingham,    Col.     Hiram:   Life    membership    in    the 

National  Geographic  Society  bestowed  upon.  .342-343 
Bird's  nest,  Massachusetts:  "Snowy  egg"  in  a.. ill.    180 

Black  bass,  Mississippi  River   375,  383 

Black  cuer-co  de  mar,  or  "Sea  crow",  Peru 552 

Black  Hawk  (Repair  Ship)    114,  129 

Blackfeet  Indians,  Montana   ill.  486;  text  501 

Black-stem   rust,   United    States    399 

Black  Sea   52 

Bladensburg  road,  District  of  Columbia:  Crows  326-327 

Blake   (Steamship)    345 

Blanchard,  Thomas :  Reference  to   243 

Blusher  mushroom   (Amanita  rubescens)    .ill.  390 

"Bob   Townsley"    (Dog)     ill.  482 

Bobolink    (Mine-sweeper) 117,    119,   121 

Bocche  di  Cattaro,  Austria    96 

Boegangan,  Java,   Dutch  East   Indies:   Leper  Hos- 
pital maintained  by  the   Salvation  Army 359 

Boekit    Barisan    Mountains,    Sumatra,    Dutch    East 

Indies    83,  96 

Boiling,    Col. :   Memorial   to    534 

Booth,    Evangeline:  Around  the   World  With  the 

Salvation  Army 346 

Booth,    General   William:  Addressing  a   multitude 

in  Japan ill.  356 

Booth,  General  William:   Faith  in  religion. ..  .351,  354 
Borg  en  Nadur,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea:  Mega- 

lithic   ruin   of    456,  459 

Borneo,    Dutch   East  Indies    69,   71,  82,  85 

Borup,  George:    Reference  to 305,  309 

Bosporus  Strait,  Turkey  in  Europe 7 

Boston,  Mass.   ...ill.  244;  text,  114,  204,  210,  243,  245 

Bowdoin  College,  Brunswick,   Me 319 

Boyans,   Sumatra,   Dutch  East  Indies    80 

Bracket-fungus  mushroom    (Polyporus  applanatus) 

ill.  409 


Page 
Brahmin   Temple,   Grand   Canyon   of  the  Colorado 

ill.   500 
Brick-red  Hypholoma  mushroom   (Hypholoma  sub- 

lateritium)    ill.  40 1 

Bridal  Veil  Falls,  Yosemite  National  Park,  Calif. 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  V,  511-518 

Bridge  near  Brusa,  Asia  Minor:  Turkish ill.     56 

Bridgeboro,  N.  J. :  Crow  roosts   325 

Bridges,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  276-277,  279 

British  Mediterranean  fleet,  Valletta,  Malta,  Med- 
iterranean   Sea    ill.  446 

British  Museum,  London 53,  67 

British  North  Pole   Expedition  of   1875-1876.  .296,   311 

British   Red  Cross   Society    454 

British    Saluting    Battery,    Grand    Harbor,    Malta, 

Mediterranean    Sea    ill.  446 

Brockton,  Mass.:    Shoe  manufactures 228-233, 

235-236,  245 
Bronze   Age   dwellers,    Malta,   Mediterranean    Sea 

449,  469 

Brooks,    Col.   Alfred   H.:  Life   membership   in   the 
National  Geographic  Society  bestowed  upon. . . .   342 

Brooks,   Sidney:  Phrase  of    197 

Brown  Gyromitra  mushroom  (Gyromitra  brunnea) 

ill.  421 

Bruce,  Lieut.   Frank:  Death  of    117 

Brusa,  Asia  Minor    56,  58 

Bryce  Canyon,   Utah    498 

Bryce,    James:   National    Geographic    Society    Ban- 
quet,   1913 ill.   320 

Buffalo   cart,    Chinese   coolie   mending   a ill.   102 

Buffalo    farm,    Yellowstone    National    Park,    Wyo. 

ill.  490 

Buffaloes,    Water,    Formosa,    Pacific    Ocean... ill.  253- 
254;  text  257,  276,  279 

Buffalo-fishes,   Mississippi   River 375 

Bull  and  sow  carved  in  relief  on  one  of  the  walls 
of    the    Tarxien    Temple,    Malta,    Mediterranean 

Sea ill.  478 ;  text  477 

Bull  Creek  Flat,  Calif.:   Redwood  trees.. 525,  527,  531, 

533.  536 
Buller,     Prof.:    Investigation    of    Giant    puff-ball 

mushrooms    415 

Bulletins,  National  Geographic  Society:  News....   343 
Bullock  carts,   Sumatra,   Dutch  East  Indies. ..  .ill.  74; 

text  80 

Bulmer,  Capt.  R.  C. :  References  to in,  124-125 

Buoy-laying    Squadron,    North    Sea 121,   127,   129 

Buoy  markers,  North   Sea ill.   106; 

text  121,  129,  132 

Burke,  Walter:  Hurdle  Racing  in  Canoes 440 

Burnt    offering,     Feast    of    the    Passover,     Mount 

Gerizim,    Palestine ill.  32;  text  38-39 

Buzzards,   Peru    559 

BY   MOTOR   THROUGH   THE   EAST   COAST 
AND  BATAK  HIGHLANDS  OF  SUMATRA. 

BY  MELVIN  A.  HALL 68 

Byron,  Lord:  Reference  to  Malta,   Mediterranean 
Sea   445 


Cactus,  Mount  Ebal,  Palestine 5,  7.  9 

Caesarea,   Palestine:   Ruins   of    31 

Caesar's   mushroom,    or   Imperial   Agaric    (Amanita 

Casarea) ill.    (color  insert)    Plate   IX,  423-438; 

text  391-392,  422 

Cagni,   Capt.    Umberto:  Mention   of 308 

Cairo,    111.:  Drainage   district   under   flood   waters 

ill.  382 

Cairo,  111.:  Fishes  rescued  by  government 375 

Calendars,  Jewish    23,  25 

Calendars,   Samaritan 23,  25 

Calico,    Manufacture    of ill.  207-225;  text  211-225 

California     203,  487,  489,  495 

California  Highway  Commission 529.   534 

California:   Redwood  trees.. ill.   520,  522-524,  526,  528, 

530,  532,  535-536;  text  519,  521,  525,  527,  529,  531, 

533-534 
California:   Saving    the    Redwoods.      By    Madison 

Grant   5*9 

California    State    Highway:  Redwood   trees    along 

the 529,  531 

California:   Yosemite   National    Park ill.    482-483; 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  V,  511-518 

Californiacs    489 

Camanaies,  see  Piqueros. 

Cambridge,  Mass 244. 


VI 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Page  Page 

Camel   boy    ill.     49  Children    learning    to    swim,    Palisades    Interstate 

Camphor  chips,   Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean ill.  268 ;  Park    ill.  506 

text  271-272        Children,    Samaritan    ' ill.  8,  34-35 

Camphor,   Germany:  Synthetic    265  Chile:   Delegates  to   Salvation  Army  International 

Camphor    industry,    Formosa,    Pacific    Ocean . .  ill.  263,  Congress,  London  368 

265-270;  text  265-267,  271-272       China    63 

Camphor  stills,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  263,        China:   Salvation  Army 355>  358-359 

268-270;   text  271-272        Chincha    Islands,    Peru ill.    539-542,    546,   563; 

Camphor  trees,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean... ill.  263-267;  text  545-547,  552,  554,  558-559 

text  247,  264-267,  271  Chinese  coolie  mending  the  harness  of  his  buffalo 

Camphor  vats,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  270;  cart   ill.   102;  text  101 

text  272        Chinese,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 75,  99,   101 

Camphor   workers,    Formosa,    Pacific   Ocean ill.  265-  Chios  Island,  -lEgean  Sea,  Turkey  in  Asia.. 47,  61,  67 

269;  text  266-267  Chiquitoys,   see   Patillos. 

Camping  Grounds,  California ill.  533       Chirotes,  Peru   559 

Camping  party,  Palisades  Interstate  Park ill.  509       Choate,  Rufus:  Mention  of  133 

Camps,   Dartmouth  Outing  Club,   New   Hampshire  Chuitas,  see  Patillos. 

ill.   155,   157;  text   151,   158  Cinnamon  Cortinarius  mushroom   (Cortinarius  cin- 

Canada 483,  519  namomeus)  . . .  ill.    (color  insert)  Plate  VII,  423-438 ; 

Cannibalism,  Sumatra,  Dutch   East  Indies 86-87  text  392>  4'4>  4J6 

Canoes,  Hurdle  Racing  in.     By  Walter  Burke . . .   440       Citharas 57 

Canoes,  New  Zealand   ill.  441-444;  text  440       Citta  Vecchia,   Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea ill.  450, 

Cans  of  fish  being  loaded  on  a  truck ill.  374  453,  461,  464 

Canton,  Mo.:  Fishes  rescued  by  government 375        Civil  War,  United  States 183 

Canyon  of  the  Yellowstone  National  Park,   Wyo.  501        Clark  College,  Worcester,  Mass 207 

Cape  Baird,  Arctic  Region  296       Clarke  Institute,  Northampton,  Mass 207 

Cape  Chelyuskin,  Arctic  Region 340  Clarksville,  Mo. :  Fishes  rescued  by  government. .   375 

Cape  Columbia,  Arctic   Region 296       Claudius  Caesar:  Reference  to Plate  IX,  423-438 

Cape  Isabella,  Arctic  Region ill.  311  Cliff  Palace,  Mesa  Verde  National  Park,  Colo.,  .ill.  493 

Cape  Sabine,  Arctic  Region:  Cloud  and  sun  effect  Cloth  factory,   Sumatra,    Dutch   East   Indies:    Na- 

over   ill.  316  tive    ill.     85 

Cape  Sabine,  Arctic  Region:  Peary's  hut ill.  295  Clouds   Rest  and   Half   Dome,   Yosemite   National 

Cape  Sheridan,  Arctic  Region 296,  300  Park,  Calif ill.  483 

Cape  York,  Greenland:   Welcome  of  Rear- Admiral  Coffins  of  laborers  buried  in  old  guano,  Peru.. ill.   566 

Peary  by   Eskimos    305        Coin   of   Cyzicus 53 

Capitol,  Washington,  D.   C ill.  (duotone  insert)  Coins,   Origin  of 53 

Plate  IV,   135-150        Coker,  R.  E.:    Peru's  Wealth-Producing  Birds 537 

Carafa,    Grand    Master:    Tomb    of    in    St.    John's  Coker,  Prof.  W.  C. :   Report  on  a  variety  of   Vol- 

Church,  Valletta,  Malta,  Mediterranean  sea . .  ill.  454  varia   speciosa    407 

Carding  machine,   Delivery  end  of  a ill.  210        Colorado     52,  495,   501,   504 

Carelton,  John:  Reference  to 163        Colorado:   Balanced  Rock ill.  503 

Caribbean  Sea,  Islands  of  the:  Guano  beds 538        Colorado  Desert,  Calif.:    Sand-dunes ill.  494 

Carpenter,  Frank  G. :  Geographic  research  work..   342  Colorado:  Mesa  Verde  National  Park,  Cliff  Palace 

Carpenter,  Frank  G. :   Life  membership  in  the  Na-  ill.  493 

tional   Geographic   Society  bestowed  upon 342        Colorado    National    Monument ill.  497 

Carps,  Mississippi  River 375        Colorado   River    499 

Cars  for  the  transportation  of  fish,  United   States  Colorado:    Rocky   Mountain   National   Park.... ill.   492, 

Bureau  of  Fisheries 383  502,  505;   ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  I,  511-518;  text  501 

Carson  Woods,  Fortuna,  Calif 531  Colorado:    Rocky  Mountain  National  Park:  Long's 

Cart   ruts,   Malta,   Mediterranean    Sea 449,  455  Peak ill.    (color  insert)    Plate  II,   511-518. 

Carts,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  255        Colorado:  Zigzag  road  near  Denver ill.  498- 

Carts,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies ill.     74        Columbia  River 324,  337,  480,  487 

Casal  Paula,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea.. 459,  469,  476  Columbia  River  Highway:  Multnomah   Falls... ill.  480 

Cascade   Mountains, British   Columbia.  .Plate  X,  135-150        Columbus,  Christopher:  Mention  of    322 

Castile,  Spain:   Knights  of  St.  John 453        Comino,  Mediterranean  Sea  461 

Catalonia,   Spain:  Knights  of   St.   John 453        Cominotto,  Mediterranean  Sea   461 

Catfishes,  Mississippi  River 375,  383,  385        Commander  King  (Destroyer)   126 

Cathedral   Rocks,   Yosemite   National   Park,    Calif.  Common  meadow  mushroom   (Agaricus  campester) 

illus.  482;   ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  V,  511-518  ill.    400;    (color    insert)    Plate    I,    423-438;    text  387- 

Catholic  Church,  California 489  388,  392,  401-402 

Caves,    Malta,    Mediterranean    Sea:  Tomb 448,  450  COMMON    MUSHROOMS    OF    THE    UNITED 

Celebes,    Dutch    East   Indies:  Delegates   to    Salva-  STATES.     BY  LOUIS  C.  C.  KRIEGER 387 

tion  Army  International  Congress,   London....   368  "Common  People's  Gospel."    By  Colonel  Yamamuro 

Cemetery  for  criminals,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea  469  Gunpei 361 

Centerton,  N.  J. :  Crow  roosts 325  Communal  houses,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies. . . 

"Cepe"    of   Commerce   mushroom    (Boletus   edulis)  ill.   87,  go- 
ill.  406;    (color  insert)   Plate  IV,  423-438;   text  387,       Concord,  Mass 245 

404-405  Concord,    Mass.:  Winter    Rambles    in    Thoreau's 

Cerro  Azul  No.  4,  Mexico ill.   196-199  Country.     By  Herbert  W.  Gleason 165 

Cerro  Azul,  Peru ill.  564;  text  559        Condors,  Peru   559 

Ceylon,  India   80,  82       Connecticut     203 

Challenger  deep-sea  expedition 445        Connecticut  River,  Conn 245 

Champion-International  Company,  Lawrence,  Mass. :  Connecticut  River,  N.  H 151,  156 

Paper  mills  of  the ill.  234-241  Constant,    Norris    Geyser   Basin,   Yellowstone  Na- 

Chantrelle  mushroom   (Cantharellus  cibarius)  .  .ill.  tional  Park,  Wyo Plate  VII,   135-150 

(color  insert)  Plate  VII,  423-438;   text  416        Constantinople   62 

Chapel   of  Bones,   Valletta,   Malta,   Mediterranean  Constitution  (Frigate)    455 

Sea    ill.  456       Cook,  Dr.  Frederick  A.:  Reference  to 314-315.  317 

Charles  V   of   Spain:  Grant  of   the   Order  of   St.  Cook,    O.    F. :     Life   membership   in   the   National 

John  of  Jerusalem  to  Malta  and  Gozo 453  Geographic   Society  bestowed  upon 342 

Charters,  Eastern  Mediterranean  schools 64,  66       Coolies,  Javanese   7J-73 

Chase,   Salmon  P.:  Reference  to 133  Coolies     packing    Oolong    tea,     Formosa,     Pacific 

Chelsea,  Mass 245  Ocean    ill.   250 

Chengtingfu,  China:  Salvation  Army 358  Coolies    working    a    foot   pump,    Formosa,    Pacific 

Cherokee  Indians^  North  Carolina 507  Ocean ill.  254 ;  text  276 

Chestnut  trees:  Effect  of  Endothia  parasitica  upon  399       Copper,  Alaska 483 

Chicago,  111 504       Copper,   Montana    486 

Children,  Adalia,  Asia  Minor ill.     54  Coral   Hydnum   mushroom    (Hydnum    coralloides) 

Children,   Eskimo    ill.  309  ill.  410 


INDEX  FOR  VOLUME  XXXVII,  1920 


VII 


Page  page 

Coral  insects,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea:   Founda-  Crows,  Klickitat  County,  Wash.:  Poisoned  almonds 

tions  laid  by    445  fed    -,_ 

Coral  mushroom  (Clavaria  flava) ill.  412;  text  407        Crows,  Mississippi  Valley '.'.'...   323 

Coral    mushroom     (Hydnum    laciniatum) :  Growth  Crows,   Newfoundland    !!...!    323 

on  a  fallen  tree   ill.  41 1  Crows,  Onago,  Kans. :   Destruction  of  grasshoppers 

Coral    mushroom    (Various    species    of    Clavaria)  by   ,,^ 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  V,  423-438;  text  407       Crows,  Ontario  County,  N.  Y.:  Dead .'.'ill.  330 

Corfu,  Mediterranean  Sea    445        Crows,  Oregon  '. . .'  323 

Cormorants,   Ballestas  and  Chincha  Islands,   Peru  Crows,  Migration  of  323-327 

ill-  539,  54°,  542;  text  545,  547,  552,  554        Crows,  Puget  Sound,  Wash ...........   323 

Cornwall,   England    449        Crows,  Quebec,  Canada 323 

Corradino   Temple,    Malta,    Mediterranean    Sea..   449,        "Crows'  roost,  A"   ill.  327 

456,  459,  473        Crows,  South  America '   322 

Costa    Rica:  Delegates    to    Salvation   Army    Inter-  Crows,  Stomachs  of 33!)  333-334 

national  Congress,  London  368        Crows,  Manitoba,  Canada  323 

Costumes,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 33,  84-85        Crows,  Ontario,  Canada    323 

Cotton  bale-breaker  at  work,  A ill.  207;  text  21 1        Crows,  Siberia  322 

Cotton  being  delivered  from  the  tenter  treatment  Crows,  Value  of   332-333,  337 

ill.  223        Crows,  United  States:  Species    323 

Cotton  card  at  work,  A ill.  209        Crows,    Washington    ' '    323 

Cotton  cloth,  Dyeing  of ill.  225        Crows,  Washington,  D.  C ill.  328; 

Cotton,  Folding  the  finished  print  goods ill.  224  text  324-327,  333 

Cotton  mills,  Lawrence,   Mass ill.   215-216,   220-221,        Crude  oil   i92,  201 

224-225;  text  211-225  Cuba:   Delegates   to    Salvation   Army   International 

Cotton  mills,  Massachusetts,  .ill.  206-225;  text  209-225  Congress,  London 368 

Cotton   pickers,    Intermediate ill.   208;   text  212  Cube  Mount  Cabin,  Dartmouth  Outing  Club,  New 

Cotton  Printing  machines,  Lawrence,  Mass ill.  Hampshire  ill.  157;  text  158 

220-221 ;   text  223-224        Culture,  Ancient 53-55,   57 

Cotton,  Singeing  of    ill.  219;  text  222  Cup-shaped    puff-ball    mushroom    (Calratia    cyathi- 

Cotton-spinner,  A ill.   214  formis)    ill.  4i6 

Cotton,  Stretching  of  in  a  tenter ill.  222        Curlew    (Mine-sweeper)     I23 

Countermining ill.  122;  text  112,  115,  123        Curlews,   Peru    S58 

Country  schools,  see   Rural  schools.  Cyclopean   Canyon  of  the   Colorado:   Looking  east 

"Court    Group,"     Colorado    National    Monument,  from  Hopi  Point. .  .ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VIII, 

Colo ill.  497  _                                                                                       511-518 

Cowdray,  Lord:  Petroleum  staff 202  Cyprus,   Mediterranean   Sea:   Knights   of   St.   John  453 

Crappies,   Mississippi  River 375,  385        Cyrus:   Reference   to    47 

Crater  Lake  National  Park,  Ore ill.    (color  in-  Cyzicus,  Coin  of 53 

sert)  Plate  VI,  511-518;  text  487 

Crete,  Mediterranean  Sea:  Axe  worshipers 467 

Croesus,  King  of  Lydia:   Reference  to 47 

Crompton,  George 243 

Crow  and  a  dog,  A ill.  336        Daitotei,  Taihoku,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  248, 

"Crow  and  its   Relation  to  Man'  :   U.   S.   Depart-  249,258;  text  258-262,  264 

ment  of  Agriculture,  Bulletin  621 323  Dall,  Dr.  William  H.:  Life  membership  in  the  Na- 

Crow  at  the  nest  edge,  Mother ill.  325  tional  Geographic  Society  bestowed  upon  ..        .    142 

CROW,    BIRD    CITIZEN    OF    EVERY    LAND,  Dances,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean:  Ami  f,         ...ill    291 

THE:  A   FEATHERED   ROGUE   WHO    HAS  Dardanelles,  Turkey  in  Europe   .,                                44? 

MANY  FASCINATING  TRAITS  AND  MANY  Dartmouth  College,  Hanover,  N.  H.:' Skiing  Over 

ADMIRABLE    QUALITIES    DESPITE    HIS  the  New  Hampshire  Hills.     By  Fred  H    Harris  151 

MARAUDING   PROPENSITIES.      BY    E.    R.  Dartmouth  Outing  Club,  Hanover,  N.   H.:  Camps     ' 

KALMBACH,     ASSISTANT     BIOLOGIST,  Of  the .ill.  155,  157;  text  151,  158 

U.  S.  BIOLOGICAL  SURVEY 322  Dartmouth   Outing   Club,   Hanover,   N.   H.:  Mem-     ' 

Crow  roosts,  Arlington,  Va 325-326  bers  of  the   .ill.   133-134,   152-156,   160-164 

Crow  roosts,  Baltimore,  Md 325  Dartmouth   Outing  Club,   Hanover,   N.   H. :   Skiing 

Crow  roosts,  Bridgeboro,  N.  J:   325  Over  the  New  Hampshire   Hills.      By  Fred  H. 

Crow  roosts,  Centerton,  N.  J 325  Harris    151 

Crow  roosts,  Delaware  Valley  324  Davis,  John,  English  navigator:    Mention  of.  .302,  319 

Crow  roosts,  Hainesport,  N.  J 325  Davis,    Lieut-Commander    Noel:   Removal    of    the 

Crow  roosts,  Merchantville,  N.  J 325  North  Sea  Mine  Barrage,  The 103 

Crow  roosts,  Mississippi  River   324  Davis,    Lieut.-Commander     Noel:    Photograph    of 

Crow  roosts,  Ohio  River 324  ill.   IO6 

Crow  roosts,  Oklahoma 324,  326        Dayaks,  Borneo,  Dutch  East  Indies 272 

Crow  roosts,  Peru,  Nebr 325        Dead   Sea    9 

Crow  roosts,  Reedy  Island,  Delaware  River 325  Deadly   Amanita,    or    Destroying   angel   mushroom 

Crow  roosts,  St.  Louis,  Mo 325  (Amanita  phalloides  and  its  varieties)  ill.   (color 

Crow  roosts,   United   States   324-327,  337  insert)    Plates    V,    X,    XVI,    423-438;    text    388-389, 

Crow  roosts,  Washington,  D.  C 324,   327  392)  409,  411 

Crow  roosts,  Woodridge,  D.  C.  ...ill.  328;  text  326-327  Dearborn,    Dr.    Ned:   Food    required   to    sustain   a 

Crows,    Africa 324  crow 333 

Crows,   Alaska    323  Dearborn,  Dr.  Ned:   Story  of  a  crow  and  farmer's 

Crows,  Anecdotes  of,  by  Nelson  Wood 330-331  dog ill.  336;  text  329-330 

Crows,  Australia 322        Deep-level  mine,   Explosion  of   ill.   123 

Crows,  California   323  Deer  on  a  station  platform  near  Yellowstone  Na- 

Crows,  China   322  tional   Park,   Wyo ill.   504 

Crows,  Columbia  River 324,  337  Deer,   Yellowstone  National  Park,  Wyo.:  Feeding 

Crows,  Destruction  of  other  birds 334  ill.  489 

Crows,  Diseases  of 327  Del  Norte  County,  Calif.:  Redwood  trees  527,  531,  533 

Crows,  Extermination  of 337        Delaware  Valley:   Crow   roosts    324 

Crows,  Fish 323,  334  Deli    Company,   Medan,   Sumatra,    Dutch   East   In- 

Crows,  Florida 3^3  dies     75,  79,  81 

Crows,  Food  of  the ill.  332,  335;  text  331-337        Deli  River,  Sumatra,  Dutch   East  Indies 69 

Crows,  Habits  of  328-331,  333-337        Deli,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 69,  71,  79,  83-84 

Crows,  Home  life  of 323-324  Delicious   or  Orange-milk  Lactar  mushroom    (Lac- 
Crows,  India 322  tarius  deliciostts)  .  .  .  ill.  (color  insert)  Plate   VII, 

Crows,   Indiana    333  423-438;  text  417-418 

Crows,  Japan   322        Delphi,  Greece   66 

Crows,  Kansas:   Destruction  of  May  beetles  by...    333        De  Seynes:   Quotation  on  mushrooms 418 


VIII 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Page 

European  war:    Oil  consumed   185 

Evening  prayers,  Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine. .  .ill.     37; 

text  39-41 

Evgenoff,   Lieut.:   General  Greely's  tribute  to....   340 
Ewing,  Judge:  Story  of  Vice-President  Stevenson's 

campaign  in  the  West 495 

Expedition  against  savage  tribes,  Formosa,  Pacific 

Ocean ill.  278 

Explosions,   Mine,   North   Sea.... ill.   109-110,    117-118, 
1  120-122,  125 


Page 
Destroying*  Angel,   or   Deadly  Amanita  mushroom 

(Amanita  phalloides   var   virosa)    ill.    (color    in- 
sert)    Plate    X,     423-438;     text     388,     392,,  409,  4'i 
Detroit,  Mich.:  Ice  fountain. .  .ill.  (duotone  insert) 

Plate  XIII,  i35-!SO 

Devonport,  England   J'7 

Diana,  Temple  of   55,  59,  67 

Dinner  call,  The »»•  32° 

Dionysus,  God  of  Wine 67 

Disco,  Greenland 3°3 

Discovery   (Steamship)    392,  311 

Doffer  girl  in  a  Lawrence  cotton  mill ill.  215 

Dog  and  a  crow    A "'•  336 

Dog  team,  Etah,  Greenland:  MacMillan's ill.  313  Fabre,  J.   Henri:   "The  Life  of  the  Fly":    Refer- 

Dogs    Eskimo  ill.  3°9,  3I2-3r3  ence   to    391 

Dogs'  Yosemite  National  Park,  Calif ill.  482  Factory,  Cloth,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies. .  .ill.     85 

Dogwood   berries,    Massachusetts:  Poison ill.   175;        Fair  Haven  Hill,  Concord,  Mass ill.  170;  text  166 

text  179        Fairbanks,  Alaska   i 482 

Dolmens,    Hagar    Kim    Temple,    Malta,    Mediter-  Fairfield,  Marian:   Photograph  of ......ill.   159 

ranean  Sea   459  Fairport,  Iowa :  United  States  Fisheries  Biological 

Dolmens,  Mnaidra  Temple,   Malta,  Mediterranean  Laboratory  near .. .   383 

gea   459  Fairy-ring  mushroom  (Marasmius  oreades)  ....  ill.  397 ; 

Donkey  and  camel  boy,  Asia  Minor   ill.     49  text  388 

Dragut    A  Turkish  corsair:   Siege  of  Malta,  Medi-  Faldetta      (Headgear  of  Malta  women) ill.  462 

terranean  Sea 447       Fall   River,   Mass •••••;  • •  -204>  244 

Drake    Edwin  L.:  Discovery  of  oil 181-182,201  False    Chantrelle,    or    Jack-o -Lantern    mushroom 

Drake'  oil  well  near  Titusville,  Pa 181  (Clitocybe  illudens)  .  .ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  III, 

Drama,   Greek 61  423-438;  text  392,  403-404 

"Drift  Man,"  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea   448        Far  East,  Castes  ............ .354 

Ducks,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean    ill.  251  Farlow,    Dr.    W.    G.:    Rules   for   the   guidance    of 

"Dunes,  The,"   Illinois    504  mushroom-hunters 391 

Dungeons,    Hal    Saflieni   Temple,    Malta,    Mediter-       •         Farm  tractors,  United  States 187,   189 

ranean  Sea           .          ill-  472  Feast     Day     illumination,     Malta,     Mediterranean 

Dutch   East  Indies," Sumatra':'  By   Motor   Through  Sea:   A   Church  ready  for  the ill.  458 

the    East    Coast    and    Batak    Highlands    of    Su-  '  Feeding  breast     (Mount  Tacoma) 487 

matra      By  Melvin  A.  Hall  68        Female  porters,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 73 

Dyerville  Flats,   Calif.:   Redwood  trees ill.  535!        Fengchen,  China:  Salvation  Army  invasion  of 355 

text  527,  531,  533        Fern  Lake,   Colo 503 

Ferns,   Redwood  groves,   Calif ill.   522,   524,   526, 

"E"  53.2,  536 

Field    or    Horse    mushroom     (Agaricus    arvensis) 

Karly  Pholiota  (Pholiota  prcecox) ill.   (color  in-  ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  I,  423-438;  text  388,  402 

sert)  Plate  VIII,  423-438;  text  392        Filfla  Island,  Mediterranean  Sea   457 

Earrings,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies ill.     77!  Finland:   Delegates  to  Salvation  Army  International 

text     85  Congress,  London 368 

Eastern  Shore  of  Maryland   487,  489  "First  and  Last  Lodging  House,"  Valletta,  Malta, 

Ebal,  Mount,  Palestine   1-2,  5,   13,  31  Mediterranean    Sea    ill.  451 

Education,   Massachusetts    207-209        Fish  killed  by  mine  explosions,  North  Sea ill.   114 

Edwin  Span,  Natural  Bridges  National  Monument,  Fish  retaining  station,   Bellevue,  Iowa ill.   383 

Utah    ill.  491        Fish  retaining  station,  La  Crosse,  Wis ill.  381 ; 

Eel   River,   Calif.:   Redwood  trees  along   525,   527,   529,  text  383 

531,  533        Fish-crow   323,  334 

Egypt   i,   13,  31,  45,   5i,  64,  498  Fishermen's  landing  place,   Valletta,   Malta,  Medi- 

Bider  (Flagship)    124  terranean   Sea    ill.  452 

Edible   Boletus,   the    "Cepe"    of   Commerce   mush-  Fishes,    Mississippi    River:    When    the    Father    of 

room  (Boletus  edulis).. .  .ill.  (color   insert)  Plate  Waters  goes  on  a  Rampage.     By  Hugh  M.  Smith  369 

iy,  423-438;  text  387,  404-405        Fishes,   Mississippi  Valley    375,  377,  383 

El   Capitan,   Yosemite   National   Park,   Calif. . .  ill.,  482 ;        Fitchburg,    Mass 245 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  V,  511-518       Flamingo    (Mine-sweeper)    125 

El  Portal,  Calif 482  Flattop  Mountain,  Rocky  Mountain  National  Park, 

Electrical  Protective  Device   112,   114  Colo ill.  505;  ill.  (color  insert).  Plate  II,  511-518 

Elephans  Mnaidrensis.  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea.   459        Floating  mines,   North    Sea ill.  no,  116 

Ellesmere  Land,  Arctic  Region 296        Flood  refugees,   Mississippi   River ill.  384-386 

Emden    (Cruiser)    445        Floods,  Mississippi  River ill.  382,  384-385 ; 

Emerson,  Ralph  Waldo:   Reference  to   55  text  369,   373,   385 

Emperor  of  Japan:  Annual  fund  granted  the   Sal-  Florida 334,    342,    507 

ration  Army 35 J        Flowers,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean 247 

Encampment    of    the    Israelites,     Mount    Gerizim,  Flume,    New   Hampshire:    Icicle   formation    in   the 

Palestine   26  ill.  (duotone  insert)  Plate  II,  135-150 

Endothia  parasitica :  Effect  upon  chestnut  trees ...    399        Flutes 57 

England     51  Fly-mushroom   (Amanita  muscaria) .  .ill.    (color  in- 
English  Channel    113  sert)  Plate  II,  XV,  423-438 ;  text  403 

Ephesus,  Asia  Minor ill.  66;  text  49,  59        Foch,  Marshal:   Quotation    185 

Ephraim,  Tribe  of,  Palestine   ._ 23        Fog,    Peru    547 

Equestrian     Tricholoma     mushroom      (Tricholoma  Foot  pumps,   Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean ill.   254; 

equestre) ill.  (color   insert)  Plate  VII,   423-438;  text  276 

text  392,  417  Forbush,  Edward  Howe:  Food  required  to  sustain 

Erebus  ( Steamship)    303  a   crow    333 

Eskimo  dogs  309,  312-313  Ford,   Rock  Creek  Park,   Washington,  D.   C., ..ill. 

Eskimo   eating  meat,   An ill.  310  (duotone  insert)  Plate  VI,  135-150 

Eskimo  girls   on  the  main   deck  of  the  Roosevelt  Ford,   Dr.    W.    W. :    Reference   to  the   poisons   of 

ill.   300  Amanita  phalloides   391 

Eskimo  women    300,   307-308  Forest  ghost,   Flattop  Mountain,   Rocky  Mountain 

Eskimo's    high     regard    for     Rear- Admiral     Peary  National    Park,    Colo ill.   505 

300,  305        Forests,  New  Hampshire    ill.    154,  156 

Etah,   Greenland .307,   313-315  Formosa,   Pacific   Ocean :   Japanese   influence   upon 

E-Tooka-Shoo:   Eskimo  dog  driver    311,  314  2go,  292 

Eudon,  Asia  Minor   50        Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean:  Map  of ill.   (map)  262 

Euphrates  River,  Turkey  in  Asia 498  Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean:   Population  of.. 272,   287,  290 


INDEX  FOR  VOLUME  XXXVII,  1920 


IX 


Page  page 

Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean:   Size  of f 247  Goats,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea:   Milch             ill    A 

FORMOSA    THE    BEAUTIFUL.      BY    ALICE  Goddess   of   Life   and    Fertility,    Tarxien   Temole 

BALLANTINE  KIRJASSpFF    246  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea. .    . . .                         47X474 

Fort  St.  Angelo,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 433  "Goedang"  of  Rice  granary,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East 

Fortifications,  Valletta,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea  Indies :ii      g, 

ill.  448  Goff  oil  well,  West  Virginia'. . .'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'               '   189 

Fortuna,  Calif.:   Redwood  trees 531  Going-to-the-Sun  Mountain,  Glacier  National  Park 

Forum,  Samaria,  Palestine:   Ruins  of  the ill.        7  Mont _    SOI 

Foulke  Fiord,   Greenland    305        Gold,  Alaska '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.      ',   483 

"Fountain-breast   of   Milk-white   Waters"    (Mount  Gold,  Colorado 

Rainier)    Plate   III,    511-518        Golden  Gate,  Calif !"!!!!!.'      '.527 

Fountain  scene,  Asia  Minor ill.     65  Goodnoe    Hills,    Klickitat    Co.,     Wash.:    Almond 

Fountain,   Washington   Boulevard,    Detroit,   Mich.  groves  destroyed  by  crows 3^7 

ill.  (duotone  insert)  Plate  XIII,  135-150       Goodsell,  Dr.  J.  W.:   Mention  of ....'....   309 

Fox  (Steamship)  Wreck  of  the ill.  303  Gorge  of  the  Rimac,  Peru:  Terraces  on  the  sides 

Fox,  Tracks  of  in  the  snow,  Massachusetts . . .  .ill.   176  of  the jllt  jjg 

France    103,    185,   449        Government  fish  rescue  crews 373 

Franconia,  N.  H 158  Gozp,  Mediterranean  Sea:  Temple  of  Gigantia,  449,  469 

Franconia  Mountains,   N.   H.:   Icicle  formation   in  Grain,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies:  Pounding,  .ill.     91 

the  Flume ill.  (duotone  insert)  Plate  II,   135-150        Grand  Canyon  National  Park,  Utah 499 

Franconia  Notch,  N.  H. :   Skiing  in ill.  134        Grand  Canyon  of  the  Colorado {11.409-500; 

Franklin  Polar  Expedition  of   1845 303  ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VIII,  511-518 

Franklin,   Benjamin:   Birthplace   of 244        Grand  Harbor,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea ill.  446; 

Franklin,  Lady:  Efforts  to  trace  the  survivors  of  text  450,  453,  459 

the  Franklin  Expedition  of  1845 303  Grant  Land,  Arctic  Region.  .296,  300,  305,  307-308,  314 

Franklin,   Sir  John:  Disappearance  of 303        Grant,  Madison:  Saving  the  Redwoods 519 

Freshets,   Mississippi   River:   Destruction  of  fishes  Grasshoppers,  Indiana:  Destruction  of  by  crows..   333 

369,  373  Grasshoppers,    Onago,    Kans. :    Destruction    of    by 

Fresno,   Calif. :    Smyrna   figs 342  crows 333 

Friars    Point,    Miss.:    Fishes    rescued    by    govern-  Great   Bear   Cabin,   Dartmouth   Outing  Club,   New 

ment     375        ~  Hampshire    j5g 

Friendliness  of  tree  and  snow ill.   (duotone  in-  Great    Falls,   Potomac  River 182 

sert)  Plate  XI,   135-150        Great  Lakes jgi 

Fries,  Elias,   Swedish  botanist:   Study  of  fungi. . .   410       Greece 49 

Fronton,  Peru:   Guano   , 559       Greek  colonies 66 

Frost  crystals,  Concord,  Mass ill.   167;  Greek  peasants  dancing  on  the  hills  near  Ephesus, 

text  175,   177  Asia  Minor ill.     49 

Frosty  morning,  Massachusetts:   A ill.    178        ~feek   poetry 57 

Frosty  morning  on  the  open  road ....  ill.  (duotone  Sre,    P™se  •  •  • 55 

insert)  Plate  XVI,   135-150        freely,  Maj.-Gen.  A.  W ill.  318;  text  338 

Frozen  mist,  Massachusetts    175  Greely,  Maj.-Gen.   A.   W. :   Tribute  to  Vilhjalmur 

Fruit,  Mount  Gerizim,   Palestine i        _  Stefansson 339-340 

Fruit,    Sumatra,   Dutch   East   Indies 98        Gree  y  Expedition 2g6 

Fruit-bearers,    Formosa,    Pacific   Ocean ill.  256  Greely    International    Polar    Expedition    of    1881- 

Fu-kien,    China    290        ^  l8^4   •  • 338,  340,  342 

Fuel  oil,  United  States   186,  192-193,   195  Greely,  Peary,  and  Stefansson:  Photograph  of.. ill.  318 

Fungi    392,  399        Green  Mountains,   Vt 1 5g 

Fungi,  Poisonous:  Test  of   391  Green-gilled  Lepiota  mushroom  (Lepiota  morgani) 

Fungi,   Yeast    399  ^          •  ,     T>          ,                                          ,ilL   ?93 ;  text  391 

Greenish   Russula  mushroom    (Russula   virescens) 

"G"  r         .      ,                                                                      ill-  396 

Greenland.. 293-294,    300,    319-321 

Galilee,  Palestine 21,  31        r^       w°n"tam>*  MifSS' ' «  ', ^ 2°3'  *45 

Gannets,   Peruvian,  see  Piqueros.  Griffiths,    William    Arthur:     Malta:     The    Halting 

Gaberville,  Calif. :  Redwood  trees 529,  531        r  Place  °f  *  at'on.?  •  •  •  u  •  •  ••• •  •  •  •  • '  •  v  •  •  •  •  445 

Garden  of  Eden:  Location  of 498  Gr-i?*s.'   P\r    Rober.t.  P«;:   ?<lfe  membership  in  the 

•  Gardenias,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean 264  „  National  Geographic  Society  bestowed  upon . .  342-343 

Gardiner's  Levee  Angle,  Modoc,  Ark 386  Gr\?$s'  P™{-t  Robert  F-  =  ReP°rt  of  the  sixth  expe- 

Garlic  mushroom  (Marasmius  scorodonius) ill.  _  dltlon  to  Mount  Katmai,  Alaska. . . . . 338 

(color  insert)  Plate  VI,  423-438;  text  413  F^North                  Peary  s    Explorations   in   the 

Gate  to6 Valletta', 'Malta,'  Mediterranean'  Sea1. ..  !ilL  447  Grosvenor,  Gilbert:   Ejected  President  of  the  Na- 

Gemmed  puff-ball  mushroom   (Lycoperdon  gemma-  r  tlo-nal   VeI°grJlp  £    SocletX •  • 345 

ium)  ill.  414        Guanape  Islands,   Peru ill.   544-545;   text  559 

General  Sherman  tree 522,   525  Guanays    see  Cormorants. 

Genoa,  Italy 203        £uano-  Ballestas  Islands,  Peru 555,  559 

Geographic  explorer  building  a  snow  house ....  ill.  Guano,  Cerro  Azul,  Peru 559 

(duotone  insert)  Plate  VIII,   135-150  Guano,  Chincha  Islands,  Peru.        ...      547,  552,  559 

Geographic  Harbor,  Alaska 338  Ruan°'  feobos  de  A?,Uera;  Lo,b°S  I,slands>  PeJu'  555,  565 

Geofraphic  News  Bulletins 343  r          '  P""  '  P  ' ' ''  \£    A  ^A*'-  tCXtn-'6/'  5t4'  s66 

Geologists 190-191,  195,  202  Gu^n^i  %? :         U  S  Wealth-Produclng  B'rds.     By 

Gerizim,  Mount,  Palestine ill.  18-22,  36-39,42-43;         ~  K'  \ .    ?       ,' V>  Vi '  V  "  V'i  "J' '  '-ii -\,'    537 

text   1-3,   5,    13,   i7-i8,   20,   23,   25-26,   29,   31,   34-  Guano-bird   colony,   Ballestas   Islands,   Peru.... ill.  540 

•>•,    *e  *f*        Vjruaiemaia 202 

Germany *^g£        g«  Sg«™ :  Axis  of  the 

£  ^^^^^^«^^ ~ 

&^^te^^^  1?  ^^^^<~^;A^  I91 

Glacier  National  Park    Mont.                         HI    484.486;  G            of  WHnkled  pholiota  mushroom  g*pl£*     ; 

Gleason,  Herbert  wVwIntr^^^^^  «^«ta) "'•  <color  '"^  Plate  ™    423-438; 

County 165  text  392,  439 

Glistening  Coprinus  mushroom  (Coprinus  micaceus)  "H" 
ill.  404;   ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VII,  423-438; 

text  388,  392        Hadley  Falls,  Mass 245 

Gloucester,   Mass.:    Sail-boats ill.  243  Hagar  Kim  Temple,   Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea.. 

Goats,  Asia  Minor ill.     53  449,  457,  459,  463,  465,  469 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Page  Page 

Hainesport,  N.  J.:  Crow  roosts 325        Homer,  Minn.:  Fishes  rescued  by  government 375 

Hakluyt  Island,  Greenland:    Southern  shore... ill.  302        Homer:   Odyssey   53-54 

Hal  Saflieni  Temple,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea..  Homer:  Reference  to  Thessalian  legions 399 

ill.  467-468,  470-472;  text  448-449,  456-457,  459,  463,        Homeric  poems 61 

465,  469  Honey-colored  mushroom,  or  Oak  fungus   (Armil- 

Half  Dome  and   Clouds   Rest,   Yosemite   National  laria  mellea) . .  .ill.  394;   (color  insert)  Plate  VI, 

Park,  Calif il}-  4§3  423-438;  text  392,  395,  396,  411,  413 

Half-free   Morchella   mushroom    (Morchella   semi-  Honey  merchants,  Malta,  Mediterranean   Sea.. ill.  460 

libera)   ill-  421        Honolulu,   Hawaiian  Islands,  Pacific  Ocean 501 

Half-way  House,  White  Mountains,  N.  H 164        Hoover,  Herbert:     Reference  to 501 

Halibut  caught  near  Orkney  Islands,  Scotland,  ill.   115        Hope  Natural  Gas  Company 189 

Hall,    Melvin   A.:     By    Motor   Through   the    East  Hopi   Point,    Grand    Canyon   of  the   Colorado 

Coast   and   Batak  Highlands   of   Sumatra 68  ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VIII,  51 1-518 

Hallett   Glacier,    Rocky   Mountain   National   Park,  Horgan,  James  C. :  Bequest  of  the  National  Geo- 

Colo. :    Interior  of •  •  -ill-  5°2  graphic   Society 338 

Hammond  Lumber  Company :  Redwood  trees  owned  Home,  Prof.  W.  T.:   Fungus  Pest 411 

by   531  Hotel  de  Boer,   Medan,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  In- 
Hand  looms,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean:  Cloth. .  .ill.  288            dies 75,  79 

Hand  looms,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies ill.     86        Houses,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  253,  280-281 

Hands  outspread  to  heaven ill.     39  Houses,    Kebon  Djahe,    Sumatra,   Dutch   East  In- 
Handsome  Volvaria  mushroom  ( Volvaria  speciosa)                    dies 95-96 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  V,  423-438;  text  392,  497        Houses,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies:   Native 

Hanover,  N.  H .151,   158,   161  ill.   78,  87-88,  90 

Hapgood,  Asa:  Reference  to 243  Hubbard  Gold  Medal  of  the  National  Geographic 

Harangaul,    Sumatra,   Dutch   East   Indies 96  Society 293,  322 

Hardstoft,  Derbyshire,  England '. 202        Hudson   Bay,    Canada 307 

Hare,  Tracks  of  in  the  snow,  Massachusetts.  .  .  .ill.    177        Hudson,  Henry:  Mention  of 322 

Hari-bazar,  Medan,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies. .      75        Hudson  River,  N.   Y 487,  509 

Harps • • 57        Huka  Falls,  North  Island,  New  Zealand 440 

Harrill,  Lieut.  W.  K. :  Photograph  of ill.   106  Humboldt,  Alexander,  baron  von:  Introduction  of 

Harriman  Park,  Rockland  County,  N.  Y 509  Peruvian   guano  to  Europe 543 

Harris,  Fred  H.:  Skiing  over  the  New  Hampshire  Humboldt   County,   Calif.:    Redwood  trees 525, 

Hills   •••• 151  527.  53i,  533 

Harvard  University,   Cambridge,   Mass 207,  244  HURDLE  RACING  IN  CANOES:  A  THRILL- 

Hassan  Abu -el,  Son  of  the  Late  High  Priest  Jacob:  ING  AND  SPECTACULAR  SPORT  AMONG 

Photograph  of ill.     13  THE    MAORIS    OF    NEW    ZEALAND.      BY 

Hassan  el   Suri,   Samaritan  priest:   Reference  to..      33  WALTER  BURKE 440 

Havasu  Canyon,  Grand  Canyon  of  the' Colorado:  Hurricane,  Norris  Geyser  Basin,  Yellowstone  Na- 

Mooney  Falls ill.  499  tional  Park,  Wyo Plate  VII,   135-150 

Haverhill,  Mass.:   Slipper  manufacturers 229,  245        Hyofupa,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean,  The 289 

Hawaii,  Hawaiian  Islands,  Pacific  Ocean 479,  482 

Headgear,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean... ill.  289 

Headgear,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea ill.  462 

Head-hunters,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean Ice,  Polar  Basin,  Arctic  Region:  Rough ill.  299 

266-267,  273,  283-285        "Ice  storm,"  Massachusetts:  After  an ill.   173; 

Hebrew  prayer  posture,  Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine:  text  177,   179 

Ancient   ill-     22  Icicle  formation  in  the  Flume,  New  Hampshire.. 

Hebron,   Palestine 31  ill.  (duotone  insert)  Plate  II,  135-150 

Hedgehog  mushroom   (Various  species  of  Hydnum)    ,  Icicle   "organ-pipes,"    Concord,    Mass ill.   167; 

ill.  412  (color  insert)  Plate  VI,  423-438;   text  414  text   179 

Henry  VIII,  King  of  England :  Interest  in  the  dis-  Idaho   496 

covery  of  the  North  Pole 319        Igloo,  Smith  Sound,  Arctic  Region:  Rock ill.  306 

Henson,    Matthew:    Rear-Admiral   Peary's   colored  Illinois   203,  495,  501,  504 

assistant ill.  304;  text  308-310  Imperial  Agaric,   or  Caesar's  mushroom    (Amanita 

Heraclitus  of  Ephesus:  Reference  to 55  Ctesarea) ilL   (color  insert)   Plate  IX,  423-438; 

Hercules  Archigetas:   Reference  to 456  text  391-392,  422 

Hertnon,  Mount,  Palestine 31        Imperial  Valley,  Calif 489,  495' 

Herod,  "The  Great" 5,  21  Imtarfa  barracks  and  Citta  Vecchia  railway  termi- 

Herodotus,  Greek  historian:    lonians 51  nus,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea ill.  464 

Heron  (Mine-sweeper)  119  Inca  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega:  Account  of  the  guano 

Herons,  Louisiana:  Destruction  of  by  crows 334  industry 541 

Herons,  Santee,  S.  C. :  Destruction  of  by  crows . .   334        India 63 

Herons,  White,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean 279  India:  Delegates  to  Salvation  Army  International 

Hesiod,  Greek  poet:   Reference  to 61  Congress,  London 368 

Hewett,  Sir  John:  Interest  in  Salvation  Army...   351  India:  Hindu  version   of  the  bass  drum,  tambou- 

Hicks'  Camp,  California 529  rine,  and  trumpet ill.  348 

High  Priest,  Samaritan  Passover,  Mount  Gerizim,  India:   Salvation  Army ill.   346,   348-350,  352; 

Palestine  ._ ill.     30  text  351,  354,  368 

"High  Priest's  Palace"  (Hagar  Kim  Temple,  Malta)  459        India:  Salvation  Army   School  for  girls ill.  349 

Hill  of   Samaria,   Palestine ill.       4        India:  Salvation   Army   worker ill.  350 

Hindu  recruits  of  the  Salvation  Army,  India... ill.  352        Indian  Harbor,  Nova  Scotia,  Canada 317 

Hindu  version  of  the  bass  drum,  tambourine,  and  Indian  oxen 80 

trumpet ill.  348        Indian  schools,  United  States 507 

Hinoki    forests,    Mount   Arizan,    Formosa,    Pacific  Indians,  Oklahoma •. 507 

Ocean    ill.  273        Industries,   Massachusetts ill.   204-241 ;   text  204, 

Hittite    ..'... 59  •    209-233,235-236,239-245 

Hokumongai    Street,   Daitotei,    Taihoku,    Formosa,  Inglefield  Gulf,  Greenland 294 

Pacific   Ocean. 262,   264  Ink  mushrooms  or  Ink-caps   (Species  of  Coprinus) 

Holland 71,    79,  363  ill.  (colored  insert)  Plate  XII,  423-438;  text  388,  439 

Holmes,  William  Henry:  Life  membership  in  the  Inky  Coprinus  mushroom  (Coprinus  atramentarius 

'  National  Geographic  Society  bestowed  upon,  342-343  variety)    ill.  405 

Holy  Land,  Map  of 46  International    Congress    of    the    Salvation    Army, 

"Holy    of    Holies,"    Hal    Saflieni    Temple,    Malta,  Albert  Hall,  London,  England 363,  368 

Mediterranean  Sea ill.  468,  470;  text  463,  465        Inverness,    Scotland 107-109,    in,    113-114,   127 

Holy  of  Holies,  Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine 33        Ionia,  Asia  Minor 51,  53-55,  61,  64,  66 

"Holy  of  Holies,"  Tarxien  Temple,  Malta,   Medi-  lonians 51 

,  ,  terranean    Sea 475        Ireland 449 

Holy  Rock,   Mount  Gerizim,   Palestine 31,  33  Ishmaelite  tribes,  India:    Management  of  by  Salva- 

Holyoke   College,   Holyoke,   Mass 207  tion   Army    351 

Holyoke,    Mass 225,  245        Islands  of  the  ^Egean  Sea 47,  49,  51,  67 


INDEX  FOR  VOLUME  XXXVII,  1920 


XI 


Page 

Islas  Santa,  Peru :  Guano 559 

Israelites,  Encampment  of,  Mount  Gerizim,  Pales- 
tine        26 

Italy    185,   363 


Jack-o'-Lantern    mushroom,    or    False    Chantrelle 
(Clitocybe  illudens)  ill.  (colored  insert)  Plate  III, 

423-438;   text  392,  403-404 

Jacob,  Son  of  Aaron ill.     14 

Jacob's  Well,   near   Sychar,   Palestine ill.    17; 

text  13,  31 

Jaffa,    Palestine 31 

Japan,    Emperor  of:  Annual  fund  granted   Salva- 
tion Army 351 

Japan:  General  William  Booth  addressing  a  multi- 
tude   ill.  356 

Japan:   Salvation  Army ill.   355-357;   text  361,  363 

Japanese  infantry,  Savage  district,  Formosa,  Pacific 

Ocean ill.   274 

Java,  Dutch  East  Indies 71-73,  79,  84,  101-102 

Java,  Dutch  East  Indies:  Ants 401 

Java,  Dutch  East  Indies:  Leper  colony 359 

Java,  Dutch  East  Indies:   Salvation  Army 

ill.  350,  353-354;   text  359,   363 

Javanese 71-73,  79 

Javanese  coolies  71-73 

Jehovah,  Origin  of  name 22 

Jericho,  Palestine , 13 

Jerusalem,  Palestine i,  n,  16,  23,  31 

Jerusalem,    Palestine:    Hospital    dedicated    to    St. 

Jqhn 453 

Jewelry  trade,   Attleboro,   Mass 242 

Jews 23,  25 

Jews,  Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea 450 

Johnson,  Rev.   R.   E. :   Contribution  to  Dartmouth     v 

Outing  Club 151 

Jones  Sound,  Arctic  Region 302,  314 

Jordan   River,   Palestine 21 

Jordan  Valley,  Palestine 31 

Joy  Farm,  Ohio:  Number  four  oil  well ill.    185 

Jubbie  (Outside  prayer  garment  of  a  Samaritan)  .  .      33 

Judea,  Palestine j 21 

"June  rise" :  Mississippi  River 369 

Junks,  Tamsui  River,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean.... 

ill.  259;  text  264-265 
Jusserand,  Hon.  Jean  A.  A.  J. :  National  Geographic 

Banquet,  1913 ill.  320 

Juvenal:  Quotation  on  mushrooms 422 


Kaibab  Plateau,  Grand  Canyon  of  the  Colorado,  .ill.    500 
Ka-Ko-Tchee-A :   An   Eskimo   feeding  MacMillan's 

dog  team  at  Etah,  Greenland ill.  313 

Kalmbach,   E.    R. :    Crow,    Bird   Citizen   of   Every 

Land,  The 322 

Kampanzan,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean 275,  283,  287 

Kampanzan  savages,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean... ill.  284 
Kampong  Kinalang,    Sumatra,   Dutch   East   Indies: 

Communal  house ill.     87 

Kampongs,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 90 

"Kanafie"    (pastry),  Nablus,  Palestine 2,  5 

Kansas:   Vice-President  Stevenson's  visit  to 495' 

Karenko,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean 274 

Karluk  (Steamship)    340 

Karo-Batak  market,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies,  .ill.    72 
Karo-Batak  Plateau,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies. .      83 
Karo-Batak,    Sumatra,    Dutch    East    Indies:    Com- 
munal house , ill.     90 

Karo-Batak    women    at    market,    Sumatra,    Dutch 

East   Indies    ill.     89 

Karo-Bataks,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 86 

Karolanden,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 89 

Kebon  Djahe,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 

ill.  76,  80;  text  89-92,  95 

Kelung,   Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean 247,  258,  264 

Kennedy    Channel,    Arctic   Region 296 

Kennan,  George:  Life  membership  in  the  National 

Geographic   Society  bestowed  upon 342 

Kent,  William:  Preservation  of  Redwood  trees  in 

California 527,  533 

Kerosene 185-186,  202 

Kim  Soan:    Story  of 275,283-285,  287 

Kinalang,    Sumatra,  Dutch   East   Indies 95-97 

King,  Commander  Frank  R. :  Death  of 126 

King  of  Sweden :  Mention  of 363 

"King  of  the  Belgians,  Albert  I:  Mention  of.. 498,   504 


Page 

Kingdom  of  Israel 1 6 

Kingdom  of  Judah 16 

"King's     Bed"     (Stone    pillar,     Mnaidra    Temple, 

Malta) 459 

"King's  Palace"  (Mnaidra  Temple,  Malta) 459 

Kirjassoff,  Alice  Ballantine:   Formosa  the  Beauti- 
ful    247 

Kirkwall,  Scotland ill.   113;  text  112-114,   117,    123. 

„.       ,Ct  127-128,   130-131 

Kit e    (Steamship)    319 

Kites,  Mine-sweeping 105,   in,   116,   125,   129 

Klamath    Lake,    Calif 489 

Klamath   River,   Calif.:   Redwood  trees.  ..ill.   520,   528; 

Klings  (Tamils)  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies. .  .71,  78-80 
Knights  of  Malta,  Order  of  the.... 447,  453,  457,  461 

Knights  of  St.  John   453-455 

Kobe,  Japan 247 

Konieh,    Asia   Minor    62 

Korea:   Salvation  Army  distributing  rice ill.   358; 

text  359 
Krieger,  Louis  C.  C. :  Common  Mushrooms  of  the 

United    States    387 

Kuala  Belawan,    Sumatra,   Dutch   East  Indies 69 

"Kuds  el  Akdas"   (Samaritan  Holy  of  Holies).. 31,  33 


La  Gorce,  John  Oliver:  Vice-Director  of  the  Na- 
tional Geographic  Society,  elected  to  Board  of 

Managers 345 

La  Honda,   Calif. :    Redwood  trees 527 

La  Valletta,  Jean  Parisot  de  la,  see  Valette,  Jean 
Parisot  de. 

Labor,   Sumatra,   Dutch   East  Indies 71 -73 

La  Crosse,  Wis. :  Fishes  rescued  by  government . .   375 

La  Crosse,  Wis.:  Fish  retaining  station ill.  381; 

text  383 

Lady  Franklin  Bay,  Arctic  Region 296 

Lafayette,   Mount,   N.   H 155 

Lake    Chaugogagogmanchaugagogchau  b  u  na  gu  n  ga- 

maug,  Mass 203 

Lake  Chelan,   Wash ill.  481 

Lake  Monomonac,  Mass 203 

Lake  No.    i   oil  well,  West  Virginia ill.   189 

Lake  Tahoe,  Calif 519 

Lake  Tarleton  Club,  New  Hampshire 158 

Lake  Taupo,  North  Island,  New  Zealand 440 

Lakeview   Gusher,   California    191 

Lambs,    Feast    of    the    Passover,    Mount    Gerizim, 

Palestine ill.  19,  24-25,  27;  text  34-35.  37-39 

Lancaster  Sound,  Canada   302 

Land  grants  to  American  soldiers 507,   509-510 

Lane,   Franklin   K. :   Mind's- Eye   Map  of  America, 

A 479 

Langue  d'Angleterre    ; 453 

Langue   de    France    ..  453-454 

Laodicea,  Asia  Minor:    Ruins  of ill.     50 

Laodiceans    50 

Lapwing   (Mine-sweeper)   123 

Larson,   Capt.:    Salvation   Army  officer 359,  361 

LAST  ISRAELITISH  BLOOD  SACRIFICE, 
THE:  HOW  THE  VANISHING  SAMARI- 
TANS CELEBRATE  THE  PASSOVER  ON 
SACRED  MOUNT  GERIZIM.  BY  JOHN  D. 

WHITING r 

Lawn  mushrooms  (including  Naucoria  semiorbi- 
cularis  and  Pholiota  prtecox)  . .  .ill.  (color  insert) 

Plate  VIII,  423-438;  text  422 

Lawrence,   Mass 204,  245 

Leland     Stanford    Junior    University,    Palo    Alto, 

Calif 501 

Lemon-yellow    Amanita    mushroom     (Amanita    cit- 

rina) ill.    (color  insert)   Plate  V,  423-438; 

text  392 

Leper  colony,  Java,  Dutch  East  Indies 359- 

Lerwick,  Shetland  Islands,  Scotland 113 

Lesbos   (Mitylene  Island)  Asia  Minor 48,  61 

Lexington,    Mass 204,  245 

Lincoln,    President  Abraham:    Argument   of  facts  510 
Lincoln,   President  Abraham:   Quotation   from....    361 

Lion  from  Miletus,  Asia  Minor 67 

Little  duck  (patillo) 552- 

Little  Wheel   mushroom    (Marasmius   rotula) .  .ill. 

(color  insert)  Plate  VI,  423-438;  text  413-414 

Littleton,  N.  H 158 

Lobos  de  Afuera,  Lobos  Islands,  Peru:  Guano  and 

Guano  birds  of ill.   547-551,  553;  text  554- 

555,   557-558 


XII 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Page 

Lobos  de  Tierra,  Lobos  Islands,  Peru ill.   563; 

text  554,  5S9-S60,  564,   566 

Lobos  Islands,  Peru:  Guano  and  birds  of.. ill.  547-55 1, 

553;  text  554-555 

Long  Island,  N.  Y.:  Oil  tank i]}.   193 

Long's  Peak,  Rocky  Mountain  Park,  Colo....  .ill. 

(color  insert)  Plate  II,  511-518 

Looms,   Cotton •  •  •  •  ••  •  •  •  ••  •  -I11-  2l8 

Looms,    Primitive,    Kinalang,    Dutch    East    Indies 

ill.  84-86;  text     95 

Lost  River  District,  White  Mountains,  N.  H 158 

Louisiana :   Herons    334 

Lowell,  Mass o;'V224'   244~245 

Lubricating  oil    ; 186-187,    189-190,    195 

Lydia,   Asia  Minor    •  53,  59 

Lucca,  Ark.:  Mississippi  River  levee i».  3»4 

Lynn,  Mass.:  Shoe  Manufactures 229,  245 

Lyres     •"  7 

"M" 

M'Clintock,   Capt.   Leopold:    Search   for  survivors 

of  the  Franklin  Expedition  of   1845 303 

McCormick  Bay,  Greenland   •  •  •  • 3r9 

McDermott  Lake,  Glacier  National  Park,  Mont.  ...    4»4 

McGill   College,  Montreal,   Canada 160-161 

Macabi  Island,  Peru:  Guano   5 

Machu   Picchu    342-343 

Mackenzie   Basin,   Arctic   Region 340 

MacMillan,  Donald  B.:   Peary  as  a  Leader......   293 

MacMillan,  Donald  B. :  Dog  team,  Etah,  Greenland 

ill.  3!3 
Mseander  River  (Ancient  name  of  Mendere  River)     50 

Magellan,  Ferdinand:  Mention  of : •  •   322 

Mail   found   at  Cape   Isabella,    Arctic   Region,    by 

E-Tooka-Shoo     VV  V-' ' '   3I  * 

Main    Altar,    Tarxien    Temple,    Malta,     Mediter- 
ranean Sea •  •  •  •  -  -ill.  477  ;  text  474 

Main  Hall,   Hal   Saflieni  Temple,  Malta,  Mediter- 
ranean  Sea ill-   467;   text  463 

Maine     .:,-  'SO1 

Mainsprings,   Cutting   of    *"•  232 

Malacca  Strait,   Dutch  East  Indies 09 

Malay  Archipelago   71 

Malay  States,  Malay  Peninsula 72 

Malayan  coast   °9 

Malays,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 99 

Maiden,    Mass •  ••  •  •   245 

Malta,    Mediterranean    Sea:    Delegates    to    Salva- 

tion   Army   International   Congress,   London....    368 
Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea:   Early  inhabitants  of..    449 

Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea:   Foundation  of 445,  44° 

Malta,  Mediterranean   Sea:   Goats   ill.  460 

Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea:   Headgear ill.  462 


Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 
Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea 

the  Citta  Vecchia  termin 
Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea 
Malta,  Mediterranean   Sea 
Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 
Malta,    Mediterranean    Se 

ill.  466-468,  470-478;  tex 


Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 


Honey  merchants,  .ill.  460 
Imtarfa  barracks  and 

us    ill-  464 

Map  of ill.  (map)   449 

Mortuary    ill.  455 

Origin  of  name... 451,  460 
;    Temples,    Prehistoric 
t  448-449,  456-457,   459, 


46  ,    465-469,    473-475,    477-478 
Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 


Valletta ill.  446-448, 

450-452,  454,  456-457 

.„„..„,   — Water  wagons ...  ..ill.   461 

MALTA:  THE  HALTING  PLACE  OF  NA- 
TIONS. FIRST  ACCOUNT  OF  REMARK- 
ABLE PREHISTORIC  TOMBS  AND  TEM- 
PLES RECENTLY  UNEARTHED  ON  THE 
ISLAND.  BY  WILLIAM  ARTHUR  GRIF- 
FITHS    445 

Maltese   Islands,   Mediterranean    Sea:    Malta.     By 

William    Arthur   Griffiths    445 

Maltese  language •  •  •  •  •  •  • 459 

Mangroves,    Sumatra,   Dutch   East  Indies 69 

Manila,   Philippine  Islands,  Pacific  Ocean 501 

Manitoba,   Canada:    Grouse    334 

Manka,  Taihoku,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean 248 

Manns   Hill,   N.   H 158 

Manufactures,    Massachusetts    204,    209-243 

Maori    canoe,     New     Zealand:     Thirty-man-power 

dugout     •.•••-, •  -ill-   443 

Maoris,  New  Zealand:   Canoe  racing  feats   of  the 

ill.  441-444;  text  440 

Map,  Asia  Minor   ill.    (map)   46 

Map,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.    (map)   262 

Map,  Holy  Land  ill.   (map)   46 


Page 
Map,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea:   Sketch  ill.  (map)  449 

Map,   Mine  groups:   North   Sea ill.    (map)   105 

Map,  North  Sea:  Showing  location  of  mine  groups 

ill.    (map)    104 
Map  of  America,  A  Mind's-Eye.     By  Franklin  K. 

Lane     479 

Map,    Peary's   Polar   Explorations ill.    (map)   297 

Map,   United   States :   Showing  oil   pipe-lines . . .  ill. 

(map)    183 

Map,  United  States:  Showing  production  of  pe- 
troleum   ill.  (map)  187 

Map,  World:  Oil  resources   ill.    (map)   200 

Marble  blocks,   Ephesus,  Asia  Minor ill.     66 

"Mardi  Gras   of  the   North,"    Dartmouth    College, 

New  Hampshire    158-161,  164 

Mariposa    Grove,    California    519 

Marker  Buoys,  North  Sea. .  .ill.  106;  text  121,  129,   132 

Markers,    Historic,    Massachusetts 206-207 

Market-place,  Asia  Minor:    Arriving  at  a ill.     48 

Markham,   Sir  Albert  Hastings:   Mention  of 320 

Marl  beds,  Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea 445 

Marriage  customs,   Sumatra,   Dutch  East  Indies..      90 

Marsa,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 459 

Marsamuscetto  Harbor,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea  450 

Marsh,  George  P. :  Mention  of 133 

Martial:  "Epigrams"    422 

Marvin,  Prof.  Ross  G. :  Mention  of 309 

Maryland:   Electric  power    496 

Massachusetts  Agricultural  College   206 

MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSI- 
NESS. BY  WILLIAM  JOSEPH  SHOWAL- 
TER  203 

Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology,  Cam- 
bridge, Mass 207^  244 

Massachusetts:   Population   of 203-204,  243 

Mather,  Stephen  T. :  Interest  in  the  National  Park 
System  343 

Mather,  Stephen  T. :  Life  membership  in  the  Na- 
tional Geographic  Society  bestowed  upon. .  .342-343 

Mather,  Stephen  T. :  Preservation  of  Redwood 
trees  in  California  533 

Matting,   Bandjermasin    •-. 69 

Mausoleum,  Hal  Saflieni  Temple,  Malta,  Medi- 
terranean Sea  466-467 

May  beetles,  United  States:  Crows'  destruction 
of  332-333 

Medan,    Sumatra,   Dutch   East  Indies.. 73,   75,   79,   81, 

IOI-IO2 

Mediterranean  Sea   9,  31,  47,  51-52,  64 

Mediterranean    Sea:    Malta.      By   William    Arthur 

Griffiths    445 

Medina   (Popular  name  for  Citta  Vecchia,  Malta)  464 

Melkarte,  Lord  of  Tyre:  Reference  to 456 

Melville   Bay,    Greenland    305 

Members  of  the  Dartmouth  Outing  Club,  Hanover, 

N.  H ill.  133-134,  152-156,  160-164 

Members  of  the   Salvation  Army,   South  America 

ill.  368 

Memorial  Training  College,  Sweden   363 

Memphis,   Tenn 210 

Men  Lou,  Shantung,  China:  Salvation  Army 358 

Mendocino  County,   Calif 527 

Merced,   Calif 527 

Merchantville,  N.  J. :  Crow  roosts   325 

Merriam,  Dr.  John  C. :  Executive  control  of  "Save 

the    Redwoods    League." 533 

Mesa  Verde  National  Park,  Colo.:  Cliff  Palace,  .ill.   493 

Meteorite  Island,    Greenland    305 

Methodist     minister,     Eastern     Shore,     Maryland : 

Story   of   a    487,  489 

Metropolitan    Lumber    Company:    Redwood    trees 

owned  by    531 

Mexico     343 

Miles    Standish    State    Forest,    Plymouth    County, 

Mass 245 

Miletus,  Asia  Minor   47,  64,  67 

Military  Garrison,  Savage  district,  Formosa,  Pa- 
cific Ocean  ill.  275 

Mills  Creek,   Calif.:   Redwood  trees 527 

Milton,   John :    Quotation   from -540 

MIND'S-EYE    MAP    OF    AMERICA,    A.      BY 

FRANKLIN  K.  LANE 479 

Mine    Barrage,    North    Sea :    Removal   of   the.      By 

Noel  Davis   1 03 

Mine   explosions,    North   Sea ill.    109-110,    117-118, 

120-122,    125 

Mine  fields,  North  Sea:  Map  of ill.  (map)    104 

Mine  groups,  North  Sea ill.  (map)  105;  text  115, 

117,    119,     122,     127-128,     130 


INDEX  FOR  VOLUME  XXXVII,  1920 


XIII 


Page  Page 

Mine-sweepers,   North   Sea:   American ill.    109-110,  Mount  Tacoma,  see  Mount  Rainier,  Wash. 

116-119,  123-130,  132;  text   111-127,   129-132        Mount  Tamalpais,  Calif.:  Redwood  trees 527 

Mine-sweepers,   North   Sea:    British 130        Mount  Tom,  Mass 245 

Mine-sweeping  kites,  North  Sea.  .105,  in,  1 16,  12,,   129        Mount  Washington,  N.  H 151,   161,   164 

Mine  with  its  anchor    ill.   119        Mount   Zion,    Palestine 23 

Mines,  Floating,   North  Sea ill.   no,   116  'Mountain  That  was  God"   (Mount  Rainier)  ..  .ill. 

Mines,  "Horntype" 107  (color  insert)  Plate  III,  511-518 

Mines,    North    Sea:    Drawing   showing   location   of  Mountains   of   Gilead,    Palestine 31 

ill.   1 08  Muir  Woods,   Mount  Tamalpais,   Calif.:    Redwood 

Minidoka,   Idaho:   Electrical  power 496  trees    527 

Minnesota   180        Multnomah  Falls,  Ore .' ill.  480 

Minnesota:     Fishes  rescued  by  government 375        Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  Mass 7 

Minute   Man,    Norris    Geyser   Basin,    Yellowstone  Museums,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean:  Skull ill. 

National  Park,  Wyo Plate  VII,   135-150  286-287;  text    273 

Mission    Fathers,    California    489        Mushroom  clubs,  United   States 388,392 

Mississippi:  Fishes  rescued  by  government 375        Mushroom    collectors 388,    391-392 

Mississippi    River   bottom    land:    Government   fish-  Mushrooms,   Edible ill.    390,    394-398,    400,   402-407, 

ing  crew  going  through  a  section   of   the ill.  379  410-414,   416,   418-421;    (color   insert)     Plates   I, 

Mississippi  River  levee,  Lucca,  Ark.:   Broken.. ill.  384  IV,   VI-IX,   XII-XIV;    text   388,   401-402,   404,  407, 

Mississippi    River:     When    the    Father    of    Waters  411,  413-414,  416-418,  422,  439 

Goes  on  a  Rampage.     By  Hugh  M.  Smith 369        Mushrooms,   Edibility  doubtful ill.  401,  421; 

Mississippi   Valley 203,   375,   377,   383  (color  insert)  Plates  V,  XI;   text  407,  422 

Missouri   River    496  Mushrooms   of   the    United    States,    Common.     By 

Missouri  River:   Fish  conservation 385-386  Louis   C.   C.    Krieger 387 

Missouri:   Vice-President   Stevenson's  visit  to 495        Mushrooms,   Origin   of    392 

Mitvlene    Island,    ^Sigean    Sea,    Turkey    in    Asia  Mushrooms,  Poisonous ill.  388,  393;    (color  in- 

47-48,  64,  67  sert)   Plates  II-III,  V,  VIII,  X,  XV-XVI;  text 

Mizpah,  Palestine   3*  388-389,   391-392,  403-404,   409,  411,  418 

Mnaidra   Temple,    Malta,   Mediterranean    Sea 449,        Mushrooms,  United  States (color  insert) 

456,  459,  469  XVI  plates,  423-438 

Modoc,  Ark.:    Flood  refugees ill.  385,  386        Mushrooms,  Wild  species    387-388 

Monarch,    Norris    Geyser    Basin,    Yellowstone    Na-  Music,    Ancient    57,  61 

tional  Park,  Wyo i Plate  VII,   135-150        Musical  instruments,   Ancient    57 

Monarch  of  the  North ill.  (duotone  insert)  Musk-oxen,    Canada    483 

Plate   IX,    135-150        Musk-oxen,  Forsheim  Peninsula:  Herd  of ill.   314 

Monkeys,    Sumatra,    Dutch    East   Indies 81-82  Mussels,   Mississippi  River:   Propagation   of... 381,  383 

Montana    5O1  Mytilene  Island,  see  Mitylene  Island,  JEgean  Sea. 

Montana:   Glacier  National  Park ill.   484-486 

Montenegrin    Pass    96  ,,-vr,, 

Monterey,  Calif. :   Redwood  trees 527 

Montgomery  Grove,   Calif.:    Redwood  trees.  .  .527,   5'  Nablus>   Palestine in.   2.  text  ,.2>  s   p>  26>    3j  6 

Montreal,  Canada •••••••;  2I°  "Nalegak"   (Leader  or  chief  among  men)  . . .  .300,  305 

Mooney  Falls,  Havasu  Canyon,  Grand  Canyon  of  Nansen,  Fridtjof :  Mention  of...* 308   faS 

the  Colorado    HI.  499  Naples     Italy                                                                        201 

Moose  Mountain  Cabin    New  Hampshire  ..151,154,   158  Napoleon  I :   b'c'c'upa'tion'  of'  Malta', '  Mediterranean 

Moreh,  Plain  of,  Palestine 13  gea                                                                                       ... 

Morel  mushrooms ill.  420-42 1 ;  text  388    4 1 7  Napoleon'  i'. '  Ref  e'r'enc'e  to'  Chink'. '. ". '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '.    355 

Morel,   or   Sponge   mushroom    (Morchclla   cornea)  Nareg)   Sir  George  Strong.    Mention  of 311,  321 

,,,  llL.4,2,o;Jtert.3    <  4I7  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY'S  NOTA- 

Morel,  or  Sponge  mushroom  (Morchella  delictosa)  BLE  YEAR    THE 338 

/*r    m;4?o;  text  388    417  Nationai  parks,  United'  States.' .'.'.'ill'. '482-486', '488-490, 

Morel,  or 'Sponge  mushroom  (Morchellaesculenta)  492-493,   502,    505;    (color   insert)    VIII   plates,  511- 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VII,  423-438;   text  388,  417  5Ig.  text  501 

Moriah,  Mount,  Jerusalem   31  National  Redwoods  Park:  Plan  to  provide  a.'. ....   533 

Mormon   Church,  Utah    49&        Natural  Bridges  National  Monument,  Utah ill.  491 

Morrison,  Mount,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  277  Navarino    Battle  of                                                           455 

Mortuary,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea:  Mural  deco-  Navarre,  'Spain:  Knights  of  St!  'j'o'hn. ! ! '. '. . . '. . . '. '.   453 

rations     V  •.••;;: !„    45S        Nashawtuc  Hill,    Concord,   Mass ill.   171 

Moslem  loungers  in  an  Asia  Minor  town ill.     52        National  Geographic  Magazine:  Circulation  of 343 

Moslems    ,>•'•'        3        National  Geographic  Magazine:  Dog  number 343 

Mosquito  Lake,  Wash Plate  A,  135-150        National   Geographic   Magazine:    Flag  number 343 

Mother  crow  at  the  nest  edge.... ill.  325  National  Geographic   Magazine:   Maps   to  be  pub- 

Motion-picture   industry,   United    States 479  lished    343 

Motor  trucks,  United   States 187  National    Geographic   Magazine:    Military    Insignia 

Mount  Baker,  Wash ill.   (duotone  insert)  number   343 

Plate  X,   135-150  National  Geographic  Magazine:  Paper  material  for 

Mount  Ebal,  Palestine   1-2,   5,    13,  31  the ill.  234-241 ;  text  204,  245 

National  Geographic   Society:   Aim  of  the 345 

Mount    Ephraim,    Palestine    13  National  Geographic  Society  Banquet,  1913:  Photo- 
Mount  Etna,    Sicily 452            graph  of   ill.  320 

Mount  Gerizim,   Palestine ill.   18-22,  36-39,  42-43;  National  Geographic  Society:  Life  membership...   342 

text   1-3,   5,    13,    17-18,   20,   23,   25-26,   29,   31,   34-37,        National  Geographic  Society:  News  Bulletins 343 

45-46  National   Geographic  Society:   Pictorial  Geography  343 

Mount  Hermon,  Palestine    31  National  Geographic   Society:   Sixth  expedition  to 

Mount  Katmai,  Alaska   Plate  VI,  511-518  Mount  Katmai,  Alaska 338 

Mount   Katmai,    Alaska:    Sixth   expedition   of   the  Natives,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.   246,  249-252, 

National   Geographic   Society  to 338  254,    256,    260,    265-267,    280-282,    284-286,    288-292; 

Mount  Lafayette,  N.  H iSS  text  272-273,  275,  287,  290 

Mount  McKinley  National  Park,   Alaska 483  Navy  Cliff,  Arctic  Region :_  American  flag  raised  at.   295 

Mount  Mazama,  Crater  Lake  National  Park,  Ore.  Neapolis    (Nablus,   Palestine) i 

Plate  VI,  511-518        Near  East s6,  65 

Mount  Moosilauke,   N.   H 158        Neblett,  Miss. :  Refugees  on  a  log  raft  at ill.  384 

Mount  Moriah,   Jerusalem    31  Nelson,  Edward  W. :  Investigations  of  animal  life 

Mount  Morrison,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  277  published  in  the  National  Geographic  Magazine.    342 

Mount  Olympus  (Kechish  Dagh)  Asia  Minor... ill.     58  Nelson,   Edward  W. :  Life  membership  in  the  Na- 

Mount    Rainier,    Mount    Rainier    National    Park,  tional   Geographic   Society   bestowed  upon 342 

Wash ill.    (color  insert)    Plates  III-IV,  Nelson,     Edward    W. :     Scientific    explorations    in 

511-518;  text  487  Alaska   and    Mexico 342 

Mount  Shasta,  Calif 489,  521        Nests  of  patillos,  Peru ill.  556 


XIV 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Page 
Nests  of  white-breast  cormorants,  Chincha  Islands, 

Peru ill.  540 

New  Bedford,  Mass 204,  244 

New   England    203 

New  England:   Winters 169,  172 

New   Hampshire    203 

New  Hampshire:   Endothia  parasitica 399 

New  Hampshire  Hills:  Skiing  Over  the.     By  Fred 

H.   Harris 151 

New  Jersey 509 

New  Mexico:  Vice-President  Stevenson's  visit  to..  495 

New  York   487,  501 

New   York.  Adirondack  Mountains:   Victory   Park 

ill.  508 
New  York  City:  Snowstorm. .  .ill.  (duotone  insert) 

Plate  XII,  135-150 
New    Zealand:    Hurdle    Racing    in    Canoes.      By 

Walter   Burke    440 

Newcastle-on-Tyne,    England    125 

Newton,  Mass 245 

Ngaruawahia,  North  Island,  New  Zealand:   Canoe 

races     44O 

Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y ill.  (duotone  insert) 

Plate  XIV,    135-150;  text   180-181 

Niagara   of   the   Northwest ill.  (color  insert) 

Plate   VII,   511-518 

Niacaragua 3°4»  322 

Nicholas  II  Land,  Arctic  Region 340 

Nichols,  Lieut.  D.  A in 

Nikolsky,  Lieut.:  General  Greely's  tribute  to 349 

Nile  Valley,  Egypt '489 

Nitrates,  Peru 537-539,  547 

Nitrogen 538-539,  547 

Norfolk,   Va 114 

Norris   Geyser   Basin,    Yellowstone   National   Park, 

Wyo ill.    (duotone  insert)   Plate   VII,   135-150 

North  Carolina:  Cherokee  Indians 507 

North   Dakota    180 

North  McGregor,  Iowa:  Fishes  rescued  by  govern- 
ment    375 

North  Island,  New  Zealand 440 

North  Polar  Expedition,   1898-1902 321 

North  Pole:  Admiral  Peary's  photograph  of  the,  ill.  321 

North  Pole:  Attempts  to  reach  the 319 

North   Pole:   Peary  as  a  Leader.     By   Donald  B. 

MacMillan 293 

North   Sea 340 

North  Sea:  Map  showing  mine  fields. ..  .ill.  (map)  104 
North    Sea   Mine    Barrage,    Removal   of   the.      By 

Noel  Davis  103 

North  Sea,  Mine  groups:  Map  of ill.  (map)  104 

North  Woodstock,  N.  H 158 

Northampton,  Mass 245 

Northrop,  John  D. :  British  petroleum  investments  201 

Norway    103 

Notabile,  see  Citta  Vecchia,  Malta,  Mediterranean 

Sea. 

Number  four  oil  well,  Joy  Farm,  Ohio ill.  185 


Oates,  Lawrence  Edward  Grace:  Death  of 309-310 

Odessa   Lake,    Colo 503 

Ogrim,  Commissioner:  Mention  of 363 

Ohio   River:   Crow  roosts 324 

Ohio   River:   Fish  conservation 385-386 

Oil,  Africa   195 

Oil,  California. ..  .ill.   184,   186,  188,   191;  text  190,    195 

Oil  companies,  Oklahoma 191 

Oil  consumed  by  U.  S.  Army 186 

Oil  Creek,  Pa.:  Site  of  pioneeer  oil  well ill.   182 

Oil,  Crude  192,  201 

Oil,   England ill.   201 ;  text  202 

Oil,   Far  East    195 

Oil  fields,    California,    Southern ill.    1X6 

•Oil,  Fuel:  United  States 186,  192-193,   195 

Oil  investments,  Great  Britain 197,   201 

•Oil,  Lubricating ..186-187,  189-190,   195 

Oil,  Mexico ill.   196-199;  text  181-182,   195,    197 

•Oil,   Near   East 195 

Oil,  Ohio   ill.   185 

•  Oil,  Oklahoma 190-191 

Oil,  Pennsylvania ill.   182;   text   181,   183 

Oil  pipe  lines,  United  States.  .  .ill.  (map)  183;  text   183 

•  Oil,    Products   of 185-186 

Oil  resources  of  the  world,  .ill. (map)  200;  text  195,   197 

Oil,  Rumania 195 

Oil,  Russia 181 

•  Oil  shales,  United  States 193 


Page 

Oil,    South   America 195 

Oil   tank  farm    192 

Oil  tank,   Long  Island,   N.   Y ill.   193 

Oil  tank  set  on  fire  by  lightning ill.   194 

Oil    tanks,    Burning    ill.    192,   194 

Oil,   Texas    191 

Oil,   United   States  Army:   Consumption  of 186 

Oil,  United  States  Navy:   Consumption  of 186-187 

Oil,  United  States:  Where  the  World  Gets  Its  Oil. 

By  George  Otis  Smith 181 

Oil  well,  Derbyshire,  England.  ......  .ill.  202;  text  201 

Oil  wells,  Mexico   ill.   196-199 

Oil  wells,  Ventura  County,  Calif ill.   184 

Oil,   West   Virginia    ill.   189 

Oil,   Where  the   World  gets  Its.     By   George   Otis 

Smith 1 8 1 

Oklahoma 324,    326,   507 

Old   Faithful  Geyser,   Yellowstone  National   Park, 

Wyo ill.  488;  text,  Plate  VII,   135-150 

"Old  Man  of  the  Mountains,"  New  Hampshire..    158 
Old  pump,  Thawing  out  the...  ill.  (duotone  insert) 

Plate  III,   135-150 

Old   South   Church,  Boston,   Mass ill.  244 

Omri,  Sixth  King  of  Israel:   Samaria,  Palestine     4,   21 

Onaga,   Kans. :   Crows    333 

Ontario   County,  N.   Y. :    Dead  crows ill.   330 

Open  air  skull  museum,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean,  .ill.   286 
Open  road,  A  frosty  morning  on  the.  .  .  .ill.    (duo- 
tone  insert)  Plate  XVI,  135-150 

Open  trail,  Glacier  National  Park,  Mont ill.  484 

Open-air   grocery   store,    Sumatran ill.   100 

Opium,   Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean ill.  251;  text  292 

Opium  Monopoly  Bureau,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean 

ill.   251 

Oracle,  Delphi,  Greece   66-67 

Oracle   Room,    Hal    Saflieni   Temple,   Malta,    Medi- 
terranean   Sea 465 

Orange-cap  Boletus  mushroom  (Boletus  versipellis) 

ill.  406;  text  405 

Orang-outangs,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 82-83 

Orchestra  of  Chinese  "Sing-song"   girls,   Formosa, 

Pacific   Ocean    ill.  252 

Order  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem 453-455 

Order  of  the  Knights  of  Malta 447,  453,  457,  461 

"Organ-pipes,"   Concord,  Mass.:   Icicle ill.   167; 

text   179 

Oregon   487,  489,  495,  501 

Oregon:   Crater  Lake  National  Park.... ill.   (color 

insert)  Plate  VI,  511-518 

Oregon,   Multnomah  Falls    ill.  480 

Orick,   Calif. :    Redwood   trees    531 

Orkney   Islands,    Scotland    113,   115 

Orphic  mysteries 67 

Osage   Indian   lands    191 

OUR   NATIONAL  PARKS. .  .Color  insert,  VIII 

plates,  511-518 

Oxen,  Indian    80 

Oyster  Bay,   N.  Y '.' 301 

Oyster  birds,  Peru   558 

Oyster  mushroom   (Pleurotus  ostreatus)  ......  .ill.  402; 

text  388 
"P" 

Pabellon  de  Pica,  Chile:   Guano 559 

Pacific  Islands:  Formosa  the  Beautiful.     By  Alice 

Ballantine   Kirjassoff    246 

Pacific   Islands,    New  Zealand:    Hurdle   Racing  in 

Canoes.     By  Walter  Burke    440 

Pacific  Islands,   Sumatra:   By  Motor  Through  the 
East    Coast   and    Batak   Highlands   of    Sumatra. 

By  Melvin  A.   Hall 68 

Pacific  Lumber  Company:  Redwood  trees  owned  by  531 

Pacific   Mills,   Lawrence,   Mass 221 

Packwood  Glacier,  Goat  Mountains,  Wash. :  Cross- 
ing     ill.   344 

Paiwan  savages,   Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean ill.  289 

Pajaro  nifios,  see  Penguins. 

Paita,    Peru 559 

Palaver-house,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean:   Savage,  .ill.   280 
Palestine:    Last    Israelitish    Blood    Sacrifice,    The. 

By  John  D.  Whiting   .  • I 

Palisades   Interstate   Park ill.   506,   509 

Palominos,    Peru:    Guano    559 

Panxolus    mushrooms.  ..  .ill.     (color    insert)    Plate 

VIII,  423-438;  text  392,  418 

Panama:    Delegates    to    Salvation    Army    Interna- 
tional   Congress,    London    368 

Pandora  (Steamship)    311 

Panorama  of  Smyrna,  Asia  Minor ill.     60 


INDEX  FOR  VOLUME  XXXVII,  1920 


xv 


Page  Page 

Panther    (Repair   ship)     129  Perennial    polystictus   mushroom    (Polystictus  per- 

Paper   Mills,   Lawrence,    Mass 111.234-241;  ennis) ill.   (color  insert)   Plate  VII,  423-438; 

text  204,  245  text  416 

Paracas   Peninsula,   Peru    557       Peru:   Climate   537 

Parasol  mushroom   (Lepiota  procera)  .  . .  .ill.   (color  Peru:  Coffins  of  laborers  buried  in  old  guano.,  ill.   566 

insert)  Plate  XIV,  423-438;   16x1388,392,  439  Peru:    Cormorants,  .ill.  539-542;  text  544-547,552,   554 

Paros  Island,  Greece   61  Peru:   Delegates  to  Salvation   Army  International 

Parry,  Sir  William  Edward:  Mention  of 320  Congress,    London    368 

Passover  camp,   Mount   Gerizim,   Palestine ill.      18  Peru:  Heaping  screened  guano  for  transfer  to  the 

Passover,   Mount   Gerizim,   Palestine:   Last   Israel-  mainland     ill.   562 

itish  Blood  Sacrifice.     By  John  D.  Whiting....        i        Peru,  Neb.:   Crow  roosts    325 

Passover  Services,  Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine 31,  Peru:    Salvation   Army   officer   in   his   picturesque 

33-35,   37-41,  44-46  costume     ill.   367 

Passover  sacrifice,  Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine:  Kill-  Peru:  Nests  of  patillos  ill.  556 

ing  of  the ill.     24        Peru:    Pelicans ill.  548-551,  553-555!  text  553-556 

Passover  sacrifice,   Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine:   Sa-  Peru:  Piqueros ill.  544-547;  text  552-553 

maritans  eating  of  the ill.  28-29;  text  44-45        Peru:    Sea-gulls,    Scavenger    558 

Patapsco  (Mine-sweeper) ill.  125;  text  108-109,  PERU'S        WEALTH-PRODUCING        BIRDS: 

in,  123  VAST  RICHES  IN  THE  GUANO  DEPOSITS 

Patillos,  Peru:  Nests  of ill.  556  OF  CORMORANTS,  PELICANS,  AND  PET- 

Patillos,  Peru ill.  557 ;  text  552  RELS    WHICH    NEST    ON    HER    BARREN, 

Patrick,   Mary  Mills:  Asia  Minor  in  the  Time  of  RAINLESS  COAST.     BY  R.  E.  COKER 537 

the   Seven  Wise   Men 47       Peruvian  Current 537,  543,  560 

Patuxent   (Mine-sweeper). ..  108-109,   i",   114,   i?6,   132  Peruvians,  Ancient:  Agricultural  methods  of. .ill.   538; 

Pear-shaped  puff-ball  mushroom  (Lycoperdon  pin-  text  541 

forme) ill.   418-419;   text  388  Peteravik.  Arctic  Reeion-   Snow  house                 ill    208 

PEARY   AS   A  LEADER:   INCIDENTS   FROM  Peterhead     Scotland                                                  IOQ    MI 

THE  LIFE  OF  THE  DISCOVERER  OF  THE  Petrels    Peru  . .'. .V.VsVV  '554 '  556-557'  550 

NORTH    POLE    TOLD    BY    ONE    OF    HIS  Petrels    San  Gallan  Island    Peru. 

^ss^ssB8v^s>^xP^gsE  Rasa  ??&  "•"••^  A—  •  *  »•  •-«  % 

ALD  B.  MACMILLAN. 293  Phallic  symbols  of  the  cone  and  the  ball,  Tarxien 

Peary,  Rear- Admiral  Robert  E.:  Accident  on  board  Temple,    Malta,    Mediterranean    Sea ill.  475 

the   Kite 319        Phidias:   Statues  by 529 

Peary,   Rear-Admiral  Robert  E.:   Association  with  Philadelphia   (Alasher)   Asia  Minor 50 

the   National   Geographic   Society    322  Phillips,    Dr.    John    C.:    Donation    for    the    preser-     " 

Peary,  Rear-Admiral  Robert  E.:  Awarded  Special  vation  of  the  Redwood  trees,   California. ..  .533-534 

Gold  Medal  by  the  National  Geographic  Society  322        Philosophy,    First    school    of 64 

Peary,  Rear-Admiral  Robert  E- :  Awarded  the  Hub-  Phoenicia,   Syria    51     64 

bard    Gold   Medal    of    the    National    Geographic  Phoenicians    .'.....'.'....'...'.' ...'.'.'..'.'....'  66 

Society . 322  Phoenicians,   Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea.  .  .449-450,   456 

Peary,  Rear- Admiral  Robert  E. :  Cabin  and  record,  Phosphates,   Idaho    496 

Axel  Heiberg  Land,  Arctic  Region ill.   294        Phrygian,  Asia  Minor 59 

Peary,    Rear- Admiral    Robert    E.:    Explorations    in  Pictorial   Geography,    National   Geographic    Society  343 

search  of  the   North  Pole 293-296,    300-301,        Piermont   Mountain,   N.   H 158 

308-311,  314,  320-322  Pigeon-house,  Kebon  Djahe,   Sumatra,   Dutch  East 

Peary,  Rear- Admiral  Robert  E. :  Hut,  Cape  Sabine,  Indies ill.  80;  text     91 

Arctic   Region    ill.  295  Pigs>  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies:  Transportation 

Peary,    Rear-Admiral   Robert   E. :    Map   record   of  of   ill.     92 

Polar   explorations ill.    (map)    297        Pikes,   Mississippi   River 375 

Peary,    Rear-Admiral    Robert    E. :    National    Geo-  Pike's   Peak,    Colo 501 

graphic   Society  banquet,    1913 ill.   320  Pill-coating    room    of    a    Massachusetts    drug    com- 

Peary,    Rear-Admiral   Robert   E. :    Reply   to   Presi-  pany    ill.  204 

dent    Roosevelt    upon    the    presentation    of    the  Pillsbury,   Rear- Admiral  John   Elliot  -ill.   341;  text  345 

Hubbard    Medal    of    the    National    Geographic  Pillsbury,  Rear- Admiral  John  Elliot:  Obituary  no- 
Society     293            tice    345 

Peary,    Rear-Admiral   Robert   E.:    Traits   of   char-  Pinan,    Formosa,   Pacific   Ocean 274 

acter 293,  296,  300-301,  305,  317,  322  Pine  foliage  after  an  ice-storm,  Concord,  Mass...    174 

Peary,    Rear- Admiral   Robert   E. :    Tribute   to   Vil-  Pineapples,   Formosa,   Pacific   Ocean 256 

hjalmur   Stefansson    339-34°,    342        Pine-crested   ridge,   Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean ill.  272 

Peary,     Rear-Admiral     Robert     E. :     Trips    across  Pioneer  oil  well,  Oil  Creek,  Pa. :  Site  of ill.   182 

Greenland     319-320        Piqueros,  Peru ill.  544-547;  text  552-553 

Peary,    Mrs.    Robert   E. :    National   Geographic   So-  Pisco,   Peru    539,   545,   552-553,   562 

ciety  banquet,    1913    ill.  320        Pittakos  of  Mitylene 47,   55,  67 

Peary,  Stefansson,  and   Greely:    Photograph  of .  .ill.  318  Pittier,   Henry:   Life  membership   in   the   National 

"Peary-ark-suah"    (Big  Peary)    305  Geographic   Society  bestowed   upon 342 

PEARY'S      EXPLORATION      IN     THE      FAR  Plain  of  Moreh,  or  Sychar,   Palestine 31 

NORTH.        BY       GILBERT       GROSVENOR,  Plants,   Sumatra,   Dutch   East  Indies ill.     74 

PRESIDENT    OF    THE    NATIONAL    GEO-  •    Plato:  Mention  of 64 

GRAPHIC   SOCIETY    319  Pleurotus  mushroom:  Growth  on  a  fallen  log,. ill.  403 

Peasants,    Asia    Minor ill.  49,   58  Pliny:   Reference  to  poisonous  serpents  and  fungi  389 

Peck,  Dr.  Charles  H. :  Quotation  on  mushrooms. .   418        Plovers,    Peru    559 

Peking,   China:    Salvation   Army    355,  358        Plymouth,   Mass 203 

Pematang  Rajah,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 97        Plymouth   Rock,   Mass 245 

Pematang  Siantar,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies.  .99,    101        Pneumatic   tubes    209 

Pelican  (Mine-sweeper) ill.   124;  text  123-125        Poerba  Dolok,   Sumatra,   Dutch   East  Indies 97 

Pelicans,   Peru ill.   548-551,   553-555;   text  553-556        Poison-dogwood    berries,    Massachusetts ill.   175; 

Penguin    (Mine-sweeper)    123  text  179 

Penguins,   Peru    544,   547,    557-558  Polar  Basin,  Arctic  Region:    Rough  ice  in  the.  .ill.   299 

Penguins,    Vieja    Island,    Bay    of    Independencia,  Polar  bear  held  at  bay  by  dogs ill.  312 

Peru 558        Polar  Ocean   321 

Peninsula  of  Paracas,   Peru    557        Polar  Sea    293,  296,   300,   305-309,  314,  321 

Pennsylvania:   Electric   power    496        Polo,   Marco:    Visit  to   Sumatra    77 

Pentateuch ill.    12,  42;   text  23,  33,  40        Polycarp's  Tomb,  Smyrna,  Asia  Minor 60 

Pepo    savages,     Formosa,    Pacific    Ocean:     Water-  Polyporus  frondosus  mushroom,  Edible ill.  408 

bearers   of   the    ill.   291        Ponds,   Cleaning  up  small ill.  376 

Perches,   Mississippi   River    375        Pools,   Seining  small    ill.  376 

Pergamos    (Bergama)    Asia   Minor 50  Poppy    fields    near    Afiun-Karahissar,    Asia    Minor 

Periodicals,   Salvation  Army:   Circulation  of 347  ill-     63 


Page 

Port   Said,    Egypt    445 

Portable  tubs,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.   256; 

text  275-276 
Porters,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies:   Female.. ill.     73 

Portugal     453 

Portuguese  East  Africa:   Salvation  Army 363 

Potomac    River    182 

Potoyuncos,  see   Petrels. 

Pottery,    Hal    Saflieni    Temple,    Malta,    Mediter- 
ranean  Sea    468-469 

Pottery,    Tarxien    Temple,    Malta,    Mediterranean 

Sea    469,   474 

Powell,    Maj.   J.    W. :    Memorial   altar   erected   to, 

in  the  Grand   Canyon  of  the  Colorado ill. 

(color  insert)  Plate  VIII,   511-518 

Praxiteles,   Statues  by   529 

Prayer  books,    Samaritan    15 

Presidential  Range,  White  Mountains,  N.  H 158 

Prickly-pear,   Mount  Ebal,  Palestine 5,   7,  9 

Priest  writing  a   Samaritan   Pentateuch 15 

Primus    (Arctic    stove)     308 

Prince  Patrick  Island,  Arctic  Region 340 

Profile  Lake,  Franconia  Notch,  White  Mountains, 

N.   H ill.   153 

Profile  Notch,  White  Mountains,  N.  H 158 

Prose,   Greek    55 

Prostitution,   Tokyo,   Japan    363 

Provincetown,   Mass '. 245 

Pulp-wood,  Lawrence,  Mass ill.   234-235 

Pump,  Thawing  out  the  old... ill.  (duotone  insert) 

Plate  III,  135-150 

Push-cars,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  260-261; 

text  279 
Pythagoras:   Mention  of 66 


"Q" 
Quincy,   111.:    Fishes   rescued  by    government 375 


"R" 

Radcliffe   College,    Cambridge,   Mass  .........  207, 

Railway  bridge,  Ako,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean,  .ill. 

Railway     terminus     and     Imtarfa    barracks,     Citta 

Vecchia,   Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea  .........  ill. 

Ranger    oil    field,    Texas  ........................ 

Ras  el  Ain,   Palestine  .......................... 

Ravens,  South  America   ........................ 

Ravens,    United   States    ........................ 

Red  Fern    (Sail-boat)    ..................  108-109, 

Red  Mountain,  Calif.:  Redwood  trees  ............ 

Red  Rose    (Sail-boat)    ..................  108-109, 

Redwood  Creek,  Calif.:  Redwood  trees.  .  .525,  533, 
Redwood  trees,  Arcata,  Calif  .................... 

Redwood  trees,  Bull  Creek  Flat,  Calif  .......    525, 

531,   533, 

Redwood  trees,  California:   Saving  the  Redwoods. 
By  Madison  Grant   .......................... 

Redwood  trees,  Del  Norte  County,  Calif..  .527,  531, 
Redwood   trees,   Dyerville    Flat,    Calif  .........  ill. 

text  527,   531, 
Redwood  trees,   Eel  River,  Calif  ........  525,  527, 

Redwood  trees,  Fortuna,  Calif  ................... 

Redwood  trees,  Garberville,   Calif  ............  529, 

Redwood  trees,  Humboldt  County,  Calif  ......... 

527,   531, 
Redwood  trees,  Klamath  River,  Calif  .....  ill.   520, 

Redwood  trees,  La  Honda,  Calif  ................  .' 

Redwood  trees,  Mills  Creek,   Calif  ............... 

Redwood  trees,   Monterey,   Calif  ................. 

Redwood  trees,  Mount  Tamalpais,  Calif  .....  ...... 

Redwood   trees,    Muir   Woods,    Mount   Tamalpais, 
Calif  ....................................... 

Redwood  trees,  Orick,   Calif  ..................... 

Redwood  trees,  Red  Mountains,  Calif  ............ 

Redwood  trees,  Redwood  Creek,  Calif...  525,   533, 
Redwood  trees,  Santa  Cruz  Grove,  Calif  .......... 

Redwood  trees,  Scotia,  Calif  ..................... 

Redwood  trees,   Sierra  Nevada  Mountains,   Calif. 

Redwood  trees,   Smith  River,   Calif  ...........  527, 

Redwood   trees,    Sonoma   County,   Calif  ........... 

Redwood  trees,  South  Fork,  Eel  River,  Calif  ____  '.' 

5^9, 
Redwood  trees,   Ukiah,  Calif  .................  527, 


244 
279 

464 

191 

2 

322 
323 
in 
529 
m 
536 
525 
527, 
536 

519 
533 
535; 
533 
529, 

531 
531 

525, 
533 

528; 

527 

527 
525 
527 

S27 
53  1 
529 
536 
527 
531 

519, 
521 
533 
527 

527, 
533 
529 


Page 

Redwood  trees,  Willits,  Calif 529 

Redwoods  League,  see  Save  the  Redwoods  League. 

Reedy  Island,  Delaware  River:  Crow  roosts 325 

Refugees  on  a  log  raft,  Neblett,   Miss ill.  384 

Refugees  on  a  mound  at  Modoc,  Ark ill.   386 

Reindeer,  Alaska   482-483 

Relics,  Hal  Saflieni  Temple,  Malta,  Mediterra- 
nean Sea  , 466-468 

Relics,  Tarxien  Temple,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 

469,  473-474 
Religious    procession,    Malta,    Mediterranean    Sea 

ill.   458 

REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE 
BARRAGE,  THE.  BY  LIEUTENANT-COM- 
MANDER NOEL  DAVIS,  U.  S.  NAVY 103 

Requa,  Mr.:   Development  of  oil 193 

Revere,  Paul :  Reference  to 203 

Rhapsodists,  Ancient   61 

Rhode  Island    203 

Rhodes,  Mediterranean  Sea 454 

Rhodes,    Mediterranean    Sea:    Historic   crozier.  .  .  .    454 
Rhodes,  Mediterranean   Sea:   Knights  of  St.  John  453 

Rice  fields,    Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean ill.   256; 

text  257,  275 
Rice   granary    ("Goedang")    Sumatra,    Dutch   East 

Indies    ill.     83 

Richard  Bulkeley  (Trawler) 125-126 

Richmond,  Ensign  K.  C. :  Photograph  of ill.    106 

Richon:  Quotation  on  mushrooms 418 

Ridgway,  Robert:  Plant-pulling  proclivities  of  crows  329 
River  Channel,  Massachusetts:  Opening  of  the.  .ill.    166 
Road   leading   to    Citta    Vecchia,    Malta,    Mediter- 
ranean Sea ill.  461 

Roads,   Colorado:   Zigzag ill.  498 

Roads,  Massachusetts 206 

Roads,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies.. 80,  92-95,  97,   101 

Robeson  Channel,  Arctic  Region ill.  301;  text  296 

Rock  bass,  Mississippi  River 375 

Rock  Creek  Park,  Washington,  D.  C. :  Ford  in... 

ill.  (duotone  insert)  Plate  VI,  135-150 
Rock   portals    of   the    Yosemite    Valley,    Yosemite 

National  Park,   Calif ill.    (color  insert) 

Plate  V,  511-518 

Rocky   Mountain   National   Park,    Colo ill.  492,  502, 

505;   ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  I.  51 1-518:   text  501 
Rocky    Mountain    National    Park,     Colo.:     Flattop 

Mountain ill.   505 

Rocky    Mountain    National    Park,    Colo.:    Hallett 

Glacier ill.  502 

Rocky    Mountain    National    Park,    Colo. :     Long's 

Peak ill.   (color  insert)   Plate  II,  511-518 

Roger,  Grand  Count  of  Sicily:  Reference  to 453 

Roman  forum,  Samaria,  Palestine:  Ruins  of..  .  .ill.        7 

Rome,  Italy:   Catacomb  days  of 467 

Rome,  Italy :  Fall  of 451 

Roof  of  the  Continent  in  Rocky  Mountain  National 

Park,  Colo ill.   (color  insert)  Plate  I,   511-518 

Roosevelt  Dam,  Ariz 495 

Roosevelt  Park   495 

Roosevelt  (Steamship) ill.  300-301;  text  296,  305, 

;>o;.    114,   321 
Roosevelt,    President    Theodore:    Belief    in    Rear- 

Admiral  Peary 301 

Roosevelt,  President  Theodore:  Presentation  of 
the  Hubbard  Gold  Medal  of  the  National  Geo- 
graphic Society  to  Admiral  Peary 292,  322 

Rooted  collybia  mushroom  (Collybia  radicata) .  .ill.  398 
Roving  frames  in  a  Massachusetts  cotton  mill.  .ill.   213 

Roze:   Quotation  on  mushrooms ,418 

Rubber  plantations,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies  101-102 

Ruins,   Laodicea,  Asia   Minor ill.     50 

Ruins  of  the  Roman  forum,  Samaria,  Palestine,  .ill.        7 

Rural  schools,  United  States 504 

Russia 340,    359,    3°i 


Sabbir    (Arabic   name   for  the  Prickly-pear) 9 

Sacred  scroll,  Samaritan ill.   12,  42,  45 

Sacred  sites,  Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine 29,  31 

Sail-boats,    Gloucester,    Mass ill.  243 

St.  Andrews  Bay,   Scotland in 

St.   Francis  Xavier:   Reference  to  China 355 

St.  Helena  Island,  Atlantic  Ocean:  Salvation  Army  363 
St.  John's  Church,  Valletta,  Malta,  Mediterranean 

Sea ill.  454,  457  ;  text  453-454 

St.  John's  Ambulance  Society 454 

St.  Louis,  Mo. :   Crow  roosts 325 

St.   Lucia,   British  West   Indies:   Delegates  to   Sal- 
vation Army  International  Congress,  London...    368 


INDEX  FOR  VOLUME  XXXVII,  1920 


XVII 


Page  Page 

St.  Mary's  Lake,  Glacier  National  Park,  Mont.  .ill.  486;  Savage  children,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean:   Schools 

text  501  for ill  28o;   text  287 

St.  Patrick's  Day,  New  Zealand:    Canoe  races  on  440-441        Savages,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.   280-282, 

St.  Paul:  Reference  to  his  stay  in  Malta,  Mediter-  284-286,  288-292;  16x1272-275 

ranean  Sea 450-451,  464  Savages,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean:  Expedition  against 

"Salat  el  Dabih"    (Sacrificial  prayers) 41  ill.  278 

"Salat  el  Garub"   (Sunset  prayers) 41         Save  the  Redwoods  League 495,   533-534 

"Salat  el  Jismeet"   (Scalding  prayers) 41  SAVING   THE   REDWOODS.      BY    MADISON 

Salem,    Mass 245  GRANT 519 

Salisbury,   Mass 203        Scapa  Flow,  Scotland 112,  117,  125 

Salt  Covenant,  Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine ill.     27        "Scarecrow,"  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies ill.     91 

Salt  Lake   City,   Utah 498  School  for  savage  children,  Kampanzan,  Formosa, 

Salt  River  project,  Arizona 495          (  Pacific  Ocean ill.  280;  text  287 

Salvation  Army,  Around  the  World  with  the.     By  School   of   Sappho,    Mitylene   Island,   ^Egean   Sea, 

Evangeline  Booth 346  Turkey  in  Asia   64 

Salvation  Army,  China ill.  355;  text  355,  358-359        Schools,  Eastern  Mediterranean:  Charter  of 64 

Salvation  Army   Headquarters,   Tokyo,   Japan.. ill.   355        Schools,   United   States 504-505,   507 

Salvation  Army,  Holland 363        Scotia,    Calif.:    Redwood   trees 531 

Salvation  Army  home  for  native  boys,  Java,  Dutch  Scotland 103 

East   Indies    ill.  353        Scott,  Capt.  Robert  F. :  Mention  of 310 

Salvation  Army,  India ill.  346,  348-35°.  352'.        Scurvy,   Arctic  Region:   Treatment  of 307 

text  351,   354,   368        Sea-lions:   Guano  of 564 

Salvation    Army,    International    Congress:    Albert  Sea  of  Marmora,  Turkey  in  Europe 58 

Hall,   London,   England 363,   368        Sea-gulls,   Peru:    Scavenger ill.   558 

Salvation  Army,  Italy 363  Seal  Islands,  Peru,  see  Lobos  Islands,  Peru. 

Salvation  Army,   Japan ill.   355-357!   text  361,   363        Seattle,    Wash 487 

Salvation  Army,  Java,  Dutch  East  Indies.. ill.  350,  354;  Sebaste,  Name  of  Samaria,  Palestine  after  the  time 

text  359,   363  of  Herod  the  Great ill.  9;  text  5,   21 

Salvation  Army,  Korea ill.   358;  text  359        Seine  haul  on  the  shore  of  a  large  lake ill.  371 

Salvation  Army  Jenny  Lind  leading  a  street  meet-  Seines  set  by  the  use  of  a  boat ill.  374 

ing  in  Sweden,  A ill.  366        Seines,  Washing  of  in  a  shallow  bayou ill.  377 

Salvation  Army  lassies ill.  360-362        Seining  crew  on  the  march ill.  380 

Salvation  Army,  Peking,  China 355,   358        Seining  under  thin  ice ill.  372 

Salvation  Army:   Periodicals  of  the 347        Seminole   Indians,    Florida 507 

Salvation  Army,  Peru:  An  officer  of  the ill.  367  Sentinel  Dome,  Yosemite  National  Park,  Calif. ..ill  482 

Salvation  Army,   Petrograd,   Russia:   Work  of   the  Seoul,  Korea:   Salvation  Army  school  for  girls...    359 

ill.   365         Sepulchers,   Mount   Ebal,   Palestine 5,  7 

Salvation  Army,  Portuguese  East  Africa 363  Sequoia  gigantea,  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains,  Calif. 

Salvation  Army,  Russia 359,   361  521,  525 

Salvation  Army,  St.  Helena  Island,  Atlantic  Ocean  363         Sequoia  National  Park,  Calif 495 

Salvation  Army  school  for  girls,  India ill.  349        Sequoia  National  Park,  Calif. :  Forests 521 

Salvation   Army,    Serbia 363  Sequoia  National  Park,  Calif.:  Preservation  of  big 

Salvation  Army,   South  Africa ill.   368;  text  363  trees  by  National  Geographic  Society 338 

Salvation  Army,  Switzerland 363         Sequoia  trees,   California 489,   495,   519,   521,  525 

Salvation  Army:  Training  schools 347         Sequoia  trees,   Sequoia   National  Park,   Calif 521 

Salvation   Army  work  in  the  World  War 363        Serbia:    Salvation   Army 363 

Samaria,  Palestine ill.  4;  text     21        Ser-mik-suah    (Arctic  Region) 293 

Samaritan  high  priest ill.     30        Seth,  Altar  of,   Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine 31 

Samaritan  High  Priest  Jacob  leading  the  Passover  Seven  Cabiri  of  the  Phoenicians,  Hagar  Kim  Tem- 

service,  Mount  Gerizim,  Palestine ill.     20  pie,  Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea 459 

Samaritan  Holy  of  Holies  ("Kuds  el  Akdas")..3i,  33        Seven  Wise  Men  of  Ancient  Greece 47,  49,  51, 

Samaritan  Passover  Camp,  Mount  Gerizim,   Pales-  53-55,   61,  64,  67 

tine • ill.      1 8        Seward  Peninsula,  Alaska 482 

Samaritan  Pentateuch.  ..  .ill.  12,  42;  text  15,  23,  33,  40  Shaggy-mane    mushroom    (Coprinus    comatus)  .  .  . . 

Samaritan  Pentateuch,  Priest  writing  a ill.      15  ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  XII,  423-438;   text  388,  439 

Samaritan  pilgrims  at   prayer,   Holy   Rock,   Mount  Shanghai,   China:   Salvation  Army 368 

Gerizim,   Palestine    ill.     43        Shansi    Province,    China 358 

Samaritan    prayer   books 15  Shechem  (Nablus,  Palestine)  i,  4-5,  9,  13,  16,  21,  23,  31 

Samaritan   prayer   service,    Mount    Gerizim,    Pales-  Shechem  Valley,  Palestine 13 

tine:     Costume   of 3^-33  Sheep,  Packwood  Glacier,  Goat  Mountains,  Wash. 

Samaritan  sacred  scroll. .  .ill.   12,  42,  45;  text  23,  33,  40  ill.   344 

Samaritan  synagogue,  The ill.     10        Sheffield,  Mass 203 

Samaritans ill.    ?6;   text   1-46        Sheik  Ghanim,   Mount  Gerizim,   Palestine 29 

Samaritans,  Passover  of  the:  Last  Israelitish  Blood  Shelley,   Percy   Bysshe:   Quotation   on   Ink  Mush- 
Sacrifice.     By  John  D.  Whiting i             rooms     439 

Samos  Island,  .djgean  Sea 47         Shoes,    Manufacture   of,    Brockton,    Mass 228-233, 

Sampans,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean.  ..  .ill.  248;  text  271  235-236 

Samuels,   E.  A.:   Food  required   to  sustain  a  crow  333         Shoes,    Manufacture   of,   Lynn,   Mass 229 

San   Francisco,   Calif 495,   519,    527,   529        Shoes,  Manufacture  of,  Massachusetts ill.  230-231; 

San    Gallan   Island,    Peru:    Petrels 554,   557  text  227-233,   235-236,  239 

San  Lorenzo  Island,  Peru 559        Shoo-E-Ging-Wa:   An    Eskimo   child ill.   309 

Sandy   Island,    Scotland 131  Showalter,    William    Joseph:    Massachusetts — Bee- 
Sand-dunes,  Colorado  Desert,  Calif ill.  494            hive  of  Business   203 

Sanderling  (Mine-sweeper) 119        Shumway,  Franklin  P.:  Reference  to 151 

Sandpipers,    Peru    559  Sibajak  Mountain,   Sumatra,   Dutch   East  Indies.  . 

Santa    Barbara    County,     Calif.:     Summerland    oil  ill.  68;   text     83 

field    ill.    188        Siberia:    Sequoia  trees,   Fossil   remains  of 519 

Santa  Cruz  Grove,   Calif. :   Redwood  trees 527        Sicily    448-449,   453,   456 

Santa  Rosa  Island,  Bay  of  Independencia,   Peru..  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains,  Calif.:  Redwood  trees.. 

Santee,  S.  C.:  Herons 334        Sikhs,   Sumatra,   Dutch  East  Indies 80,  99 

Santiago,  Siege  of •. 345         Silk,   Manufacture   of,   Holyoke,    Mass 225 

Sappho:  Reference  to -.  . .  .  .47,  61,  64,   67        Silk,   Manufacture  of,   Massachusetts 225-227 

Sappho,  School  of:  Mitylene  Island,  ^gean  Sea..      64  Silver   gates,    St.    John's   Church,    Valletta,    Malta, 

Sardinia,  Mediterranean  Sea 449  Mediterranean  Sea ill.  457;  text  454 

Sardis   (Sart)   Asia  Minor ...-47,  50        Simelungen,   Sumatra,   Dutch   East  Indies 89 

Sariboe  Dolok,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies.. 89,  92-93         Sinaboeng,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 83 

Sarongs,    Kinalang,    Sumatra,    Dutch    East   Indies:  Singapore,   Malay  Peninsula    69,   72,   102 

Weaving  of  the ill.   84;  text  95,   99  "Sing-song"   girls,   Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean. ..  .ill.  252; 

Saskatchewan,   Canada:  Ducks 334  text  259 


XVIII 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Page 

Sintian,    Formosa,    Pacific   Ocean 271 

Sketch,     Tarxien    Temple,     Malta,     Mediterranean 

Sea ill.  473;  text  473-475,  477-47% 

Ski  dash,  Dartmouth  Outing  Club,  Hanover,  N.  H. 

ill.   1 60 
Ski    junipers,    Dartmouth    Outing    Club,    Hanover, 

N.  H ill.  133,  161-164;  text  159-161 

Ski    Runner,    Dartmouth    Outing    Club,    Hanover, 

N.  H ill.  (duotone  insert)  Plate  I,   135-150 

Skiing,  Dartmouth  College,  Hanover,  N.  H ill.   133- 

134,  159.  161-164;  text  158-161,    164 

Skiing,  Franconia  Notch,  N.  H ill.   134 

Skiing,  Mount  Washington,  N.  H ill.  153;  text  164 

SKIING  OVER  THE  NEW  HAMPSHIRE 
HILLS:  A  THRILLING  AND  PICTUR- 
ESQUE SPORT  WHICH  HAS  A  THOU- 
SAND DEVOTEES  IN  THE  DARTMOUTH 
OUTING  CLUB.  BY  FRED  H.  HARRIS...  151 

Skip-jacks,   Mississippi  River 383 

Skull,   or   Brain-shaped   puff-ball   mushroom    (Cal- 

vatia   craniiformis)     ill.  419 

Skyline  Farm,  New  Hampshire 158 

Slippers,  Manufacture  of,  Haverhill,  Mass 229 

Slivers,  Cotton ill.  210-211;  text  213-216 

"Slubber"    machines    at    work    in    a    cotton    mill, 

Massachusetts    ill.  212 

Smith  College,  Northampton,  Mass 207 

Smith,    George    Otis:    Where   the    World    Gets    Its 

Oil    181 

Smith,    Hugh    M.:    When    the    Father   of    Waters 

Goes  on  a  Rampage   369 

Smith  River,   Calif.:   Redwood  trees 527,  533 

Smith,    Sir   James:    Opinion    of    the    Delicious,    or 

Orange-milk    Lactar    mushroom     417 

Smith,  Miss  Jane  M. :  Endowment  fund  bequeathed 

National    Geographic    Society    342 

Smith  Sound,  Arctic  Region 298,  302,  305-306, 

309.  3iS 

Smyrna,  Asia  Minor ill.  56,  60;  text  50,  56,  61-62 

Smyrna  figs,  California:  Walter  T.  Swingle's  de- 
velopment of  the  342 

Snake  River,   Idaho    496 

Snoqualmie  Falls,  Wash ill.   (color  insert) 

Plate  VII,  511-518 

Snow  drifts,   Concord,   Mass ill.   168 

Snow   house,   Geographic  explorer  building.  .  (duo- 
tone  insert)  Plate  VIII,  135-150 

Snow  house,  Peteravik,  Arctic  Region ill.   298 

Snow  record,   Massachusetts    ill.   179 

Soan,   Kim:   Story  of 275,283-285,   287 

Soap,  Nablus,  Palestine i 

Society   for   the   Preservation    of    New   Hampshire 

Forests:   Club-house  of  the 158 

Soil,    Formation   of    392,  399 

Soldier   eating   a    doughnut ill.   362 

Soldiers,   United    States:   Land   grants   to.  .507,  509-510 

Solomon :    Temple   of 16 

Solon  of  Athens:  Quotation  from 47,   55,   67 

Somerville,    Mass 245 

Sonoma  County,   Calif.:   Redwood  trees 527 

Sonoma  Flat,  Calif.:   Redwood  trees 525 

Sooty   Lactar   mushroom    (Lactarius  ligniotus)    ill. 

(color  insert)  Plate  XI,  423-438;   text  422 
Sound-magnifying   chamber,    Hal    Saflieni   Temple, 

Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea    465 

South  America:  Ants 401 

South   America:    Members   of   the   Salvation  Army 

ill.  368 

South  Fork,  Eel  River,  Calif.:  Redwood  trees...   527, 

529,   533 

South   Wales 449 

Spain 51,  449 

Sparassis   herbstii   mushroom    ill.  413 

Sperry  Camp,  Glacier  National  Park,  Mont ill. 

(duotone  insert)  Plate  XV,  135-150 

Spinning-room   in   a  Lawrence  cotton  mill ill.   216 

Spitzbergen,  Arctic  Region:     Sequoia  trees,   Fossil 

remains   of 519 

Sprague's  Glacier,  Rocky  Mountain  National  Park, 

Colo 502 

Springfield,  Mass 245 

S.  S.   Vedic   (British  transport) 131 

"Standing   Stones"    (Hagar   Kim   Temple,   Malta)  457 

State   forests,    Massachusetts    245 

Stavanger,    Norway    128 

Stefansson,  Peary,  and  Greely:  Photograph  of .  .ill.   318 

Stefansson,  Vilhjalmur ill.  318;;  text  322,  338-340 

Stefansson,  Vilhjalmur:  Admiral  Peary's  tribute 
to  339-340,  342 


Page 
Stefansson,     Vilhjalmur:     Awarded    the     Hubbard 

Gold  Medal  of  the  National  Geographic  Society  338 
Stefansson,    Vilhjalmur:     General   Greely 's   tribute 

to    339-340,    342 

Stefansson,  Vilhjalmur:    Musk-oxen  in  Canada.  .482-483 

Stephenson,  Captain :  Mention  of 311 

Stern's  Camp,  California:  Redwood  trees 529 

Stevens,   Thaddeus:   Mention   of 133 

Stevenson,    Vice-President    Adlai:    Ewing's    Story 

of  his  success  as  a  campaigner  in  the  West...   495 
Stone    Age    Temple,    Malta,    Mediterranean    Sea: 

Sacrificial  tables ill.  466;  text  457 

Stone    blocks,    Tarxien    Temple,    Malta,    Mediter- 
ranean   Sea    473 

Stone    pillar,    Tarxien    Temple,    Malta,    Mediter- 
ranean  Sea:   Mystic ill.  474;  text  474-475 

Stone,     Tarxien    Temple,     Malta,     Mediterranean 

Sea :  Curious ill.  476 ;  text  473 

Stoves,  Arctic    308 

Strada    Santa    Lucia,    Valletta,    Malta,    Mediter- 
ranean  Sea    ill.  450 

Strait  of  Malacca,  Dutch  East  Indies 69 

Strauss,  Rear-Admiral  Joseph ill.    106;  text   107, 

IH-II2,  114-115,  119,   130-131,  133 
Strauss,    Rear- Admiral    Joseph:    Life    membership 
in    the    National    Geographic    Society    bestowed 

upon 342 

Street,   Samaritan  Ghetto,   Nablus,   Palestine. .  .ill.       3 
Street  scene,  Taihoku,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean...   249 

Streets,   Nablus,    Palestine    2-3 

Streets,  Valletta,   Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea... ill.  450 

Stump  Lake,  N.  D. :  Waterfowl 334 

Sub-chasers ill.   127,   130;  text  113,   123,   127 

Submarines,    German    103-105,    107,    115 

Sugar-cane,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean:   Fields  of .  .ill.  255; 

text  279 
Sumatra,  By  Motor  Through  the  East  Coast  and 

Batak  Highlands  of.     By  Melvin  A.  Hall 68 

Sumatra,   Dutch  East  Indies:   Delegates  to   Salva- 
tion  Army  International   Congress,   London....    368 
Sumatra,   Putch   East   Indies:   Women  of.... ill.   72-73, 
77-78,  84-86,  91,  93-94,  98,   too 

Sumatran  freight  train   ill.     68 

Sumatran  open-air  grocery  store   ill.   100 

Summerland  oil  field,  Santa  Barbara  County,  Calif. 

ill.    1 88 

Sun   River  irrigation   project,   Montana 501 

Sundas,    Dutch   East  Indies 99 

Sunfishes,    Mississippi    River    375 

Sunrise   Point,   Arctic   Region 305 

Sunset   from   the   Tamsui   River,   Formosa,    Pacific 

Ocean ill.   258 ;   text  264 

Suez  Canal:   Effect  on  Malta,  Mediterranean   Sea  455 
Suleiman  the  Magnificent,  Sultan:  Siege  of  Malta, 

Mediterranean   Sea   447 

Sverdrup,   Otto:    Mention   of 308 

Sweden:    Salvation    Army    lassie    leading   a    street 

meeting   ill.   366 

Sweep-wire   105,   107,   109,   111-113,   119 

Swimming     hole     near     Moose     Mountain     Cabin, 

New   Hampshire    154 

Swingle,  Walter  T. :   Development  of  the  Smyrna 

figs   in   California    342 

Swingle,   Walter  T. :   Life  membership  in   the  Na- 
tional  Geographic   Society   bestowed   upon 342 

Switzerland :   Salvation  Army    363 

Sychar,   Palestine ill.    16;   text   17,   31 

Sydney,  Nova  Scotia,  Canada:  Welcome  to  Rear- 

Admiral   Peary    317 

Synagogue  curtains,  Palestine:  One  of  the ill.     n 

Syria    i 


'T" 


Tacoma,  Wash Plate  III,  511-518 

Taft,     President    William    Howard:     Order    safe- 
guarding America's   oil   supply    193-194 

Tahosa  Valley,   Colo ill.   492 

Taihoku,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  249,  258; 

text  257-258,  263,  271 
Taipeh,     Formosa,    Pacific    Ocean,    see    Taihoku, 

Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean. 

Taiwan,  Pacific  Ocean,  see  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean. 
Tamils,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies.. 71,  79-80,  84,  99 

Tamsui,   Formosa,   Pacific   Ocean 264 

Tamsui  River,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.   258-259; 

text  264 
"Tank"    farm,   A ill.   192 


INDEX  FOR  VOLUME  XXXVII,  1920 


XIX 


Page  Page 

Tanoor,    or   Ground    oven,    Mount   Gerizim,    Pales-  Tucker,    Judge    F.    de   Latour    Booth:    Interest    in 

tine    25-26  Salvation    Army .    351 

Tarshish:    Ships  of 45°       Tuckerman's   Ravine,    New   Hampshire 161 

Tarxien  Temple,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea ill.  473-        £ufts  Colle.ge,  Massachusetts 207 

478;   text  449,  456-457,  465,  469,  473-475,  477-478        Tunis,   Africa    445,  448 

Tattooing,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.  282,  292        Turkey     50 

Tatungfu,  China:    Salvation  Army  invasion  of .  .355,  358  Turkish    peasants    gathering    opium    in    the    poppy 

Tea    Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean,   Shipment  of 262  fields  near  Afiun-Karahissar,   Asia   Minor ill.     63 

Tea,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean.,  ill.  250;  text  25?.  261-262  Two     Medicine    Valley,     Glacier    National    Park, 

Tea-pickers,    Daitotei,    Taihoku,    Formosa,    Pacific  j^V  r>V  •"  "  D  "i "  'A' •" '  'XT'  '  •"  '  V  VI   'I1'  48s 

Ocean                                                           ill-   250;   text  261  Tyndall   Glacier,    Rocky   Mountain   National   Park, 

Tea,  Pouchong,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean 262  c°lc) •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  • • •  •  •  •  •  •  •  • 5°2 

Teachers,    United    States . 504-505,  5°7  TyPh°°n  wall,  Taihoku,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean . .   249 

Teakwood,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies,  .ill.  70;   text  102  ,,^,, 

Teal   (Mine-sweeper)    124 

Tebing  Tinggi,   Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 101        Uk{ah>  Calif  .  Redwood  trees 

T6k-pai  or  Bamboo  raft,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean.  .  Unbleached  muslin,  Manufacture  of. .  .               .  .211-221 

.    ill.   246;   text  247        United    States 51 

Temples,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea:  Prehistoric.  .  United  States  Army:  Oil  consumed  by  the 186 

ill.  466-468,  470-478;  text  448-449,  456-457,  459,  463,  United    States    Bureau    of   Education:    Geographic 

465-469,  473-475,  477-478  Bulletins 343 

Tepees,    St.    Mary's  Lake,    Glacier   National   Park,  United     States     Bureau     of     Fisheries:     Biological 

Mont ill-  486  Laboratory,   Mississippi  River 383 

Terns,   Peru    55$  United   States   Bureau   of   Fisheries:   Cars   for  fish 

Terpander :    Reference  to 6 1  transportation 383 

Terraces  on  the  sides  of  the  gorge  of  the   Rimac,  United    States    Bureau    of    Fisheries:    Fish    rescue 

Peru     ill-   538  work,  Mississippi  River.  .369,  377,  381,  383,  385-386 

Terror   (Steamship)    303  United  States  Bureau  of  Fisheries:  Mussel  propa- 

Textile    industries,    Massachusetts ill.   206-229;  gation 383 

text  209-216,  218-227        United  States  Bureau  of  Mines 186-187,   19l 

Thales   of  Miletus,  Asia   Minor 47,   64,   67  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture,  Bulletin 

Thales'  School  of  Philosophy,  Miletus,  Asia  Minor     64  621:   "The  Crow  and  Its  Relation  to  Man" 323 

Themistocles:    Reference   to 66        United  States  Department  of  the  Interior 504 

Thiasos,   Eastern  Mediterranean  schools 64,   66  United  States  Department  of  the  Interior,  Bureau 

Thirty-man-power  dugout   Maori  canoe,    New   Zea-  of  Education:  Geographic  News  Bulletins 343 

land  HI.  443        United   States  Geological   Survey 190 

ThoreauY  Henry 'bavidY.YsY.'i  65,' "169,   170,   172,   175,  United  States:  Massachusetts— Beehive  of  Business. 

i  77,   179-180  By  William  Joseph  Showalter 203 

Thoreau's  Country,  Winter  Rambles  in.     By  Her-  United   States:    Mind's-Eye   Map  of  America.     By 

bert  W.  Gleason   165  Franklin  K.  Lane.... ;v'-V •*%> 

Three-mile   Hill,    New    Hampshire 158  United  States  Navy:  Oil  consumed  by  the.    .  .    186-187 

Thyatria  (Akhissar)  Asia  Minor 50  U«lted    States    Navy :    Removal   of   the   North    Sea 

Ticknor,  George:  Mention  of .33  TT  M'n,e  ^rrage      By>oel  Davis    ...            103 

Tientsin,  China:   Salvation  Army 358  United  |tates:  Oj1  P'l*  hnes'  •  •.1»-  <ma")  l83.=  text   183 

Tigers,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 99  United   States:   Map  showing  oil  pipe  lines  in   the 

Tigris  River,  Turkey  in  Asia 498  TT   ...    ,   Ct  „        ,,         ,                      ,       .     IIK (maP'    I83 

Timur  the  Lame :  Reference  to 5°  Unlted   States :   Map  showing  production   of  petro- 

T  1M  T  fPirnlnsiv^  IDS     108  Icuminthe ill.    (map)    187 

U\£^±m*D^''M'&K:::v..£  $  Kn^  *&**  Sh^ng ooard;h--N--- *• 

95  97    99  United    States:    Skiing   Over   the   New   Hampshire 

Tob,    Meer     called    Se,    of    Toba    (Job,    Lake)  '  ™».  s»J.f!&£  £?%&  «  Wa^s  Goes  '*' 

rSS"^$ffi-^.«™*K  Un—  S-E^.E-fcSi  Sfobn."  *  3" 

Tokio,   Japan,   see   Tokyo,    Japan.  Cporo-p  Otis  Smith                                                             181 

Tokyo,  Japan:    Salvation  Army  headquarters.  .  .ill.   355  TTnlted     StateV     Wint'eY  '  Rambles  '  'in'  '  Thore'au'i 

M        \_      c  r*-         j   •»*•      i        /-*        £       OJ.TU*     /"*u         u  U  niLcQ      oiatcs .       vv  inicr      jxdirmics      in       i  norctiu  s 

Tomb  of  Grand  Master  Caraf a,  St.  John  s  Church,  Country.     By  Herbert  W.   Gleason 165 

Valletta,   Malta,   Mediterranean   Sea    ... ...    -ill.  454  University   of   Minnesota:    Redwood   trees   in   Cali- 

Tooth   paste  filling  room   of  a   Massachusetts  drug  fofnia  -Qwned  by  the $3I 

company    . .  .  . .  ....  . . . ...... . . ill.   205        University  of  Washington. .  : 487 

Torgnak    (Evil   spirit  of  the   North) 296        Unleavened  bread,   Samaritan ill.  40;  text     35 

Tower  of  Babel:   Reference  to  the 445  Upper-level   mines,    North    Sea:    Explosion    of.  ... 

Toyen,   Formosa,  Pacific   Ocean    275  ;jj    I2_.   text   IJ5 

Tracks  of  a  fox  in  the  snow,  Massachusetts. .  .ill.   176  Ura^   Formosat   pacific  Ocean....                                .    271 

Tracks  of  a  hare  in  the  snow,   Massachusetts,  .ill.   177  Uruguay:    Delegates   to    Salvation    Army    Interna- 

Tractors,   Farm,    United    States.  .....  ... . .  ...  .187-188  tional  Congress,  London 368 

Trail  of  the  Dartmouth  Outing  Club,  New  Hamp-  Utah 495-496,  498-499,   501 

shire     158  Utah :  Natural  Bridges  National  Monument,  Edwin 

Training  schools,   Salvation   Army 347  Span ill.  491 

Tralles,   Asia  Minor:     Ruins  of ill.     50 

Transportation,    Primitive,     Sumatra,    Dutch    East  "V" 

Indies    ill.     74 

Trawlers     126-127        Vallette,   lean  Parisot  de  la:  Reference  to 447,  453 

Trees,     California:     Saving     the     Redwoods.       By  Valletta,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea 111.446-448, 

Madison   Grant    519  450-452,  454,  456-467 

Trees,   Formosa,   Pacific  Ocean ill.   257,  263-267,  Valley  of  the  Ten  Thousand  Smokes,  Alaska:  Study 

272-273;  text  247,  265-267,  271  made  of  by  the  National  Geographic   Society...    338 

Trench-altar,   Feast   of  the  Passover,   Mount   Geri-  Vats,  Camphor,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.   270; 

zim,  Palestine ill.  21 ;  text     26  text  272 

Tresness    Bay,    Scotland 125        Veatch,  A.  C. :  Mention  of 202 

Tribe  of   Ephraim,   Palestine 23        Vegetables,   Sumatra,  Dutch  Indies 98 

Tripoli,    Africa    445        Vegetation,    Sumatra,   Dutch   East   Indies ill.    96; 

Tsalisen  savages,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean ill.   292  text     81 

Tschudi,   Johann   Jakob   von:    Guano   produced   by  Velvet-stemmed    Collybia    mushroom    (Collybia  ve- 

piqueros     553  lutipes)    ill.   398 

Tsuo   savages.    Formosa,    Pacific   Ocean ill.   289        Ventura  County,   Calif.:  Oil  wells ill.    184 

Tube-fungi,    Poisonous    fleshy    404        Vermont 158 

Tubs,   Portable,    Formosa,    Pacific   Ocean ill.   256;        Vesuvius  (Cruiser)   345 

text  275-276        Victoria   Island,   Canada 340 


XX 


Page 
Victory   Park,  Adirondack  Mountains,  N.  Y. :   Scene 

in ill.   508 

Vieja  Island,  Bay  of  Independencia,   Peru....    558-559 
Vilkitsky,  Captain:  General  Greely's  tribute  to....    340 

Virginia    203,  399 

"Vishnu  Temple,"  Grand  Canyon  of  the  Colorado 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VIII,  51 1-518 

Volcanoes,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies 69,  83 

Von  der  Weide,  Dutch  planter:  Quotation  from...      95 
Vonum  savages,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean.  .....  .ill.   290 


Waikato  River,  North  Island,  New  Zealand:  Canoe 

races 44° 

Walden  Pond,  Concord,  Mass ill.    166 

Walrus,  Bull,  Etah,  Greenland:  Head  of  a ill.  3*5 

"War   Cry"   of  the    Salvation  Army,    China 359 

"War  Cry"  of  the  Salvation  Army,  japan 363 

Warp  thread,  Making  of .  .  .• 216-220 

Warping  machine  in  a  textile  factory ill.  217 

Washburn,   Ichabod:   Reference  to 243 

Washington     487 

Washington,    D.   C 181,  507 

Washington,  D.  C. :  Crow  roosts 324-327 

Washington,  D.  C. :  Green-gilled  Lepiota  mush- 
rooms   ill-  393 

Washington,  George:   Mention  of 207 

Washington:  Lake  Chelan ill.  481 

Washington,  Mount,  N.  H 151 

Washington:  Mount  Rainier  National  Park,  Mount 

Rainier ill.   (color  insert)  Plates  III-IV,  511-518 

Washington,  Snoqualmie  Falls... ill.   (color  insert) 

Plate  VII,  511-518 

Watch  chains,  Attleboro,  Mass. :  Making  of 242 

Watch  factory,  Massachusetts:  Cutting  main- 
springs   ill.  232 

Watch  factory,  Massachusetts:  Repairing  balance- 
wheels  ill.  233 

Watch   making,   Massachusetts ill.   232-233; 

text  239-242 

Water-carriers,  Asia  Minor ill.     65 

Water-carriers,    Formosa,    Pacific   Ocean ill.   291 

Waterfalls,    United    States,    Grand    Canyon   of  the 

Colorado :    Mooney   Falls    ill.   499 

Waterfalls,     United     States,     Oregon:     Multnomah 

Falls    ill.  480 

Waterfalls,  United  States,  Washington:  Snoqual- 
mie Falls ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VII,  511-518 

Waterfowl,   Stump  Lake,  N.  D 334 

Water  wagons,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea ill.  461 

Waterfront,    Valletta,    Malta,     Mediterranean    Sea 

ill.  446 

Webster,  Daniel:  Mention  of 133 

Webster   Slide,   New   Hampshire 158 

Wellesley   College,    Wellesley,    Mass 207 

Wells,  Malta,  Mediterranean  Sea:  Bottle-necked..  456 
WHEN  THE  FATHER  OF  WATERS  GOES 
ON  A  RAMPAGE:  AN  ACCOUNT  OF  THE 
SALVAGING  OF  FOOD-FISHES  FROM  THE 
OVERFLOWED  LANDS  OF  THE  MISSIS- 
SIPPI RIVER.  BY  HUGH  M.  SMITH, 
UNITED  STATES  COMMISSIONER  OF 

FISHERIES 

WHERE  THE  WORLD  GETS  ITS  OIL:  BUT 
WHERE  WILL  OUR  CHILDREN  GET  IT 
WHEN  AMERICAN  WELLS  CEASE  TO 
FLOW?  BY  GEORGE  OTIS  SMITH,  DI- 
RECTOR UNITED  STATES  GEOLOGICAL 

SURVEY    

White  bass,  Mississippi  River   

White  House,  Washington,  D.  C ill.    (duotone 

.,;•.    •  insert)  Plate  V,  135-150 

White  Mountains,  N.  H 151,  158,   161 

White   pine   blister   rust,   United    States 399 

White   Sea,   Russia 340 

Whiting,  John  D.:    Last  Israelitish  Blood  Sacrifice   .        i 

Whitney,   Eli:   Reference  to • 243 

Willcocks,    Sir  William:   Garden   of  Eden 498 


369 


375 


Page 

Willamette   Valley,   Ore 501 

Willits,    Calif.:    Redwood   trees 529 

Wildwood,    N.    H ..    158 

William  Darnold   (Mine-sweeper) 123 

Williams   College,    Williamstown,.  Mass 207 

Wilmington,     Del 210 

Wilson,   Brig.-Gen.  John   M.:   Obituary   notice....    345 

Winchendon,    Mass 245 

Windward   (Steamship)   Deck-house  of  the ill.   295 

Winter    carnival,    Dartmouth    Outing    Club,    New 

Hampshire   158-161 

Winter  home  of  the  Smith  Sound  native ill.   306 

Winter,  New  England 169,    172 

WINTER    RAMBLES    IN    THOREAU'S 

COUNTRY.     BY  HERBERT  W.  GLEASON..    165 

WINTER  SCENES (duotone  insert) 

XVI  plates,  135-150 
Winter    sunset    from    Fair    Haven    Hill,    Concord,- 

Mass ill.   170 

Wire  entanglements,  Formosa,  Pacific  Ocean :  Live  274 

Wisconsin:  Fishes  rescued  by  government 375 

Wise  Men  of  Ancient  Greece,   Seven 

47,  49,  5i,   53-55,  61,  64,  67 
Wizard  Island,  Crater  Lake  National  Park,  Ore. .  . 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VI,  51 1-518 

Women,   Eskimo ill.  300,  307-308 

Women,   Mount   Gerizim,    Palestine:    Feast   of   the 

Passover 41 

Women,  Sumatra,  Dutch  East  Indies.  .  .ill. -72-73,  77-78, 
84-86,  91,  93-94,  98,    100 

Wonder-workers    ill.    190 

Wood,   Nelson:  Anecdotes   of  crows 330-331 

Woodridge,  D.  C. :  Crow  roosts.  .  .  .ill.  328;   text  326-327 

Wool   carded   in   a   Massachusetts   factory ill.  226 

Wool-combing  machine    ill.  227 

Woolen  industry,  Massachusetts 225 

Woolen  mills,   Lawrence:   Drawing  wool ill.   228 

Woolen  mills,  Massachusetts ill.  226-229;  text  225 

Worcester,   Mass    243 

World  War:  Salvation  Army  work  in  the 363 

World's    greatest    oil    well:    Cerro    Azul,    No.    4, 

Mexico   ill.   1 96- 1 99 

"Wotan's  Throne,"  Grand   Canyon   of  the   Colo. .  . 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  VIII,  511-518 

Wrangell   Island,   Arctic   Region 340 

Wrinkled  Pholiota,  or  The  Gypsy  mushroom  (Pho- 

liota  caperata) . .  .  .ill.    (color  insert)   Plate  XIII, 

423-438;   text  392,  439 

Wyoming 495,   501 

Wyoming:   Yellowstone  National   Park ill.   488-490 


Yahweh,     The    unpronounced    Hebrew    name    for 

God 13,    22,    33 

Yamamuro,      Col.      Gunpsi:      "Common      People's 

Gospel" 361 

Yellowstone   National  Park,  Wyo ill.  488-490 

Yosemite  Canyon,  Yosemite  National  Park,  Calif..    519 

Yosemite  National  Park,  Calif ill.  482-483; 

ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  V,  511-518 
Yosemite    Valley,    Yosemite    National    Park,    Calif. 

ill.  482 ;  ill.  (color  insert)  Plate  V,  511-518; 
text  489,  495,   527 

Young,  Sir  Allen :  Mention  of 311 

Young,   Brigham:     Reference  to 496,  498 

Youth  and  old  age ill.  292 

Yuma,   Ariz    495 


Zambesi,  Rhodesia,  Africa:   Salvation  Army 363 

Zammit,  Prof.  T. :   Excavation  of  the  Hal  Tarxien 

Temple,    Malta,    Mediterranean    Sea.. 469,  473 

Zigzag  mountain  road  near  Denver,  Colo ill.  498 

Zion,   Mount,  Palestine 23 

Zoroaster  Temple,  Grand  Canyon  of  the  Colorado 

ill.   500 
Zulu    wards   of   the    South   African   branch    of   the 

Salvation    Army    ill.   353 


PRESS  OF  JUDD  &  DETWEILER,  INC.,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


VOL.  XXXVII,  No.  1         WASHINGTON 


JANUARY,  1920 


THE    LAST    ISRAELITISH    BLOOD    SACRIFICE 

How  the  Vanishing  Samaritans  Celebrate  the  Passover 
on  Sacred  Mount  Gerizim 

BY  JOHN  D.  WHITING 

ArTHrR  rp  "FROM  JERUSALEM   TO   ALEPPO,"   "VILLAGE   LIFE   IN   THE   HOLY  LAND,"   AMD 
"JERUSALEM'S  LOCUST  PLAGUE,"  IN  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 

Illustrated  with  the  only  set  of  night  photographs  ever  taken  of  this  ancient  cere- 
mony, and  numerous  other  unique  pictures,  by  the  American 
Colony  Photographers,  Jerusalem,  Palestine 


SHECHEM,  Samaria,  and  Neapolis 
were  once  great  cities  of  the  ancient 
civilized  world.  Today  their  glory 
and  importance  are  no  more,  save  in  his- 
tory. Here  alone  we  find  a  dying  and  al- 
most extinct  community  of  Samaritans, 
the  remnant  of  a  once  numerous  sect, 
whose  persistent  continuation  and  literal 
performance  of  the  Passover  Sacrifice 
have  attracted  the  attention  of  students 
for  more  than  three  centuries. 

Nablus,  the  modern  Shechem,  the  only 
home  of  the  Samaritans  of  today,  is  a 
town  of  about  27,000  inhabitants,  lying 
some  forty  miles  north  of  Jerusalem.  The 
population  is  chiefly  Moslem,  the  remain- 
der being  composed  of  various  Christian 
sects,  together  with  a  mere  handful  of 
Samaritans.  But  as  yet  no  Jew  has  set- 
tled there,  the  Biblical  axiom  still  holding 
good,  "for  the  Jews  have  no  dealings  with 
the  Samaritans." 

Besides  being  a  center  of  trade,  Nablus 
has  gained  a  little  fame  for  its  soap,  made 
of  pure  olive  oil,  a  variety  which,  though 
crudely  manufactured,  is  used  almost  ex- 
clusively by  the  people  of  the  city,  and  is 


much  prized  by  the  natives  of  Syria  and 
Egypt. 

The  town  nests  in  a  confined  valley  run- 
ning east  and  west,  between  twin  moun- 
tains— Ebal,  some  3,000  feet  above  sea- 
level,  which  looms  up  on  the  north,  and 
the  lesser  Gerizim,  about  150  feet  lower, 
which  closes  in  on  the  south,  with  its  base 
in  places  only  a  few  hundred  yards  from 
that  of  its  mate. 

From  the  lower  slopes  of  Gerizim  issue 
numerous  and  copious  springs.  The  mod- 
ern town  has  therefore  crept  up  in  their 
direction.  These  waters,  after  filling  the 
demand  made  upon  them  by  the  city,  find 
their  way  into  extensive  gardens  to  the 
west,  where  flourish  fig  trees,  laden  with 
delicious  fruit,  pomegranates  hung  with 
scarlet  bloom  and  fruit,  yellow  quinces, 
walnuts,  mulberries,  olives,  and  occasional 
bitter-orange  trees  raised  for  the  perfume 
extracted  from  the  flowers.  Among  the 
trees  many  varieties  of  vegetables  grow  in 
abundance. 

The  houses  of  the  town  are  dome- 
roofed  and  lattice-windowed,  constructed 
from  the  soft,  white  limestone  of  Mount 


NAHUJS  (THE  MODERN  SHECHEM),  THE  ONLY  HOME  OF  THE  SAMARITANS  TODAY 

The  town  nestles  in  the  valley  which  lies  between  Mount  Ebal  and  Mount  Gerizim. 
The  picture  is  taken  from  the  lower  slopes  of  Gerizim,  near  Ras  el  Ain,  while  Mount  Rhal 
is  seen  in  the  background  (see  map,  page  46). 


Ebal.  The  streets  are  picturesquely  nar- 
row and  most  of  them  are  paved  with 
cobble-stones,  with  here  and  there  an  arch 
thrown  across  and  supporting  a  room 
above. 

THE  HOME  CITY  OE  THE  SAMARITANS 

In  the  "souks,"  or  markets,  as  in  most 
Syrian  towns,  the  stores  are  so  small  that 
the  customer  stands  outside  to  examine 
the  meager  display  of  European  and  na- 
tive (Damascene)  wares.  Here  are  rows 
of  silversmith  shops,  where  the  artisans 


work  cross-legged,  producing  from  crude 
silver  elaborate  ornaments  for  the  peasant 
women.  Here  are  the  coffee  shops,  the 
street  in  front  blockaded  with  men  sitting 
upon  low  stools,  sipping  the  thick,  hot 
beverage  from  tiny  cups  and  smoking  the 
long,  red-piped,  bubbling  narghile  as  they 
gossip  and  play  a  game  of  "tawla." 

Next  are  the  sweetmeat  venders,  from 
whose  stalls  large  trays  of  "kanafie"  pro- 
trude into  the  street.  This  pastry  dish, 
for  which  Nablus  is  noted,  has  a  filling  of 
fresh,  sweet  cheese.  After  it  is  baked, 


A  STREET  IN  THE  SAMARITAN  GHETTO  OF  NABUJS 

From  the  main  market-place,  long,  dark,  tunnel-like  lanes  lead  to  the  Samaritan  Quarter,  at 
the  foot  of  the  sacred  Mount  Gerizim. 


THE   HILL  OF  SAMARIA 

Omri,  the  sixth  king  of  Israel,  in  the  ninth  century  B.  C.,  bought  an  isolated  hill  a  few 
miles  west  of  Shechem,  where  he  built  his  capital  and  named  it  Samaria,  after  its  original 
owner. 


THE  ACROPOLIS  Of  SAMARIA 

The  city  of  Samaria  from  its  inception  overshadowed  its  riva»,  Shechem,  and  perhaps 
under  Roman  rule  attained  the  pinnacle  of  its  glory.  The  Emperor  Augustus  presented 
it  to  Herod  the  Great,  who  rebuilt  and  embellished  it  after  the  Roman  style  and  renamed 
it  Sebaste. 


melted  butter  and  thick  syrup  are  poured 
over  it  until  it  is  literally  soaked  with  the 
mixture. 

From  the  chief  market-place  the  Sa- 
maritan Quarter  of  Nablus  is  approached 
from  the  north  through  long,  tunnel-like 
lanes  which  lead  to  the  very  foot  of  the 
sacred  mountain. 

Just  above  the  city,  Gerizim  is  steep 
and  rocky,  and  the  trees  disappear.  In 
summer  the  mountain  side  is  gray  and 
barren,  but  in  winter  even  the  smallest 


patches  of  earth  are  scratched  with 
primitive  plows  and  sown  with  wheat  or 
barley. 

THE  FRIENDLY  CACTUS 

Across  from  the  town  the  slopes  of 
Ebal  present  a  very  different  picture. 
Equally  rocky,  they  are  still  perennially 
green  with  cactus  bushes  planted  among 
the  rock  ledges,  which  are  curiously  stud- 
ded with  ancient  sepulchers,  whose  open 
doors  from  a  distance  reveal  only  the 


°.S  — 
J2  5  c 


o 
u 

">  JZ 

c  u 


a  581 

<        c--: 

3  s°: 

c/i     C    •  : 


W)  S 


§§^ 

.y  £•= 


o  „ 

c^ 


s^^ 

<*-(  ^  -^ 

0  £  J 

>,  J5    ^ 

.«          <u 

1  ^'^ 
CO   ^ 

o"  3  .*? 


O  O14-   <u 

Sl.sS 

CC     1/5 


RUINS  OF  THE  ROMAN    FORUM   AT  SAMARIA 

Note  the  weather-beaten  tops  of  the  columns,  while  the  lower  parts  retain  their  original 
whiteness,  showing  how  deep  these  ruins  were  covered  by  debris  when  the  work  of  excava- 
tion was  undertaken,  with  the  aid  of  American  research  funds,  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston. 


darkness  within.  Some  of  these  tombs 
were  rifled  centuries  ago;  others  have 
come  to  light  within  the  past  few  years. 
Many  have  stone  doors  and  stone  hinges, 
with  stone  locks  still  in  working  condition 
if  the  keys,  probably  of  bronze,  could  be 
found. 

But  the  modern  inhabitants  do  not 
pride  themselves  on  this  interesting  ceme- 
tery, as  did  the  peoples  of  bygone  times. 
To  the  Arabs  of  today  antique  relics  are 
of  no  import ;  but  they  feel  justly  proud 


of  the  cactus  or  prickly-pear  bushes,  which 
present  a  weird  spectacle  and  cover  every 
available  space  in  this  oriental  God's 
Acre.  The  fame  of  these  bushes  reaches 
as  far  as  the  Bosporus,  where  the  much- 
prized  fruit  is  a  favorite  gift  among  the 
notables  of  Constantinople. 

The  prickly-pear  cactus  was  first  intro- 
duced into  Palestine  by  the  Crusaders ; 
today  it  is  grown  throughout  the  length 
and  breadth  of  the  land,  being  valuable 
not  only  for  its  fruit,  but  also  as  an  ex- 


8 

M 
W 

a 


£     « 
O    W 


A  VIEW   OF   MODERN"   SEBASTE  AND  THE   SURROUNDING    HILLS 

After  climbing  to  the  zenith  of  might,  Sebaste  slowly  relapsed  into  insignificance.  Today, 
amid  the  ruins  of  a  splendid  past,  a  squalid  mud  village  occupies  the  site  and  retains  the 
name. 


cellent  hedge.  The  natives,  however,  do 
not  yet  appreciate  its  great  value  as  forage 
for  cattle.  The  camels  help  themselves 
to  it  whenever  they  get  a  chance,  their 
mouths  being  so  tough  that,  regardless  of 
the  spines,  they  devour  the  leaves  with 
unmistakable  relish.  The  Ebal  cactus' 
superiority  lies  in  the  extra  large  size  of 
its  fruit,  the  tenderness  of  its  seeds,  and 
its  sweet  and  luscious  flavor,  due  both  to 
the  peculiar  soil  and  to  the  protection  af- 
forded from  the  cold  north  winds.  The 
Arabic  name  for  the  pear,  sabbir  (pa- 
tience), seems  eminently  appropriate  to 
one  who  has  innocently  handled  the  un- 


pealed  fruit  and  had  his  hands  filled  with 
the  microscopic  spines,  which  can  be  ex- 
tracted only  by  painful  laboriousness. 

SHECHEM,  WHERE  THE  BIBLE  INTRODUCES 
ABRAHAM 

The  first  city  built  in  this  valley  was 
Shechem,  which  occupied  a  site  a  short 
distance  to  the  east  of  Nablus.  Here,  at 
the  highest  point  of  the  valley,  where  the 
rains  to  the  east  find  their  way  to  the 
Dead  Sea  and  those  to  the  west  to  the 
Mediterranean,  is  a  small  artificial  hill. 
Recent  excavations  by  archeologists  have 
revealed  a  city  wall  encircling  the  re- 


THE  SAMARITAN   SVNAGOGU1 


This,  the  only  house  of  worship  which  the  Samaritans  possess,  is  a  very  plain  building 
and  only  a  few  hundred  years  old.  In  the  recess  to  the  left,  behind  ornamented  curtains,  are 
primitive  safes  and  cupboards  containing  many  parchments  and  Pentateuchs,  among  them 
the  noted  Abishua  Codex  (see  illustration,  page  12). 


ONE:   OF   THE    SYNAGOGUE   CURTAINS 

This  silken  curtain,  heavily  embroidered  in  gold,  is  used  in  the  synagogue  to  hang  in  front 
of  the  scroll  chests.  The  designs  represent  the  cup  of  manna,  ark  of  the  covenant,  Aaron's 
rod  blossoming,  the  seven-branched  candlestick,  the  table  of  shew-bread,  the  golden  censer, 
and  other  temple  furnishings  such  as  existed  in  the  temple  at  Jerusalem. 


tt 

h-t 
£ 


: 

It 


< 

"2  8  * 

C    ai    4) 

re    o    »- 

I-.    o  -S 


«r   <n   O 

5  5  j£  * 

<;  t:    're  «  ig 
M  S"1     "3    "  jr 

r-!     «1        S      r^ 


X    55     _; 


s 


S     |*p 


2  C  a 


c  i;  w  c 

- 


(/)  ™ 

«  ^ 

w  H 

H 


12 


mains  of  houses  and  have  laid  bare  numer- 
ous ancient  earthenware  vessels. 

As  we  look  upon  these  primitive  habi- 
tations, more  than  3,000  years  old,  it  is 
hard  to  realize  that  we  are  not  actually 
looking  on  the  oldest  city  built  here,  but 
upon  a  town  that,  at  this  early  date,  had 
already  had  a  long  existence. 

It  is  at  Shechem,  then  called  "Sichem," 
and  the  plain  of  Moreh,  into  which  the 
Shechem  gorge  opens  at  its  eastern  ex- 
tremity, that  Biblical  history  introduces 
..  Abraham,  the  father  of  the  Hebrews,  in 
Canaan.  Likewise  Jacob  made  this  lo- 
cality his  first  halt  on  returning  from  his 
sojourn  with  Laban  in  Haran.  Here  he 
purchased  the  parcel  of  ground  whither, 
at  a  later  date,  Joseph's  bones  were 
brought  from  Egypt  to  be  buried,  and 
where  today  Jacob's  well  is  pointed  out 
as  the  spot  at  which  Jesus  and  the  Sa- 
maritan woman  met  (see  map,  page  46). 

Immediately  following  the  Israelitish 
invasion  of  Canaan  and  the  taking  of 
Jericho  and  Ai,  Joshua  built  upon  Ebal 
the  first  altar  of  sacrifice  erected  by  his 
people  in  the  new  land. 

The  Shechem  Valley  now  became  the 
theater  of  the  first  general  convocation, 
and,  according  to  the  Mosaic  injunction, 
the  whole  congregation  was  assembled, 
"half  of  them  over  against  Mount  Geri- 
zim  and  half  of  them  over  against  Mount 
Ebal."  From  Ebal  were  to  be  proclaimed 
the  curses  against  those  who  should  for- 
sake the  law  of  their  God,  and  from 
Gerizim  the  blessings  that  would  result 
in  the  following  of  Yahweh  (the  unpro- 
nounced  Hebrew  name  for  God). 

Here  also,  just  before  his  death,  Joshua 
addressed  the  last  assembly  of  the  people, 
making  a  covenant  with  them. 

We  HOW  come  to  the  broader  period  of 
its  history.  Ephraim,  destined  to  figure 
as  the  leading  tribe  of  the  Northern  King- 
dom, had  the  lot  of  jts  possession  fall  to 
the  district  wherein  Shechem  lay.  This 
territory  was  then  known  as  "Mount 
Ephraim." 

The  town  of  Shechem  itself  was  appor- 
tioned to  the  Levites,  since  they,  being 
a  tribe  of  priests,  received  no  inheritance 
except  cities  and  their  suburbs  in  which 
to  dwell  throughout  all  the  tribes.  She- 
chem was  also  selected  as  one  of  the  cities 
of  refuge,  and  throughout  the  Hebraic 
occupation  held  an  important  place. 


ABU  EL   HASSAN,   SON   OF  THE  LATE   HIGH 
PRIEST  JACOB 

All  the  Samaritan  priests  wear  long  hair, 
which  they  wind  under  their  dome-shaped 
fezzes.  "And  the  Lord  said  unto  Moses,  speak 
unto  the  priests  and  say  unto  them  that  they 
shall  not  make  baldness  upon  their  heads ;  nor 
shall  they  shave  off  the  corner  of  their  beards" 
(Lev.  21  :  1-5). 


JACOB,  SON   OF  AARON,  LATE  SAMARITAN    HIGH    PRIEST 

Members  of  the  present  priestly  family  trace  their  ancestry  to  the  tribe  of  Levi.    The  direct 
Aaronic  line  that  existed  till  modern  times  has  now  failed. 


A  YOUNG  PRIEST  WRITING  A  SAMARITAN   PENTATEUCH 

All  the  Samaritan  Pentateuchs  and  prayer  books,  as  well  as  the  books  used  by  the  school 
children,  are  hand-written.  Parchment  was  used  up  to  two  centuries  ago;  since  then  paper 
has  come  into  vogue.  Aside  from  the  fact  that  the  poverty  of  the  modern  Samaritan  com- 
mends the  use  of  paper,  which  is  much  cheaper,  the  orthodox  scholar  will  not  write  on 
leather  unless  the  hide  from  which  it  is  prepared  has  been  taken  from  an  animal  slaughtered 
l>y  a  priest. 

'5 


THE  VILLAGE  OF  ASKAR,   ANCIENT  SYCHAR 

Just  behind  the  village  is  Jacob's  well.  The  mountain  in  the  background  is  Gerizim, 
while  the  mosque  on  its  summit  marks  the  site  of  the  Samaritan  temple  to  which,  no  doubt, 
the  Samaritan  woman  pointed  when  conversing  with  Jesus. 


During  the  period  of  the  Judges  little  of 
importance  is  heard  of  Mount  Ephraim, 
except  that  Abimelech,  son  of  Gideon  by 
a  Shechemite  concubine,  was  made  "King" 
of  Shechem,  and  ruled  three  years. 

With  the  advent  of  David  came  the 
Golden  Age  of  the  Hebrews.  The  capi- 
tal was  moved  to  Jerusalem,  where,  upon 
his  succession,  Solomon  built  the  re- 
nowned Temple  and  established  thereby 
a  center  of  worship. 

But  this   unified  kingdom  was  short- 


lived, and  with  the  death  of  Solomon,  his 
son,  Rehoboam,  proceeded  to  Shechem, 
where  all  Israel  was  gathered  to  make  him 
king.  Instead  of  this  being  consummated, 
ten  tribes  revolted  and  made  Jeroboam, 
an  attache  of  Solomon's  court,  king.  Jero- 
boam selected  Shechem  as  his  home. 
Thus  the  northern  ten  tribes  established 
the  Kingdom  of  Israel,  now  forever  rent 
from  the  Kingdom  of  Judah,  which  was 
composed  of  the  two  remaining  tribes, 
Judah  and  Benjamin. 


16 


NEAR  SYCHAR   IS  JACOBUS   WKLL  ;   ITS  DEPTH   IS   INDICATED  BY  THE  LENGTH    OF 

THE    ROPE 

To  the  east,  towering  above  the  encampment,  is  the  loftiest  of  Gerizim's  peaks,  crowned  with 
ruins — a  spot  where  once  temples  stood. 


THE   SAMARITAN    PASSOVER    CAMP,   THE  ONLY   REMAINING    ISRAEUTISH    CAMP    IN 

THE   WORLD 

To  the  east,  towering  above  the  encampment,  is  the  loftiest  of  Gerizim's  peaks,  crowned  with 
ruins — a  spot  where  once  temples  stood. 


LAMBS  SELECTED  FOR  THE  SACRIFICE  OF  THE  PASSOVER 


THE  CONGREGATION   GATHERING  FOR  THE   SACRIFICIAL  CEREMONY 

As  they  assemble  one  by  one  they  spread  small  prayer  cloths  upon  the  ground.    Upon  these 
they  stand  with  bare  feet,  having  dropped  their  prayer  slippers  behind  them. 


THE;  SAMARITAN  HIGH  PRIEST  JACOB  LEADING  THE  PASSOVER  SERVICE 

Note  the  prayer  cloth  on  which  he  stands.  Some  of  these  have  the  prayer-niche  design 
identical  with  those  of  the  Moslems.  The  Samaritans  always  face  their  Holy  of  Holies  (the 
holy  rock  on  the  crest  of  Mount  Gerizim)  when  worshiping. 


THE   TRENCH-ALTAR    PREPARED   FOR   THE    SAMARITAN    PASSOVER 

Two  large  copper  kettles  filled  with  water  are  placed  over  this  altar.  At  a  short  dis- 
tance, and  higher  than  the  altar  level,  is  the  tanoor,  or  ground  oven,  for  the  sheep-roasting. 
The  men  in  the  right  background  are  tending  the  oven. 


Omri,  the  sixth  king  of  Israel,  in  the 
ninth  century  B.  C.,  bought  an  isolated 
hill  a  few  miles  west  of  Shechem,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  valley,  and  there  built 
his  capital,  naming  it  Samaria,  after  its 
original  owner.  At  the  time  of  the  First 
Captivity  the  Kingdom  of  Israel  lost  its 
northernmost  tribes  and  its  possessions 
beyond  the  Jordan.  From  them  Galilee 
was  then  created,  while  the  remaining 
southern  part  inherited  the  name  of  its 
once  important  capital,  Samaria,  and  be- 
came a  State  subject  to  Assyria.  Thus 
was  the  land  cut  up  into  three  districts — 
Galilee,  Samaria,  and  Judea. 

SEBASTE,  CITY  OF  HEROD 

The  city  of  Samaria,  from  its  incep- 
tion, overshadowed  its  rival,  Shechem, 
and  probably  attained  the  height  of  its 
glory  under  Roman  rule;  for  the  Em- 
peror Augustus  presented  it  to  his  pro- 
curator, Herod  the  Great,  who  rebuilt 
and  embellished  it  after  the  Roman  style, 
and  renamed  it  Sebaste  (Greek  for  Au- 


gusta).. Much  of  Herod's  work  still  re- 
mains, notably  a  double  colonnade  en- 
circling the  hill's  crest. 

An  Arab  proverb  says,  "Beyond  every 
mountain  ascent  there  is  a  descent."  And 
Sebaste,  after  climbing  to  the  zenith  of 
power,  slowly  relapsed  into  insignifi- 
cance; so  that  today,  amid  the  ruins  of 
its  splendid  past,  a  squalid  mud  village 
bears  the  once  grand  title  (the  name  in 
Arabic  being  slightly  altered  to  "Sebas- 
tieh").  Here  is  a  rare  instance,  possibly 
the  only  one  in  Palestine,  where  the 
Greek  name  has  outlived  the  older  Se- 
mitic form. 

Sebaste  had  become  a  place  of  no  im- 
portance more  than  four  centuries  before 
the  Emperor  Vespasian  founded  Neap- 
olis  (New  City)  in  the  Shechem  vale, 
west  of  the  older  town,  in  67  A.  D.  This 
"New  City"  soon  outstripped  the  older 
Shechem,  and  in  the  fourth  century  be- 
came one  of  the  foremost  cities  of  Pales- 
tine— a  distinction  which  it  still  enjoys 
under  its  Arabic  name  of  Nablus. 


21 


^       CO      I     &)    OJ 


Z  E  V 

I  ^l"5  §1 


jo,s* 
-  .•  +*^  j 

•y}       C   OJ   tn 

«       O  -   C    «    C 


Si    S?wo^ 


O  O      ^     ^i^H.S 

OH      O    O    £    ^    o   £ 
••^        t       *-rt"""l*iO 


rt    er. 

S    "o  2*2  CJ  o  rt 


o  *i 

5- 

•*    O 


i? 


J3   O   W   o   ^ 
U  Q  P  O  O 

i— .  «  u<  o.  > 


THE  LAST  ISRAELITISH   BLOOD  SACRIFICE 


23 


The  Samaritan  religion  is  closely  akin 
to  that  of  the  Jews,  the  chief  differences 
being  that  the  cult  of  the  former  centers 
about  Gerizim,  while  that  of  the  Jews 
centers  about  Zion,  and  that  the  Samari- 
tan canon  of  Scripture  is  restricted  to  the 
Pentateuch,  or  "Five  Books  of  Moses." 
The  later  writings,  including  the  Prophets 
and  Psalms,  the  Samaritans  repudiate  as 
uninspired. 

In  view  of  the  similarity  in  their  be- 
liefs and  practices,  it  seems  strange  that 
there  exists  and  always  has  existed  the 
fiercest  animosity  between  Jew  and  Sa- 
maritan, but  it  is  the  animosity  that  in- 
variably exists  between  an  original  and  a 
schism. 

The  Samaritans  maintain  that  they  are 
the  remnants  and  descendants  of  the  once 
great  tribe  of  Ephraim,  and  that  the  split 
between  them  and  the  Jews  came  about 
through  the  maladministration  of  the 
priesthood  by  Eli's  sons.  Followers  of 
the  Jewish  Church  are  looked  upon  as 
dissenters  from  the  pure  faith  of  Israel, 
and  the  forming  of  a  center  of  worship 
in  Jerusalem  by  Judah  is  condemned 
upon  the  ground  that  the  land  of  Eph- 
raim, with  Shechem  and  its  mountains, 
figured  in  the  earliest  history  of  the  He- 
brews ;  that  here  the  first  Israelitish  altars 
were  erected,  and  that  these  were  the  only 
specific  parts  of  the  Land  of  Promise 
mentioned  by  Moses  in  the  wilderness. 

THE    RENOWNED    SAMARITAN    SCROLL 
PHOTOGRAPHED   AT    LAST 

The  most  precious  document  of  this 
sect  is  the  renowned  Samaritan  scroll 
Pentateuch.  This  scroll  is  some  seventy 
feet  long,  and  toward  the  end  its  columns 
are  divided  vertically  by  a  small  gap. 
often  occurring  between  the  letters  of 
the  same  word.  Into  this  gap  is  carried 
and  written  any  letter  that  occurs  in  the 
lines  which  fits  into  the  writing  of  the 
date,  so  that  when  reading  the  text  it  fills 
its  place,  while  on  the  other  hand  these 
separated  letters  when  read  collectively 
from  the  top  of  the  column  to  the  bot- 
tom, like  the  Chinese,  spell  out  the  name 
and  date  of  the  writer,  etc.,  thus  making 
it  impossible  for  the  date  to  have  been  of 
a  later  writing  than  that  of  the  scroll 
itself. 

The  Samaritans  assert  that  the  scroll 


was  written  by  Abishua,  the  great-grand- 
son of  Aaron,  in  the  early  years  of  the 
entrance  into  Canaan,  but  no  impartial 
student  will  allow  it  this  very  remote  ori- 
gin, although  it  is  believed  to  be  the  most 
ancient  copy  of  the  Pentateuch  in  exist- 
ence. 

So  jealously  guarded  is  this  scroll  that 
few  non-Samaritans  have  ever  seen  it, 
and  many  of  the  Samaritans  themselves 
have  not  seen  it  except  as  it  is  exhibited 
on  rare  occasions  at  feasts,  rolled  up  and 
covered  with  a  silken  cloth  and  with  but 
one  column  exposed. 

The  scroll  has  recently  been  photo- 
graphed from  end  to  end,  and  will  soon 
be  published  for  the  benefit  of  Hebrew 
scholars. 

It  is,  of  course,  impracticable  to  display 
this  very  fragile  parchment  continually, 
but  it  is  unfortunate  that  the  modern 
Samaritans  impose  uoon  their  guests  by 
showing  them  a  scroll  of  much  later  date 
than  the  one  which  all  so  covet  to  see. 
The  imposition  has  gone  further,  for  all 
photographs  made  heretofore  supposedly 
of  the  original  Abishua  scroll,  as  it  is 
called,  have  in  reality  been  of  the  later 
copy. 

While  the  Jews  have  scattered  all  over 
the  "world  since  the  captivities  and  have 
absorbed  much  that  is  foreign,  in  many 
instances  adapting  their  religious  prac- 
tices to  their  new  environment,  the  Sa- 
maritans have  during  the  same  lapse  of 
time  lived  in  the  land  of  their  fore- 
fathers, among  Semitic  peoples  akin  to 
the  Hebrews,  and  because  of  this  fact 
have  handed  down  to  the  twentieth  cen- 
tury a  glimpse  of  the  old  Jewish  Church 
almost  in  its  purity.  A  notable  instance 
of  the  survival  of  an  ancient  religious 
ceremony  is  the  celebration  of  the  Pass- 
over Sacrifice. 

One  of  the  distinctive  differences  be- 
tween the  Samaritan  and  the  Jew  lies  in 
their  methods  of  computing  the  calendar. 
Instead  of  adopting  the  lunar  year  solely. 
the  Samaritans  base  their  calculations  on 
the  moon  but  they  are  at  the  same  time 
also  governed  by  the  movement  of  the 
sun.  The  system  is  so  complicated  as 
to  form  one  of  the  chief  studies  of  the 
young  priests.  Basing  their  authority  on 
the  first  chapter  of  Genesis  for  thus  dif- 
ferentiating from  the  Hebrew  calendar, 


KILLING  THE  PASSOVER  SACRIFICE 

The  caldrons  of  water  are  already  boiling.  "Then  shall  all  the  convocation  of  the  as- 
sembly of  Israel  slay  it  between  the  two  evenings."  As  these  words  are  read,  with  one  deft 
stroke  downward,  each  of  the  three  slaughterers  cuts  the  throat  of  one  lamb  and  jumps  to 
the  next. 


24 


THE;  SPITTED  SACRIFICIAL  LAMBS 

On  oaken  spits  slightly  longer  than  the  depth  of  the  ground  oven,  the  dressed  lambs  are 
placed  lengthwise,  the  heads  hanging  down.  "Eat  not  of  it  raw,  nor  sodden  at  all  with  water; 
his  head  with  his  legs,  and  with  the  purtenance  thereof." 


they  point  out  that,  in  the  history  of  crea- 
tion, when  the  sun  and  moon  are  intro- 
duced, it  is  said  of  them  jointly,  "Let 
them  be  for  signs,  and  for  seasons,  and 
for  days  and  years"  (Gen.  I  :  14).  For 
the  above  reasons  the  Samaritans  some 
years  celebrate  their  Passover  with,  or 
nearly  with,  the  Jews,  while  at  other 
times  their  fourteenth  of  Abib  comes  a 
month  behind. 

PREPARING    FOR  THE   FEAST   OF   THE 
PASSOVER 

A  few  days  before  the  Passover  the 
Samaritan  ghetlo  becomes  the  scene  of 


much  activity.  Mules  and  donkeys  are 
loaded  with  tents  and  other  necessities, 
while  young  and  old,  sick  and  well,  quit 
their  homes  to  make  the  pilgrimage  to 
Gerizim,  in  obedience  to  the  command, 
''Thou  mayest  not  sacrifice  the  Passover 
within  any  of  thine  own  gates,  but  in  the 
place  which  Yahweh  thy  God  shall  choose 
to  make  a  habitation  for  His  name." 
Often,  persons  seriously  ill  are  carried  in 
their  sick  beds  to  the  camp,  and  here  not 
infrequently  babes  are  born. 

Prior  to  the  date  appointed,  much  time 
is  spent  in  arranging  the  camp,  rebuild- 
ing the  tanoor,  or  ground  oven,  used  in 


2G 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


roasting  the  sacrifice,  and  in  procuring 
the  necessary  wood  and  brush  for  fuel. 

The  ascent  to  the  camp  spot  on  Geri- 
zim  requires  usually  an  hour,  whether 
mounted  or  on  foot.  Nablus  is  left  be- 
hind by  a  path  leading  up  from  its  west- 
ern suburbs,  and  passing  the  Samaritan 
cemetery,  an  open  field,  its  rocky  and 
stone-strewn  surface  overgrown  with 
weeds  on  which  donkeys  and  cattle  may 
be  seen  browsing.  The  trail  leads  up  in 
short,  stiff,  winding  courses  through  a 
slight  depression  where  olives  and  other 
trees  grow  vigorously.  The  way  soon 
becomes  so  steep  that  beasts  as  well  as 
pedestrians  are  forced  to  halt  at  intervals 
for  breath.  But  the  time  is  not  wasted, 
for  the  view  of  the  town  in  its  glaring 
whiteness  below,  fringed  with  verdant 
gardens  and  nestling  between  the  twin 
mountains,  is  a  scene  truly  beautiful. 

ENCAMPMENT  Of  THE   ISRAELITES 


Once  up  this  steep  ascent,  the  ridge  is 
gained.  Along  it  the  path,  now  fairly 
level,  leads  to  a  slight  depression  in  the 
saddle,  where  suddenly  the  visitor  sees 
before  him  more  than  forty  white  Egyp- 
tian and  Damascus  tents,  the  only  ver- 
itable Israelitish  encampment  of  religious 
significance  in  the  world. 

A  pity  it  is  that  these  more  modern 
tents  are  used  instead  of  the  primitive 
goat-hair  ones  of  the  Bedouins,  which 
would  more  nearly,  if  not  entirely,  re- 
semble those  used  during  the  Exodus. 

To  the  east,  towering  above  the  en- 
campment, is  the  loftiest  of  Gerizim's 
peaks,  crowned  with  ruins,  a  spot  where 
once  temples  stood. 

It  is  Passover  eve.  Selected  sacrificial 
lambs  are  contentedly  wandering  about, 
unconscious  of  their  impending  fate. 
They  have  been  purchased  some  days  in 
advance  of  the  Passover,  in  obedience  to 
the  law,  "in  the  tenth  day  of  this  month 
they  shall  take  to  them  every  man  a 
lamb.  .  .  .  Your  lamb  shall  be  with- 
out blemish,  a  male  of  the  first  year.  .  .  . 
And  ye  shall  keep  it  up  until  the  four- 
teenth day  of  the  same  month." 

But  the  scene  is  not  quiet.  Scores  of 
people,  non-Samaritan,  young  and  old, 
have  come  up  to  "smell  the  air,"  for  to 
the  Nablus  people,  and  especially  for  the 


lads,  it  is  a  day  of  excitement  not  to  be 
missed. 

The  camp  ground  is  a  small,  elongated 
field,  the  property  of  the  Samaritans. 
No  special  system  is  observed  in  pitching 
the  tents,  beyond  leaving  a  path  between 
the  two  uneven  rows.  Each  family  has 
one  tent ;  a  few  have  two. 

At  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  camp 
is  the  kiniseh  (synagogue),  where  the  re- 
ligious rites  are  observed  while  in  camp. 
It  is  a  small,  oblong  plot  surrounded  by 
a  low  rubble  wall  except  to  the  east, 
where  terrace  above  terrace,  now  much 
dilapidated,  rises  in  step  form  to  the 
mountain  crest  beyond. 

THE   TRENCH-ALf AR 

At  the  northern  end  .of  this  space,  or 
prayer  inclosure,  a  trench  has  been  dug 
and  lined  with  uncut  stone.  "An  altar  of 
earth  shalt  thou  make  unto  me.  . 
And  if  thou  wilt  make  an  altar  of  stone, 
thou  shalt  not  build  it  of  hewn  stone  ;  for 
if  thou  lift  up  thy  tool  upon  it,  thou  hast 
polluted  it." 

Across  this  altar  two  large  copper  ket- 
tles, filled  with  water,  are  placed.  Beyond 
the  northeastern  end  of  the  inclosure, 
and  higher  than  its  level,  is  the  tanoor, 
or  ground  oven,  for  the  sheep- roasting. 
It  is  a  pit,  the  depth  equal  to  a  man's 
height,  from  five  to  six  spans  in  diam- 
eter, and  lined  in  a  circular  form,  like  a 
well,  with  rough  stones.  Here  the  rock 
crops  out  so  near  the  surface  that,  in 
order  to  get  the  tanoor  deep  enough,  it 
has  to  be  built  partly  above  the  surface 
and  a  terrace  filled  in  about  it,  thus  of 
necessity  elevating  it  above  the  rest  of 
the  space  devoted  to  the  Passover  ob- 
servances. 

It  is  about  three  hours  before  dark  as 
we  arrive,  and  since  the  Samaritan  time 
starts  its  count  from  sunset,  let  us  forget 
our  Western  watches  while  we  remain  on 
Gerizim's  heights. 

On  approaching  the  camp,  one  of  the 
first  things  to  attract  our  attention  is  the 
cloud  of  smoke  pouring  forth  from  the 
tanoor  and  curling  skyward  from  beneath 
the  kettles,  for  five  hours  of  steady  heat 
produced  by  burning  "saris"  brush  and 
thorn  bushes  are  required  before  the 
oven  is  ready  for  fleecing  the  sheep. 


THE;  SALT  COVENANT 

As  the  preparation  of  each  lamb  is  completed  much  salt  is  rubbed  into  the  flesh.  "And 
every  oblation  of  thy  meat  offering  shalt  thou  season  with  salt,  neither  shalt  thou  suffer  the 
salt  of  the  covenant  of  thy  God  to  be  lacking  from  thy  meat  offering." 


27 


"NEITHER  SHALL  YE  BREAK  A  BONE  THEREOF 

No  forks,  knives,  or  spoons  are  used  at  the  feast  and  great  care  is  observed  not  to  break 
a  bone.    The  fingers  are  the  Samaritan's  only  eating  utensils  on  this  occasion. 


28 


EATING  THE  PASSOVER 

The  members  of  the  six  families  collect,  each  around  one  of  the  lambs — men,  women,  chil- 
dren, and  nursing  babies. 


To  escape  the  confusion  caused  by  the 
swarms  of  sight-seers,  boys  galloping 
about  on  their  horses  or  urging  on  lazy 
donkeys,  hawkers  calling  out  in  loud 
voices  as  they  peddle  small  cakes, 
oranges,  or  sweetmeats,  we  follow  a 
friend,  one  of  the  priests,  up  to  the  crest 
of  Gerizim.  This,  to  the  Samaritan,  is 
the  holiest  part  of  the  earth  and  crowded 
with  sacred  spots  and  associations. 

THE    SACRED   SITES   OF   GERIZIM 

Here  one  is  shown  the  place  where 
Joshua  built  the  first  altar  of  sacrifice 


with  twelve  stones  taken  from  the  Jor- 
dan. Just  above  it  are  the  foundations 
of  St.  Mary's  Church,  built  by  the  Em- 
peror Zeno  and  restored  by  Justinian. 
Adjoining  these  ruins  is  a  small  domed 
mosque,  Sheik  Ghanim,  now  in  a  neg- 
lected condition.  A  Moslem  shrine  and  a 
Christian  church  each  in  succession  built 
on  the  site  from  materials  supplied  by 
the  remains  of  a  Roman  temple ! 

Proceeding  southward  along  the  out- 
most ledge  of  the  plateau,  the  priests 
point  to  spots  where  tradition  says  the 
altars  of  Adam  and  of  Noah  stood.  Be- 


29 


YE  SHAIJ,  LET  NOTHING  OF  IT  REMAIN  UNTIL  THE)  MORNING 

The  feast  itself  is  of  short  duration.  After  the  meat  has  been  eaten  the  high  priest, 
leaning  picturesquely  upon  his  staff,  recites  a  short  prayer.  Every  bit  of  bone  remaining  is 
now  collected  and  taken  to  the  altar.  "And  that  which  remaineth  until  the  morning  ye  shall 
burn  with  fire."  Note  the  two  crouching  figures  in  the  foreground  busily  engaged  in  col- 
lecting and  eating  fragments  of  the  roasted  meat. 


THE  LAST  ISRAELITISH  BLOOD  SACRIFICE 


31 


low  is  the  path  by  which  Adam  was  ex- 
pelled from  Paradise,  after  having  been 
created  from  the  dust  of  Gerizim. 

Beyond  is  the  altar  of  Seth,  a  stone 
circle  with  a  pavement  of  large  uncut 
stones  (probably  of  megalithic  origin). 

Just  beyond  Seth's  shrine,  farther 
south,  is  a  ditch  sunk  into  a  rock  protrud- 
ing boldly  from  the  mountain  side.  It  is 
the  Samaritan  rival  to  Mount  Moriah,  in 
Jerusalem.  Here  the  Samaritans  believe 
that  Abraham  prepared  to  offer  up  in 
sacrifice  his  only  son,  and  just  behind 
is  the  place  where  the  ram  was  found 
caught  in  the  thicket. 

Almost  at  our  feet,  far  below,  in  the 
plain  of  Askar  (Sychar),  lay  Jacob's 
well,  concealed  beneath  an  uncompleted 
church  erected  upon  Crusader  founda- 
tions. Under  the  spell  of  the  hour  and 
the  scene,  one  could  almost  picture  the 
Samaritan  woman  pointing  to  Gerizim 
and  saying  to  Jesus,  "Our  fathers  wor- 
shiped in  this  mountain,  and  ye  say  that 
in  Jerusalem  is  the  place  where  men 
ought  to  worship"  (John  4:20). 

THE   SAMARITAN    HOLY    OF    HOLIES 

In  the  center  of  the  plateau  is  a  large 
flat  rock  which  the  Samaritans  call 
"Kuds  el  Akdas" ;  for,  according  to  their 
tradition,  it  formed  the  Holy  of  Holies 
of  their  temple.  They  approach  it  only 
on  certain  festal  occasions  and  with  bared 
feet.  This  rock  at  once  calls  to  mem- 
ory the  rival  Rock  Moriah  lying  beneath 
the  gorgeous  Dome  of  the  Rock  in 
Jerusalem. 

Although  less  extensive  than  that  from 
its  taller  mate,  Mt.  Ebal,  which  cuts  off 
the  distant  Galilee  view  northward,  the 
scene  from  Gerizim  is  broad  and  grand. 
In  the  spring  the  Plain  of  Moreh,  or 
Sychar,  just  at  its  feet,  is  a  patchwork  of 
small  fields  in  different  stages  of  growth. 
Near  the  village  of  Askar  (Sychar), 
watered  from  a  copious  spring,  large 
patches  of  onions  and  garlic  flourish, 
their  green  varying  with  that  of  the  wav- 
ing barley  and  wheat  beyond  and  con- 
trasting with  the  bare  and  rocky  sur- 
rounding hills.  The  elevations  are  dotted 
with  villages,  and  among  them,  to  the 
southward,  is  Awerta,  where,  under  the 
shade  of  a  great  tree,  the  tombs  of 


Aaron's  son  and  grandson,  Eleazer  and 
Phinehas,  lie. 

Directly  to  the  east,  separated  from  the 
foreground  by  the  deep  Jordan  chasm,  rise 
the  Mountains  of  Gilead.  Like  Moab,  of 
which  fhey  are  a  continuation  northward, 
they  ar.e  suffused  with  a  mysterious  and 
fascinating  translucent  blue,  resembling 
some  precious  stone,  and  never  cease  to 
captivate  the  vision,  especially  upon  clear 
days.  The  highest  peak,  Jebel  Osha, 
crowned  by  the  reputed  tomb  of  Hosea, 
stands  out  conspicuously.  Towering  at 
the  head  of  the  Jordan  Valley,  Hermon, 
with  its  perennial  snow-cap,  closes  the 
northern  limit  of  this  eastern  view. 

At  the  foot  of  Mt.  Ebal  and  bordering 
upon  the  plain  directly  below  us  are  the 
excavations  of  ancient  Shechem.  Near 
them  a  small  white  dome  marks  the  tra- 
ditional site  of  the  tomb  of  Joseph. 
Southward  the  view  stretches  over  the 
long  mountain  range  which  is  the  back- 
bone of  Palestine,  rising  between  the 
Phoenician  plain  and  the  deep  Jordan 
chasm.  When  viewed  from  the  Mediter- 
ranean, the  only  break  seen  in  the  range 
is  this  Valley  of  Nablus,  while  its  rivals 
in  historic  importance,  Jerusalem  and 
Hebron,  are  hidden  from  view.  Mizpah 
is  easily  visible,  but  no  glimpse  of  Jeru- 
salem save  a  little  of  its  suburbs  under 
favorable  conditions. 

Turning  westward,  the  mountains  and 
hill  country,  dotted  with  villages,  drop  off 
gently  into  a  plain  which  extends  to  the 
blue  Mediterranean.  The  ruins  of  Csesa- 
rea,  which  under  Roman  rule  became  the 
most  important  city  and  seaport  in  Pales- 
tine, and  often  connected  with  the  history 
of  the  Apostles  and  the  early  Church,  are 
visible  under  favorable  conditions;  also 
the  orange  groves  of  Jaffa. 

Now  the  sun  is  soon  setting,  and  we 
shall  have  to  hurry  back  to  camp  if  we 
are  to  see  all  the  service  which  com- 
memorates the  Exodus  from  Egypt. 

PRAYER  POSTURE  AND  ROBES  SIMILAR 
TO  MOSLEMS 

As  we  descend,  white-robed  figures  are 
seen  collecting  about  the  smoking  trench- 
altar.  As  they  slowly  gather  one  by  one 
they  spread  on  the  ground  small  prayer 
cloths,  upon  which  they  stand  with  bare 


THE  BURNT  OFFERING 

All  the  viscera  are  emptied  of  undigested  food  and  then  thoroughly  salted  and  with  the 
fat  from  the  inwards  and  kidneys  are  placed  upon  cloven  pieces  of  wood  laid  across  one  end 
of  the  trench-altar.  The  burning  goes  on  slowly  till  the  early  morning  hours. 


THE  LAST  ISRAELITISH  BLOOD  SACRIFICE 


33 


feet,  having  discarded  their  prayer  slip- 
pers. 

While  witnessing  this  ceremony  we 
were  impressed  by  the  striking  resem- 
blance to  the  Moslem  garb  and  posture 
during  prayer.  The  clothing  of  the  Sa- 
maritan on  this  occasion  is,  in  the  main,, 
white,  the  outside  garment  being  a  jubbie 
made  of  muslin,  identical  in  cut  with  that 
worn  by  Mohammedan  religious  sheiks 
and  by  the  old-style  city  Moslems,  who 
happily  are  not  adopting  western  ideas 
and  modes  of  clothing.  Around  a  dome- 
shaped  fez  the  priest  winds  a  white  tur- 
ban, sometimes  embroidered  in  amber 
silk. 

The  older  men  of  the  laity  use  the  same 
turban,  with  the  customary  flat-topped 
fez,  while  the  young  men  and  boys, 
like  the  Mohammedan  youths,  wear  no 
turbans  and  are  usually  clad  in  white 
shirts  and  drawers.  The  Samaritans,  ex- 
cept when  in  prayer,  wear  deep  wine- 
colored  turbans,  as  the  result  of  an  edict 
of  one  of  the  caliphs,  to  distinguish  them 
'from  their  Mohammedan  neighbors,  for 
originally  they  wore  white  and  were  often 
mistaken  for  Moslem  sheiks  learned  in 
the  Koran.  Similarly,  the  Jews  formerly 
used  black  as  a  distinguishing  hue. 

Before  all  prayers,  the  Samaritan  goes 
through  prescribed  ablutions,  washing 
with  water  three  times  each  the  hands, 
mouth,  nose,  face,  ears,  and  feet,  in  this 
order,  and,  like  the  Moslem,  he  spreads 
the  prayer  cloth,  which  in  some  instances 
has  the  mihrab  design. 

FACING  THE  HOLY  OF  HOLIES 

Now  all  have  congregated.  The  vener- 
able high  priest,  Yakoub  (Jacob),  feeble 
and  infirm,  clad  in  a  pale-green  jubbie, 
takes  his  place  in  front  of  the  congrega- 
tion. The  two  second  priests,  Ishak 
(Isaac)  and  Tewfik,  stand  slightly  behind 
the  high  priest.  Then  come  in  rows  the 
elders  according  to  rank.  Now  all  the 
males  of  the  community  are  present,  the 
smallest  boys  lining  up  at  right  angles  to 
the  foremost  ranks. 

On  every  hand  the  walls  and  terraces 
are  jammed  with  onlookers,  mostly  boys 
and  youths  of  Nablus. 

Facing  the  holy  rock  on  the  crest  east- 
ward, the  worshipers  now  bow  to  the 
earth  in  prayer,  for  the  Samaritans  al- 


ways face  their  Holy  of  Holies  wherever 
they  are. 

The  service  begins  with  a  prayer  writ- 
ten some  seven  centuries  ago  by  the  priest 
Hassan  el  Suri.  As  it  is  repeated  in  con- 
cert, the  rows  of  the  older  men  and  the 
priests  kneel,  or  rather  sit  upon  their 
heels,  with  hands  on  the  knees  or  out- 
stretched to  heaven  whenever  any  peti- 
tion is  asked.  They  bow  their  heads  in 
unison,  touching  their  foreheads  to  the 
ground.  Some  of  the  younger  men  stand- 
ing behind,  also  with  outstretched  hands, 
join  in  the  prayer.  Throughout  the  serv- 
ice it  is  most  interesting  to  watch  the  tiny 
little  fellows,,  each  beside  his  parent,  while 
all  follow  in  the  repetition  with  as  much 
earnestness  as  the  grown-ups  and  entirely 
unconscious  of  their  surroundings. 

Simultaneously  with  the  beginning  of 
the  service  the  sacrificial  lambs  have  been 
driven  into  the  inclosure  and  wander 
about  at  will,  grazing  upon  the  few  tufts 
of  green  or  treading  upon  the  high  priest's 
prayer  rug  till  driven  orT. 

The  prayer  is  ended  with  a  loud  Amen ! 
Whereupon  all  rise  and  remain  perfectly 
erect,  while  in  silence  they  repeat  another 
prayer,  called  "Akid  el  Niyeh,"  a  medi- 
tation which  denotes  the  consecration  of 
their  souls  to  prayer.  It  consists  of  re- 
peating the  five  articles  of  their  creed — 
belief  in  God,  in  Moses,  the  Pentateuch, 
Mount  Gerizim,  and  the  Day  of  Judg- 
ment. 

This  and  the  story  of  creation  precede 
all  prayers.  When  ended  a  hymn  is  sung 
in  praise  of  Yahweh,  the  little  fellows 
stretching  their  mouths  to  their  utmost 
capacity,  while  the  older  leaders,  turning 
about  from  time  to  time,  prompt  and  en- 
courage the  others  to  more  fervent  utter- 
ances. All  these  prayers,  readings,  and 
hymns  are,  of  course,  in  the  Samaritan 
Hebrew,  the  oldest  form  of  that  language 
in  use. 

Next,  from  the  hand-written  Penta- 
teuch which  each  carries,  they  read  in 
unison  21  selections,  in  which  Abraham, 
Isaac,  and  Jacob  are  mentioned  ("in  mem- 
ory of  the  fathers").  During  the  read- 
ing each  time  God's  name  is  mentioned 
the  men  stroke  their  beards  downward 
thrice.  Likewise  whenever  passages  are 
recounted  enjoining  them  to  remember 
their  God,  they  bow,  swinging  the  body 


34 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


BETROTHED 

Among  the  Samaritans,  as  with  most  Ori- 
entals, the  parents  of  the  children  arrange  the 
matches.  The  betrothal  often  takes  place  when 
the  bride  and  bridegroom  are  mere  infants, 
while  early  marriages  are  the  rule. 

forward  from  the  hips,  in  token  of  rever- 
ence and  submission. 

The  high  priest,  who  has  been  facing 
the  crest  of  Gerizim  with  the  congrega- 
tion, now  turns  about  and  repeats  an  anti- 
phon,  to  which  the  leading  men  reply,  and 
in  conclusion  a  psalm  is  sung. 

The  aged  high  priest  now  mounts  the 
fragment  of  an  ancient  column  and  in  a 
low,  quavering  voice  sings  a  short  hymn. 


With  his  eyes  upon  the  setting  sun,  he 
reads  the  first  twelve  verses  of  the  twelfth 
chapter  of  Exodus,  wherein  are  given  the 
first  commands  regarding  the  observance 
of  the  Passover. 

KILLING  THE  SACRIFICE 

In  the  meantime  the  youths  and  boys 
have  carried  out  the  lambs  and  are  hold- 
ing them  in  a  circle  about  the  trench- 
altar,  where  the  caldrons  of  water  are  al- 
ready boiling. 

Over  the  lambs  stand  three  slaughterers 
with  glistening  knives  of  razor  sharpness, 
for,  like  the  Jews,  only  those  recognized 
as  knowing  the  laws  regarding  kosher  and 
taraf  (ritually  clean  and  unclean  meat) 
are  allowed  to  do  the  killing.  As  the 
reading  proceeds,  it  is  so  arranged  that, 
as  the  passage  "then  shall  all  the  convo- 
cation of  the  assembly  of  Israel  slay  it  be- 
tween the  two  evenings"  is  spoken,  at 
the  word  "slay,"  with  one  deft  stroke 
downward,  each  of  the  three  slaughterers 
cuts  one  throat  and  jumps  to  the  next. 

In  a  few  seconds  all  have  been  sacri- 
ficed, the  white  clothing  of  the  boys  hold- 
ing the  struggling  lambs  being  much  be- 
spattered with  blood.  Thus  the  passage 
"between  the  evenings"  the  Samaritans 
translate  to  mean  between  sunset  and 
dark,  the  twilight  hour  in  these  lands  be- 
ing very  short.  "Thou  shalt  sacrifice  the 
Passover  in  the  evening,  at  the  going  in 
of  the  sun,  at  the  very  time  thou  earnest 
forth  out  of  Egypt." 

As  the  slaying  commences  the  great 
throngs  of  Samaritans  and  Gentiles  cease 
to  crowd  about  the  priest  who  is  reciting 
and  press  around  the  altar.  All  is  a 
veritable  Babel,  with  prayers  repeated, 
shouting,  singing,  and  clapping  of  hands. 

The  joy  exhibited  is  akin  to  that  of 
our  children  on  Christmas  morning  or 
when  around  the  blazing  tree,  and  re- 
minds one  of  the  light-heartedness  of  the 
Jews  when  celebrating  the  feast  of  Purim, 
commemorating  as  it  does  the  destruction 
of  their  enemy,  Haman.  During  all  this 
excitement  some  of  the  little  Samaritan 
girls  and  boys  make  their  way  amonjf  the 
sacrifices,  and  the  latter  with  their  finger 
ends  dot  their  faces  with  daubs  of  the 
paschal  blood. 

One  of  the  young  priests  collects  a 
quantity  of  the  fresh  blood  in  a  basin  and 


THE  LAST  ISRAELITISH  BLOOD  SACRIFICE 


35 


with  a  bunch  cf  wild  thyme  vigorously 
stirs  it ;  then  rushes  away  to  put  a  dab  of 
it  above  each  tent  door.  Upon  returning 
he  empties  the  remainder  into  the  fiery 
ditch.  "And  ye  shall  take  a  bunch  of  hys- 
sop, and  dip  it  in  the  blood  that  is  in  the 
basin  and  strike  the  lintel,  .  .  .  for 
the  Lord  will  pass  through  to  smite  the 
Egyptians ;  and  when  he  seeth  the  blood 
upon  the  lintel  the  Lord  will  pass  over 
(Passover)  the  door,  and  will  not  suffer 
the  destroyer  to  come  unto  your  houses  to 
smite  you"  (Ex.  12:22,  23). 

Incidentally  it  is  of  great  interest  that 
the  thyme  is  used.  Botanists  have  differed 
as  to  what  herb  the  hyssop  might  be. 
Here  we  learn  that  this  wild  thyme  has 
properties  which  keep  the  blood  from 
coagulating.  Besides,  this  custom  having 
been  handed  down  in  unbroken  succes- 
sion, little  if  any  room  is  left  for  doubt 
as  to  its  identity  with  hyssop. 

UNLEAVENED  BREAD  AND  BITTER  HERBS 

While  the  lambs  are  giving  their  last 
life  struggle,  youths  pass  among  the  peo- 
ple bearing  large  trays  piled  high  with 
bitter  herbs,  a  sort  of  wild  Isttuce  that 
grows  on  Gerizim,  rolled  in  thin  sheets  of 
unleavened  bread.  Rolls  are  distributed 
among  non-Samaritans  as  a  token  of 
friendship. 

As  the  killing  of  the  lambs  commemo- 
rates the  sacrifice  that  saved  the  first-born 
of  the  Hebrews  from  the  fate  of  their 
Egyptian  neighbors,  so  here  also  the  eat- 
ing of  the  bitter  herbs  and  unleavened 
bread  is,  a  reminder  of  the  bitterness  of 
the  Egyptian  tyranny  and  the  haste  with 
which  Israel  left  the  land  of  the  Pha- 
raohs. "And  they  baked  unleavened  bread 
of  the  dough  they  brought  forth  out  of 
Egypt,  for  it  was  not  leavened ;  because 
they  were  thrust  out  of  Egypt  and  could 
not  tarry,  neither  had  they  prepared  for 
themselves  any  victuals"  (Ex.  12  :39). 

The  bread  is  identical  with  that  used 
by  the  Bedouin  and  journeying  peasants, 
since  the  baking  apparatus  is  simple  and 
portable,  and  quite  likely  is  akin  to  that 
used  during  the  Exodus.  The  loaf  re- 
sembles a  gigantic  but  very  thin  pancake, 
being  pliable  and  not  crisp  like  the  "mot- 
sis,"  or  unleavened  bread  used  by  the 
Jews  at  Passover. 

At  the  sacrificial  altar  the  older  men 


A  SAMARITAN  BABY 

When  photographed,  this  child  was  the  pic- 
ture of  health.  Shortly  after,  he  became  ill  and 
the  mother  always  attributed  the  misfortune 
to  the  "evil  eye"  of  the  camera  or  of  the 
photographer. 

and  some  of  the  priests,  who  now  stand 
about  those  to  whom  is  delegated  the 
task  of  dressing  the  lambs,  have  kept  up 
the  reading  of  the  story  of  the  Exodus 
as  far  as  to  Miriam's  song  of  triumph. 
Meanwhile,  as  soon  as  the  lambs  have 
become  lifeless,  boiling  water  from  the 
caldrons  is  poured  over  them,  while  sev- 
eral boys  and  men  crowd  about  in  the 
semi-darkness  and  pluck  off  the  wool  in- 
stead of  skinning  the  victims,  the  object 
being  to  protect  the  flesh  while  roasting 
in  the  ground  oven. 

THE   RITUAL   INSPECTION 

Next  the  ritual  inspection  takes  place, 
for  as  each  lamb  is  fleeced  it  is  suspended 


SAMARITANS  AT  PRAYER  ON  THE  EVE  OF  THE  PILGRIMAGE 

During  the  entire  week  following  the  Feast  of  the  Passover,  the  Samaritans  remain  en- 
camped upon  Mount  Gerizim.  On  the  last  day  of  the  encampment  they  begin  at  dawn  a 
pilgrimage  to  the  crest  of  the  sacred  mount.  Before  setting  forth  on  this  pilgrimage,  how- 
ever, the  men  spread  their  prayer  cloths  and  repeat  the  creed  and  the  story  of  the  creation 
in  silence,  after  which,  in  a  loud  voice,  they  read  in  unison  the  Book  of  Genesis  and  the 
first  quarter  of  the  Book  of  Exodus,  ending  with  the  story  of  the  Passover  and  the  flight 
from  Egypt. 


COLLECTING   FOR   EVENING    PRAYERS   ON    GERIZIM 

Before  all  prayers  the  Samaritan  observes  prescribed  ablutions,  almost  identical  with  the 
present  customs  of  the  Moslems,  and  like  them  he  now  spreads  his  prayer  cloth. 


by  its  hind  legs  on  a  long  pole  resting  on 
the  shoulders  of  two  of  the  men.  The 
work  of  removing  the  offal,  the  heart, 
liver,  and  lungs  is  done  by  lantern  light. 
Great  care  is  taken  throughout  this  in- 
spection not  to  mutilate  a  bone,  for  the 
command  "neither  shall  ye  break  a  bone 
thereof"  is  strictly  observed.  Any  car- 
cass found  ritually  unfit  is  put  on  the 
burning  altar  and  consumed  with  the 
offal.  This,  however,  is  a  rare  exception. 
The  last  time  it  happened  was  some  five 
years  ago,  when  a  lamb  was  found  minus 
a  kidney. 


Unlike  the  Jews,  who  will  not  eat  of 
the  hind  quarters  of  any  animal  until  all 
the  sinews  have  been  entirely  removed, 
the  Samaritans  claim  to  know  exactly  the 
cord  the  angel  touched  while  wrestling 
with  Jacob  at  the  ford  of  the  Jabbok,  and 
now  a  deep  incision  is  made  in  the  flank 
and  it  is  taken  out.  "And  Jacob  was  left 
alone;  and  there  wrestled  a  man  with 
him.  And  when  he  saw  that  he  prevailed 
not  against  him,  he  touched  the  hollow 
of  his  thigh ;  and  the  hollow  of  Jacob's 
thigh  was  out  of  joint.  .  .  .  There- 
fore the  children  of  Israel  eat  not  of  the 


38 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


TII1C   SACRED   ROCK 


A  few  of  the  devout  members  of  the  congregation  do  not  dare  advance  to  the  rock  itself 
because  of  certain  scruples  regarding  their  ablutions.  These  individuals  may  be  descried 
in  the  background  kneeling  like  their  brothers  on  the  rock,  their  faces  turned  toward  the 
holy  spot. 


sinew  which  shrank,  which  is  upon  the 
hollow  of  the  thigh,  unto  this  day"  (Gen. 
32:24-32). 

Deep  gashes  are  made  in  the  fleshy  parts 
in  order  that  the  salt  may  penetrate, 
while  the  right  shoulder  is  cut  off  to  be 
roasted  on  a  separate  spit,  being  a  priestly 
portion.  Pieces  of  the  head  are  also  re- 
served for  the  priests.  Only  the  males 
of  the  priestly  family  and  women  of  the 
same  blood,  if  unmarried  into  other  fam- 
ilies, may  partake  of  them.  "And  this 
shall  be  the  priest's  due  from  the  people, 
from  them  that  offer  a  sacrifice,  whether 
it  be  ox  or  sheep ;  and  they  shall  give 
unto  the  priests  the  shoulder  and  the  two 
cheeks." 

Now  an  oaken  spit,  the  length  being 
slightly  greater  than  the  depth  of  the 
ground  oven,  is  thrust  through  each 
dressed  lamb  lengthwise,  the  head  hang- 
ing downward.  To  prevent  the  meat  slip- 
ping off,  a  wooden  pin  is  driven  through 
the  spit  three  or  four  spans  above  the 
lower  end,  and  on  it  rests  a  cross-board. 


As  the  preparation  of  each  lamb  is 
completed,  much  salt  is  rubbed  into  the 
flesh.  "And  every  oblation  of  thy  meat 
offering  shalt  thou  season  with  salt,  nei- 
ther shalt  thou  suffer  the  salt  of  the  cove- 
nant of  thy  God  to  be  lacking  from  thy 
meat  offering:  and  with  all  thy  offerings 
thou  shalt  offer  salt"  (Lev.  2:  13). 

THE  BURNT   OFFERING 

This  mandate  is  also  closely  observed 
in  the  matter  of  the  burnt  offering,  for 
the  viscera  as  collected  are  emptied  of 
undigested  food  and  then  thoroughly 
salted,  and,  with  the  fat  from  the  inwards 
and  the  kidneys  are  placed  upon  cloven 
pieces  of  wood  laid  across  one  end  of  the 
ditch-altar,  and  the  fuel  under  it  now  is 
ignited  from  the  fire  beneath  the  cal- 
drons. The  burning  goes  on  slowly  till 
the  early  morning  hours. 

But  long  before  these  preparations  have 
been  completed  the  readings  have  come 
to  an  end,  while  all  those  at  work  and  the 
onlookers  shout  incessantly,  "We  call  and 


THE  LAST  ISRAELITISH  BLOOD  SACRIFICE 


HANDS  OUTSPREAD  TO  HEAVEN 

"And  it  was  so,  that  when  Solomon  had  made  an  end  of  praying  r.ll  this  prayer  and  sup- 
plication unto  the  Lord,  he  rose  from  kneeling  on  his  knees  with  his  hands  spread  up  to 
heaven."  It  was  then  the  custom  with  the  Hebrew  nation,  as  still  with  the  small  remnant 
of  the  Samaritans,  to  spread  forth  the  hands  toward  heaven.  One  object  entirely  out  of 
harmony  with  the  picturesqueness  of  this  scene  is  the  20th  century  steamer  chair  in  the 
center  of  the  group  of  worshipers.  It  appealed  to  the  Samaritans,  however,  as  a  convenient 
resting  place  for  the  sacred  scroll  in  preference  to  the  quaint  but  clumsy  wooden  stands  of 
the  synagogue. 


we  affirm,  there  is  no  God  but  God."  In 
fact,  they  aim  to  keep  this  up  all  night, 
but  there  are  numerous  interruptions. 

Once  the  service  has  come  to  an  end, 
all  those  not  engaged  bow  forward  and 
kiss  the  hand  of  the  high  priest,  saying 
in  Hebrew,  "Every  year  may  you  have 
peace."  He  in  turn  gives  each  his  bene- 
diction and  retires  to  his  tent. 

HOW  THE   MEAT   IS   COOKED 

It  is  now  only  about  four  hours  before 
midnight  and  the  sides  of  the  ground 
oven  are  glowing  with  heat.  The  white- 
robed  figures,  with  much  shouting  and 
commotion,  bring  the  spits  forward, 
holding  them  in  a  circle  about  the  fiery 
pit.  With  loud  voices  they  repeat,  "Hear 
O  Israel,  the  Lord  our  God  is  one  Lord," 
and  passages  of  Scripture  in  which  they 
are  admonished  to  observe  diligently  the 
law. 


Suddenly  the  spits  are  simultaneously 
lowered  into  the  oven  and  a  wickerwork 
lid  made  of  sticks  placed  over  the  top, 
the  spits  protruding  slightly  and  so  held 
in  place.  Grass,  sod,  and  mud,  previ- 
ously collected  for  the  purpose,  are  placed 
over  this,  closely  sealing  the  lid,  so  that 
no  smoke  or  steam  can  escape,  and  thus 
extinguishing  the  fire  ;  but  the  heat  of  the 
stones  is  sufficient  to  roast  the  tender 
mutton.  "Eat  not  of  it  raw,  nor  sodden 
at  all  with  water,  but  roast  with  fire ;  his 
head  with  his  legs,  and  with  the  purte- 
nance  thereof"  (Ex.  12:9). 

THE  EVENING  PRAYER 

Once  these  duties  are  over  the  men 
again  collect  for  prayer.  It  is  now  well 
into  the  night.  Beginning,  as  usual,  in 
silence,  with  their  creed  and  the  repeti- 
tion of  the  story  of  creation,  Pentateuch 
selections  pertaining  to  the  Passover  and 


40 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


SAMARITANS    BAKING    UNI&W£N£D   BREAD 

The  bread  is  made  with  flour  quickly  kneaded  with  water  only  and  baked  on  a  convex 
disk  of  sheet-iron.  It  is  identical  with  that  used  by  the  Bedouin  and  journeying  peasants. 
Since  the  baking  apparatus  is  so  simple  and  portable,  the  bread  probably  is  much  the  same  as 
that  used  during  the  Exodus.  The  loaf  resembles  a  gigantic  but  very  thin  pancake. 


the   patriarchs   are   read.      Between  the 
first  selections  hymns  are  sung. 

A  lengthy  rotation  now  takes  place : 
Joshua's  prayer,  one  that  Samaritan  tra- 
dition asserts  he  was  in  the  habit  of 
using ;  singing  the  song  of  Moses  at  the 
Red  Sea,  and  the  "Angel's  Song."  The 
main  feature,  however,  is  the  clothing  of 
the  high  priest  or  his  representative  with 
a  silken  cloth.  The  priest  now  presents 


to  view  one  of  the  ancient  Pentateuchs, 
one  in  book  form,  written  on  parchment. 
It  is  an  impressive  sight  when  these 
white  figures  in  the  bright  moonlight, 
kneeling  thrice  and  prostrating  them- 
selves to  the  ground,  always  toward  their 
Holy  of  Holies,  repeat  in  unison,  "It  is  a 
night  to  be  much  observed  unto  the  Lord 
for  bringing  them  out  of  the  land  of 
Egypt;  this  is  that  night  of  the  Lord  to 


THE  LAST  ISRAELITISH  BLOOD  SACRIFICE 


41 


be  observed  of  all  the  children  of  Israel 
in  their  generations." 

Thus  the  three  Passover  services  are 
ended.  The  first,  before  the  lambs  are 
slaughtered,  is  called  "Salat  el  Dabih" 
(Sacrificial  prayers)  ;  the  next,  while  the 
fleecing  is  taking  place,  "Salat  el  Jismeet" 
(Scalding  prayers),  and  "Salat  el  Garub" 
(Sunset  prayers).  Under  ordinary  cir- 
cumstances prayers  are  always  said  at 
even,  but  since  the  Passover  service  is 
the  more  important,  the  evening  prayer 
is  unavoidably  delayed. 

ARE  THE  WOMEN? 


During  the  afternoon  and  the  early 
evening  the  women  have  played  no  role 
in  the  scene.  They  have  kept  to  their 
tents,  while  those  unable  to  make  their 
ablutions,  and  therefore  prohibited  from 
eating  the  Passover,  are  confined  in  one 
tent. 

Like  the  older  but  now  passing  Jewish 
and  native  Christian  custom,  the  Samari- 
tan women  do  not  strictly  hide  from  men, 
but  only  veil  when  on  the  street  and 
keep  out  of  the  way  when  strangers  are 
present. 

The  present  paper  is  written  after  hav- 
ing witnessed  the  Passover  ceremony 
four  times  —  twice  before  the  great  world 
conflict  and  twice  during  it.  The  first 
occasion  was  when  the  author  was  a 
youth,  the  second  in  1914. 

On  both  of  those  occasions  the  women 
were  hardly  seen,  eating  their  portion  of 
the  sacrifice  in  the  tents,  some  of  the  little 
girls  alone  showing  themselves.  During 
the  years  of  the  war  this  phase  of  the 
scene  materially  changed.  There  were  no 
tourists  or  professors,  with  large  cork 
hats  and  western  clothing;  no  note  books 
and  pencils  ;  no  inquisitive  questions  to 
embarrass  the  women  or  to  mar  the  an- 
cient atmosphere  of  the  spectacle. 

Once  the  sacrifice  had  been  slain,  the 
crowds  from  Nablus,  smaller  these  years 
than  usual,  descended  and  the  Samaritans 
were  left  alone.  In  the  moonlight  there 
was  no  sight  nor  sound  foreign  to  the 
surroundings  to  distract  one's  attention, 
and  the  imagination  was  given  rein.  The 
conception  wandered  back  thousands  of 
years,  and  one  only  awoke  with  a  start  to 
the  reality  of  living  in  the  twentieth  cen- 
tury when  a  sudden  flash  of  magnesium 


powder  lit  up  the  sky  and  then  left  all  in 
deep  darkness. 

The  evening  prayers  over,  some  retire 
to  rest  in  their  tents,  some  pray  or  read 
to  keep  awake,  while  not  a  few  sit  around 
the  smouldering  altar  watching  that  every 
scrap  is  burned. 

No  sooner  are  we  left  alone  with  the 
Samaritans  than  the  women  begin  to  ap- 
pear. They  whose  lives  are  so  immersed 
in  small  things  that  they  seldom  leave 
their  homes,  the  older  women  having  no 
education  at  all,  find  great  pleasure  in  the 
freedom  of  sitting  around  the  sacrificial 
altar,  conversing  in  their  native  tongue 
with  Mrs.  Whiting,  and  enthusiastically 
displaying  their  babies,  awake  or  asleep, 
at  this  late  hour. 

OPENING  THE  ROASTING  PIT 

Thus  the  three  to  four  hours  between 
putting  the  lambs  to  roast  and  the  time 
of  the  feast  roll  quickly  by.  Incidentally 
we  retire  to  our  tent  and  dine  on  roast 
lamb,  killed  and  prepared  by  peasants  of 
the  neighboring  villages  in  identically  the 
same  style  as  the  paschal  lambs,  except 
that  the  skin  is  removed,  for  no  non- 
Samarit'an  is  ever  allowed  to  partake  of 
the  sacrifice.  "And  the  Lord  said  to 
Moses  and  Aaron,  This  is  the  ordinance 
of  the  Passover :  There  shall  no  stranger 
eat  thereof." 

It  is  because  of  this  injunction  that  the 
Samaritans  so  scrupulously  collect  and 
burn  any  scraps  cut  away  during  the  in- 
spection, and  that  the  burning  altar  is  so 
rigorously  guarded. 

Even  after  the  ceremony  is  at  an  end, 
the  ditch  and  oven  are  filled  with  stones 
lest  any  remaining  charred  bone  or  frag- 
ment fall  into  the  possession  of  a  Gentile. 

As  the  midnight  hour  approaches,  the 
sleepers  are  awakened  by  callers  and  sud- 
denly the  camp  is  again  astir.  The  youths 
with  hands  and  hoe  remove  the  seal  from 
the  oven,  and  clouds  of  steam  pour  out; 
so  that,  even  with  the  aid  of  a  lantern, 
little  can  be  seen.  It  is  interesting  to  no- 
tice the  air  of  hurry,  although  time  is  of 
no  consequence.  The  cover  is  now  lifted 
with  much  shouting  and  screaming,  and 
the  same  prayer  said  as  when  the  lambs 
were  placed  in  the  oven.  At  once  the 
spits  are  withdrawn  and  closely  guarded 
while  the  meat  is  slipped  off,  each  lamb 


WAVING   THE   SACRED   SCROLL,    ONE    OF   THE    CEREMONIES    DURING    THE   SAMARITAN 

PILGRIMAGE  TO  THE  HOLY  ROCK,  WHICH  FOLLOWS  THE 

CELEBRATION  OE  THE  PASSOVER 

The  high  priest,  taking  the  sacred  scroll  from  its  resting  place,  holds  it  in  his  arms. 
Then  he  raises  it  over  his  head  and  the  copper  case  is  unfolded,  so  that  the  parchment  is 
exposed  toward  the  devotees,  who  stroke  their  faces  and  beards  in  reverence. 


SAMARITAN  PILGRIMS  AT  PRAYER  IN  FRONT  OF  THE  HOLY  ROCK 

During  the  greater  part  of  the  service  the  high  priest  with  staff  in  hand  stands  facing 
the  sacred  scroll,  which  has  been  placed  before  the  Rock.  He  leads  the  congregation  in 
reading. 


43 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE  BIBLICAL  SALUTATION  :  PALESTINE 

Embracing  one  another,  the  head  is  put  on  the  other's  shoulder  or  neck,  the  latter  being 
bent  forward,  and  in  doing  so  the  cheek  or  neck  is  kissed,  alternating  from  one  shoulder  to 
the  other.  "And  Esau  ran  to  meet  him  (Jacob)  and  embraced  him,  and  fell  upon  his  neck, 
and  kissed  him."  The  Samaritans  are  the  tallest  people  in  Palestine. 


into  one  of  the  great  copper  pans,  the 
shoulders  being  put  with  the  portion  for 
the  priestly  family  and  taken  to  the 
prayer  inclosure,  just  beyond  the  still 
burning  altar. 

EATING  THE  MEATS  OF  THE  PASSOVER 

Some  of  the  flesh,  being  overdone,  falls 
from  the  spits,  and  one  of  the  men  volun- 
teers to  rescue  it.  Winding  bits  of  sack- 
ing about  his  hands  to  prevent  blister- 
ing them,  he  is  lowered  into  the  oven. 
Quickly  the  meat  is  collected  in  a  basket. 


Only  two  men  have  remained  near  the 
pit,  and  they  become  so  engrossed  with 
the  meat  basket  that  the  man  in  the  pit  is 
temporarily  forgotten.  The  heat  is  more 
than  anyone  can  endure  longer  than  a 
few  seconds,  but  the  shouts  of  the  unfor- 
tunate go  unheeded  until  a  Gentile  sends 
his  fellows  to  the  rescue. 

The  members  of  the  six  Samaritan 
families  have  now  collected  each  around 
one  of  the  lambs — men,  women,  children, 
and  nursing  babies.  The  elders  and  the 
priests  arrive,  each  girded  about  his 


THE  LAST  1SRAELIT1SH  BLOOD  SACRIFICE 


45 


Outer  clothing,  shod 
and  bearing  a  staff 
or  cane  in  imitation 
of  the  equipment  on 
the  flight  from  Egypt. 
Now  the  meat  is 
sprinkled  with  minced 
bitter  herbs,  and  straw 
trays  of  unleavened 
bread  are  placed  at 
hand.  The  high  priest, 
in  the  midst,  in  qua- 
vering tones,  says : 
"In  the  name  of  God 
I  call,  'Hear  O  Israel, 
our  God  is  one  God,'  " 
etc.,  while  all  voices 
join  in  singing  an  an- 
cient Exodus  hymn  in 
which  mention  is  made 
of  the  multitudes  of 
Israel  that  left  Egypt 
as  the  issue  of  only 
seventy  souls  who 
went  down  into  that 
land  in  the  days  of 
Joseph. 

Every  one  now  be- 
gins to  eat  ravenously, 
pulling  the  meat  from 
the  bones  with  the 
fingers.  No  forks  or 
knives  are  used,  and 
great  care  is  observed 
not  to  break  a  bone. 
The  flesh  is  consumed 
quickly,  for  the  de- 
vout are  truly  hungry, 
having  eaten  little  sub- 
stantial food  during 
the  previous  day. 
"And  they  shall  eat 
the  flesh  in  that  night, 
roast  with  fire,  and  unleavened  bread ; 
and  with  bitter  herbs  they  shall  eat  it. 
And  thus  shall  ye  eat  it :  with  your  loins 
girdled,  your  shoes  on  your  feet,  and 
your  staff  in  your  hand :  and  ye  shall  eat 
it  in  haste :  it  is  the  Lord's  Passover" 
(Ex.  12  : 8  and  n). 

Those  who  are  unable  to  leave  their 
tents  because  of  sickness  have  a  portion 
sent  to  them,  and,  no  matter  how  ill, 
they  always  partake  of  a  little.  Even  the 
nursing  babies  have  their  lips  touched  with 
a  morsel,  all  in  literal  compliance  with 


THE  SACRED  SCROLL  OF  THE  SAMARITANS  USED  ON  GERIZIM 
(REAR  VIEW) 

The  scroll  is  contained  in  a  copper  case  inlaid  with  silver  and 
gold,  with  designs  representing  the  temple  sacrificial  altar,  table  of 
shewbread,  the  golden  censer,  cup  of  manna,  and  other  temple 
furnishings. 


the  command  that  any  one  refraining 
from  eating  it  shall  be  cut  off  from  Israel. 
Within  a  few  minutes  the  meal  is  over 
and  the  high  priest,  leaning  picturesquely 
upon  his  staff,  recites  a  short  prayer. 
Every  bit  and  bone  remaining  is  now  col- 
lected and  taken  to  the  altar.  Across  the 
end  where  the  offal  has  been  burned  the 
wickerwork  oven  cover  is  now  thrown, 
and  upon  it  all  the  spits  are  piled,  to- 
gether with  the  bones  and  leavings.  A 
fire  is  lighted  under  them.  Every  person 
now  washes  with  hot  water  from  the  ket- 


Drawn  by  A.  H.  Bumstead 
A  MAP  OF  ASIA  MINOR  AND  THE  HOLY  LAND 

Showing  the  home  cities  of  the  Seven  Wise  Men  of  ancient  Greece  (see  the  succeeding 
article)  and  the  land  of  the  Samaritans.  (Note,  in  the  small  inset  map,  the  relative  location 
of  Mount  Gerizim  and  Mount  Ebal  and  the  historic  cities,  ancient  and  modern,  which 
have  clung  to  their  slopes — see  text,  pages  1-21}. 


lies,  pouring  it  over  his  hands  from 
ewers,  so  that  it  also  flows  into  the  ditch- 
altar,  lest  even  this  infinitesimal  quan- 
tity of  the  sacrifice  should  fail  to  be 
destroyed  by  fire. .  "And  ye  shall  let 
nothing  of  it  remain  until  the  morning; 
and  that  which  remaineth  until  the  morn- 
ing, ye  shall  burn  with  fire"  (Ex.  12  : 10). 

Thus  the  sacrifice  and  ceremony  com- 
memorating the  Exodus  are  ended. 

Each  celebrant  now  goes  to  his  tent 
for  a  few  hours'  sleep.  Early  the  next 
morning  the  congregation  again  gathers 
for  prayers,  the  day  being  observed  as  a 
Sabbath ;  the  first  day  of  the  feast  of  un- 
leavened bread. 

As  the  onlooker  retires  to  his  tent  or 
descends  the  path  to  Nablus  in  the  hush 
of  early  morning,  the  scene,  brightly  lit 
by  the  moon,  is  one  not  to  bs  forgotten. 


From  beyond  the  camp  a  great  white 
cloud  of  smoke  curls  skyward.  Now 
and  then  a  red  flame  licks  the  sky  or  a 
white,  ghost-like  figure  adds  some  fuel. 
It  is  a  picture  which  cannot  bs  repro- 
duced with  the  camera ;  only  to  the  mind's 
eye  can  it  be  painted.  The  wood-cuts 
and  steel-engravings  found  in  our  old 
family  Bibles,  where  the  Israelitish  camps 
are  shown  with  the  pillar  of  cloud  and 
fire,  come  nearest  the  present  reality,  but 
are  lacking  in  color  and  atmosphere. 

As  we  turn  for  one  last  glance  at  the 
moon-lit  camp  and  the  redder  glow  of 
the  flame  with  the  pillar  of  smoke,  we 
cannot  but  realize  that  here  we  have  seen 
the  eating  and  burning  of  the  last  Hebrew 
blood  sacrifice,  and  there  comes  the 
thought  that  it  may  never  be  seen  again, 
for  the  Samaritans  are  a  dying  people. 


46 


ASIA  MINOR   IN  THE  TIME   OF  THE  SEVEN 

WISE   MEN 


BY  MARY  MILLS  PATRICK 

PRESIDENT  OF  THE  AMERICAN  COLLEGE  FOR  GIRLS,  CONSTANTINOPLE 


A~IA  MINOR  was  the  home  of  the 
Seven  Wise  Men,  with  some  ex- 
ceptions. There  is  great  disagree- 
ment among  ancient  authorities  as  to  who 
all  of  the  Seven  Wise  Men  really  were, 
and  only  four  of  them  are  the  same  in 
all  the  lists  given. 

The  four  about  whom  we,,  are  sure  are 
Bias  of  Priene,  Pittakos  of  Mitylene, 
Thales  of  Miletus,  and  Solon  of  Athens, 
and  three  of  these  four  were  from  places 
on  the  eastern  Mediterranean.  (See  map 
of  Asia  Minor  on  opposite  page.)  ' 

Even  if  we  take  the  whole  list  of  the 
seven  as  they  are  sometimes  given,  four 
of  them  were. .from  Asia  Minor  or  the 
JEgean  Islands,  and  only  three  from 
Greece  proper.  Furthermore,  Solon  of 
Athens,  the  most  important  of  those 
from  Greece,  appears  to  have  greatly  en- 
joyed traveling  in  the  provinces  of  Asia 
Minor,  for  in  regard  to  his  journeys  in 
the  East  we  have  many  stories,  both  true 
and  false. 

One  familiar  story  concerns  his  visit 
to  Croesus,  the  richest  of  the  kings  of 
Sardis.  After  his  royal  host  had  shown 
him  all  the  glory  of  the  court  and  the 
treasures  of  silver  and  gold,  Solon  was 
asked  whom  he  considered  the  most  for- 
tunate man  in  the  world,  the  expectation, 
of  course,  being  that  the  Wise  Man 
would  name  the  great  and  powerful 
Croesus  as  the  most  fortunate  individual 
who  had  ever  existed. 

Solon,  to  the  king's  surprise,  however, 
named  certain  obscure  people  who  had 
done  their  duty  and  were  loved  by  their 
neighbors  and  afterward  died  the  death 
of  simple  but  honored  citizens. 

A   TAI.E  DESTROYED   BY    HISTORICAL 
CRITICISM 

The  noble  words  of  Solon  had  a  great 
effect  on  Croesus,  and  were  remembered 


at  the  tragic  moment  when  Cyrus  was 
just  about  to  burn  him  to  death,  and 
were  the  means  of  saving  his  life. 

We  all  know  this  story,  but,:  unfortu- 
nately, it  can  not  be  true,  for  Solon  would 
have  been  too  old  and  Croesus  too  young 
for  any  time  of  meeting  to  have  been 
possible;  and  so  we  must  yield  this  de- 
lightful tale,  with  many  others,  to  the 
destruction  of  historical  criticism. 

Another  story  which  connects  Solon 
with  the  East  may  be  genuine,  as  far  as 
its  chronology  is  concerned.  It  is  said 
that  the  great  law  giver,  hearing  his 
nephew  singing  one  day,  asked  him  who 
was  the  author  of  the  song.  The  youth 
replied  that  it  was  one  of  Sappho's 
poems  ;  and  Solon  was  so  much  impressed 
with  its  beauty  that  he  exclaimed,  with 
admiration,  "Let  me  not  die  before  I 
have  learned  it." 

PICTURING   THE    HOME   LIFE   OF  ASIA 
MINOR  2,5OO  YEARS  AGO 

The  centers  of  interest  and  activity 
among  the  Greeks  at  the  time  of  the 
Seven  Wise  Men  were  in 'Asia  Minor, 
and  such  familiar  names  as  Samos,  Chios, 
Miletus,  Mitylene,  Smyrna,  and  many 
others  were  connected  with  the  great 
events  that  occupied  the  minds  of  the 
people  in  that  era. 

All  who  are  familiar  with  the  scenes 
of  the  eastern  Mediterranean  love  them 
and  enjoy  reproducing  the  history  of 
their  past,  reviving  the  descriptions  of 
the  busy  life  that  came  and  went  from 
one  generation  to  another  in  those  sur- 
roundings. 

We  may  study  with  interes^.  Asia 
Minor  under  the  Roman  occupation,  at 
the  time  of  St.  Paul ;  or  we  may  go  far- 
ther back,  to  the  period  of  the  Kings  of 
Pergamus ;  or  we  may  try  to  picture  the 
life  of  the  eastern  Mediterranean  in  the 


47 


ARRIVING  AT  AN   ASIA   MINOR   MARKET-PLACE 

Why  it  should  be  considered  an  insult  to  call  a  man  a  donkey  cannot  be  understood  by 
those  who  know  life  in  the  Near  East,  for  the  patient,  sure-footed,  dependable  little  beast 
of  burden  has  as  many  virtues  as  he  has  duties.  Though  the  ways  in  which  they  are  em- 
ployed differ  greatly,  the  caravan  master  would  feel  as  much  at  a  loss  without  his  donkey  as 
would  the  Scotch  shepherd  without  his  collie. 


I 


Photographs  from  Mary  Mills  Patrick 

THE  CITY  OF  MITYLENE  HAS  GIVEN   ITS  NAME  TO  THE  ISLAND  WHICH   WAS  THE 

HOME   OF   SAPPHO 

Lesbos,  as  the  little  island  of  Mitylene  was  called  until  the  Middle  Ages,  was  the  home 
of  the  JEolian  school  of  lyric  poetry.  Beauty  and  profligacy  were  the  main  attributes  of  the 
Lesbian  women,  but  neither  characterizes  the  present  inhabitants. 


GREEK  PEASANTS  DANCING  ON  THE   HILLS   NEAR  EPHESUS 

These  lineal  descendants  of  the  Greeks  of  ancient  days  have  retained  much  of  the  grace 
and  appreciation  of  rhythm  which  distinguished  the  race  in  the  time  of  the  Seven  Wise  Men, 
when  a  knowledge  of  music  and  poetry  was  universal  in  Greece,  the  islands  of  the  yEgean, 
and  the  Ionian  colonies  of  Asia  Minor. 


Photographs  by  Cass  Arthur  Reed 
DONKEY  AND  CAMEL  BOY  ARE  THE  PACE-SETTERS  FOR  THE  NEAR  EASTERN   CARAVAN 

The  camel  is  too  dull  a  creature  to  be  without  a  leader,  so  the  donkey  leads  the  long 
line  of  patient  beasts  of  burden.  The  paving  here  seen  is  exceptionally  fine  for  Asia  Minor, 
but  when  wet  and  slippery  it  offers  an  insecure  footing. 


RUINS  AT  LAODICEA,  CITY  OF  ONE  OF  THE  SEVEN  CHURCHES  OF  THE  APOCALYPSE 

Ephesus,  Smyrna,  Pergamos,  Thyatira,  Sardis,  Philadelphia,  and  Laodicea  are  well 
known  to  students  of  Revelation.  The  Laodiceans  were  lukewarm  in  their  belief  and  were 
so  self-satisfied  in  their  material  wealth  that  Paul  censured  them  severely.  This  fine  city, 
named  for  the  wife  of  Antiochus  II,  suffered  at  the  hands  of  Timur  the  Lame  and  was  re- 
peatedly damaged  by  earthquakes. 


Photographs  from  Mary  Mills  Patrick 

GUZELHISSAR,  MEANING  BEAUTIFUL  TOWERS,  IS  THE  TURKISH   NAME  FOR  ANCIENT 

TRALLES,  WHOSE  RUINS  ARE  TO  BE  FOUND  EIGHT   MILES  FROM 

THE    BANKS   OF   THE    M/EANDER    RIVER 

The  town,  which  is  found  on  English  maps  as  Aidin,  sits  astride  the  Eudon,  an  affluent 
of  the  historic  Mscander.  The  tanning  of  morocco  leather  and  the  export  of  cotton  and  figs 
are  the  chief  industries,  but  to  the  epicure  of  Turkey  the  city  is  famous  for  its  sweetmeats. 
Tralles  was  once  the  strongest  fortress  in  the  broad  valley  of  the  winding  river  from  which 
we  derive  the  word  "meander." 


ASIA  MINOR  IN  THE  TIME  OF  THE  SEVEN  WISE  MEN 


51 


even  earlier  period  of  the  Seven  Wise 
Men,  which  was  from  650-550  B.  C.  It 
was  a  time  of  unique  interest  in  history, 
for  much  of  our  present  thought-life 
owes  its  origin  to  movements  which  be- 
gan in  the  days  of  the  Wise  Men. 

Can  we  put  ourselves  back  in  that  far- 
away time  and  picture  something  of  the 
homely,  every-day  life  of  the  people? 
Can  we  find  out  how  they  thought  and 
felt? 

What  we  wish  is  not  the  historical  facts 
about  that  age,  nor  the  translation  of  the 
writings  that  have  come  down  to  us  from 
it,  but  the  human  living,  which  was  the 
cause  of  the  history  and  of  the  litera- 
ture, —  something  which  books  cannot  give 
us  —  a  comprehension  of  the  throbbing, 
pulsing  life  that  was  strong  and  vivid 
enough  to  make  itself  felt,  even  to  the 
present  time. 

THE   CHARM   OF  ISLAND  LIFE  IN   THE 


The  outward  surroundings  we  can  re- 
produce, for  they  are  still  practically  the 
same.  The  eastern  Mediterranean  is  one 
of  the  gardens  of  the  world.  The  sea  is 
bluer  than  other  seas;  the  tints  of  the 
skies  are  softer,  the  violet  and  rose  blend 
more  marvelously  in  the  sunsets,  the 
mountains  have  a  sensuous  attraction, 
and  the  sails  on  the  horizon  allure. 

There  is  a  wonderful  charm  also  in 
the  island  life  of  the  yEgean,  and  that 
charm  must  be  in  many  ways  the  same 
at  the  present  time  as  it  was  in  the  dis- 
tant age  of  which  we  are  speaking. 

Other  parts  of  the  world  have  changed 
under  the  transforming  power  of  modern 
enterprise,  but  the  shores  and  islands  of 
of  the  vEgean  have  thus  far  largely  es- 
caped the  influence  of  modern  business 
life.  As  yet,  no  sky-scrapers  nor  com- 
mercial storehouses,  few  railroads,  auto- 
mobiles. and  electric  trolleys  mar  the  ef- 
fect with  their  harsh  lines  and  shrill 
sounds. 

The  calm  and  peace  of  country  scenes 
have  remained,  and  in  their  natural  fea- 
tures we  may  still  find  the  surroundings 
of  the  old  life,  for  the  environment  of 
the  new  scenes  gives  us  the  probable  set- 
ting of  the  old. 

The  shipping  also  has  not  wholly  lost 
its  ancient  form.  It  is  true  that  the  pic- 


turesque warships,  with  their  banks  of 
oars  each  side,  have  disappeared;  but 
the  craft  which  lazily  sail  from  one  port 
to  another  today  may  well  remind  us 
of  the  descriptions  of  the  old  merchant 
vessels. 

ALWAYS   THE  SEA  FOR  REFUGE 

A  great  wave  of  colonization  had 
passed  over  that  part  of  the  world  just 
before  the  time  of  the  Wise  Men,  and 
the  colonies,  after  the  struggle  for  ex- 
istence of  the  eirly  years  in  new  sur- 
roundings, had  emerged  into  a  larger  life. 
In  finding  larger  life  the  sea  always 
helped  them ;  for,  in  political  strife  within 
and  the  need  of  protection  from  without, 
there  was  always  the  sea  for  refuge. 
People  who  can  sail  away  from  trouble 
at  home  always  find  resources,  and  the 
sea  was  the  source  of  many  treasures. 

The  growth  of  the  colonies  was  rapid, 
for  other  reasons.  How  could  it  be 
otherwise  in  such  beautiful  and  fruitful 
surroundings !  As  Herodotus  says,  "The 
lonians  built  their  cities  under  the  finest 
sky  and  in  the  finest  climate  in  the  world, 
for  neither  the  regions  above  nor  below 
nor  the  parts  to  the  East  or  West  are  at 
all  equal  to  Ionia." 

IONIA  THE   CENTER  OF  THE   WORLD'S 
COMMERCIAL  LIFE 

People  of  the  twentieth  century  look  to 
England  and  the  United  States  as  among 
the  countries  where  the  comforts  of  liv- 
ing and  opportunities  of  learning  how  to 
do  things  are  very  great,  but  men  went 
to  Ionia,  in  Asia  Minor,  for  these  ad- 
vantages in  the  age  of  the  Wise  Men. 

To  be  up  to  date  at  that  time  one  had 
to  live  in  Ionia,  where  life  was  luxurious. 
There,  things  were  produced  richly  with 
little  effort ;  grapes  were  abundant  and 
the  wine  the  best  in  the  world,  and  ships 
laden  with  olives  and  wine  and  oil  sailed 
to  all  ports  of  the  Mediterranean — Egypt 
and  Phoenicia,  Italy  and  Northern  Africa, 
and  even  as  far  west  as  Spain — bringing 
back  the  luxuries  of  other  lands. 

Long  before  Athens  joined  the  circle 
of  commercial  cities,  the  riches  of  the 
entire  eastern  world  were  represented  in 
Ionia.  The  market-place  in  both  large 
and  small  towns  was  the  central  point 
and  constituted  a  kind  of  bourse — in  fact, 


MOSLEM   LOUNGERS  IN   FRONT  OF  A  COFFEE-HOUSE   IN   AN   ASIA   MINOR  TOWN 

Since  the  Turks  took  possession  of  Asia  Minor,  in  the  fifteenth  century,  it  has  been 
known  as  Anatolia,  a  word  derived  from  the  Greek  meaning  "rising"  or  "East."  It  com- 
prises the  entire  peninsula  which  forms  the  western  extremity  of  Asia  lying  between  the 
Black  Sea  on  the  north  and  the  Mediterranean  on  the  south.  Its  total  area  is  about  twice 
that  of  the  State  of  Colorado. 


Photographs  by  Cass  Arthur  Reed 

BESDEGUMA,  A  VILLAGE  IN  THE  AIDIN  VILAYET  OF  ASIA  MINOR,  WHICH  is  SELDOM 

VISITED  BY  STRANGERS 

Even  in  remote  districts  the  camera  is  recognized  and  the  ordinary  business  of  the  town 
is  suspended  while  the  strutting  braves  "have  their  picture  took."  The  coffee-house  is  the 
Turk's  cafe  and  club,  and  even  in  the  busy  season  muleteers  and  laborers  take  time  to  gossip 
and  drink  the  thick  black  coffee  which  takes  the  place  of  alcoholic  beverages. 


Photograph  from  Mary  Mills  Patrick 
MILKING  A   GOAT  OUTSIDE   A   CUSTOMER'S    HOUSE 

A  goat  can  thrive  where  cattle  would  starve  and  sheep  would  hunger.  Europeans  be- 
lieve that  goat  milk,  if  used  unboiled,  will  cause  Malta  fever,  but  the  Asia  Minor  natives 
drink  it  fresh  and  warm. 


was  the  Wall  Street  of  the  town — where 
the  excitement  of  trade  ran  so  high  that 
a  market-master  was  necessary  to  con- 
trol it. 

THE  FIRST  COINS 

The  question  naturally  arises:  "How 
was  business  carried  on,  by  barter  or  by 
some  primitive  kind  of  banking  system?'' 

Our  chief  testimony  on  this  point  is 
furnished  by  the  coins  of  the  period,  for 
coinage  originated  in  Asia  Minor,  and  as 
early  as  the  time  of  the  Wise  Men  coins 
were  in  common  use.  There  are  very 
few  specimens  of  that  age  now  in  ex- 
istence, yet  some  are  preserved  in  the 
British  Museum  and  in  other  collections. 

The  first  coins  were  made  of  electrum, 
which  is  a  mixture  of  gold  and  silver  and 
which  was  found  in  natural  form  in  the 
mountains  of  Lydia.  There  were  no  in- 
scriptions on  them,  but  emblems  of  re- 
ligious worship  and  also  of  trade.  The 
connection  of  the  coins  with  religion  may 
have  been  because  everything  in  that  time 
was  associated  with  religion.  Possibly 
the  priests  in  the  temples  were  the  first 


to  invent  coins.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
association  may  simply  indicate  that  the 
two  things  about  which  the  people  cared 
most  were  religion  and  trade. 

Of  this  type  the  coin  of  Cyzicus,  on 
the  Marmora,  is  well  known.  It  bsars 
the  figure  of  a  tunny  fish  decorated  with 
a  sacrificial  fillet.  The  great  trade  of 
Cyzicus  at  that  time  was  in  tunny  fish, 
which  belongs  to  the  mackerel  family 
and  is  found  in  the  Sea  of  Marmora. 
The  fillet  expressed  the  religious  ac- 
knowledgment. 

The  coins  were  very  primitive  in  ap- 
pearance and  irregular  in  shape,  some 
round  and  some  oblong,  and  all  of  them 
much  thicker  than  coins  of  a  later  day. 

HOW  THE  CULTURE  OF  A  PAST  AGE  IS 
STUDIED 

The  age  of  the  Wise  Men  was  an  age 
of  a  certain  type  of  culture.  There  are 
two  conditions  necessary  for  culture :  one 
is  freedom,  and  the  other  is  a  fair  degree 
of  material  comfort.  As  Homer  says  in 
the  Odyssey: 


53 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Ernest  L.  Harris 
FOUR  YOUNG  ADAIJANS  AND  THEIR   PLAYMATE 

Just  as  Smyrna  is  the  center  of  Greek  hopes  for  influence  in  Asia  Minor,  Adalia  is  the 
city  where  Italian  ambitions  find  expression.  Adalia  is  the  most  picturesque  city  on  the 
southern  coast  of  Anatolia  and  many  of  its  buildings  are  richly  ornamented.  There  is  a 
small  inner  harbor  and  a  larger  outer  harbor,  both  of  which  at  one  time  could  be  closed 
with  chains. 


The  heaven-taught  poet  and  the  enchanting 

strain, 
These  are  the  products  of  a  peaceful  reign. 

For  some  of  the  successful  people  of 
Ionia,  pleasure  consisted  in  the  possession 
of  objects  of  oriental  luxury,  in  pomp 
and  in  the  lazy  idleness  to  which  the 
Eastern  climate  always  tempts  us ;  but 
for  those  who  cared  to  attain  to  higher 
things,  the  opportunity  came  in  the 


spirit  being  free  from  sordid  care  and 
from  the  pressure  of  daily  need,  with 
leisure  to  think. 

The  culture  of  the  age  depended,  how- 
ever, not  only  upon  economic  causes,  but 
also  to  a  large  degree  upon  the  inspira- 
tion given  by  intercourse  with  other  na- 
tions, bringing  about  exchange  of  ideas 
and  increased  knowledge. 

The  age  of  the  Wise  Men  was  before 


ASIA  MINOR  IX  THE  TIME  OF  THE  SEVEN  WISE  MEN 


the  time  of  Greek  history,  and  there  are 
few  records  from  which  o  reproduce  it. 
In  trying  to  describe  the  culture  of  an 
age  wholly  different  from  anything  which 
we  have  ever  known,  the  chief  authority 
is  from  internal  evidence  of  writings  of 
the  time,  largely  poetry,  which  now  exist 
for  the  most  part  in  fragments,  quoted 
by  later  writers,  and  also  from  pictures 
or  vases  belonging  to  that  period. 

The  pictorial  representations  on  the 
vases  of  the  stories  of  the  gods  renroduce 
the  ordinarv  customs  of  daily  life  in  re- 
gard to  religious  worship,  dress,  use  of 
chariots  and  horses,  weapons  of  war. 
varieties  of  musical  instruments,  habits 
of  sitting  and  standing,  wedding  and 
funeral  ceremonies,  and  many  other 
things. 

Are  we  justified  in  calling  the  period  a 
cultured  one? 

It  seems  to  me  that  we  are  justified  in 
attributing  culture  to  people  who  could 
produce  and  enioy  the  best  lyric  poetry 
which  the  world  has  ever  known,  and 
who  could  originate  lines  of  thinking  that 
have  had  a  permanent  significance  in  the 
development  of  the  intellectual  life  of 
later  times. 

Emerson  says  that  the  flower  of  civili- 
zation is  the  finished  man,  the  man  of 
sense,  of  grace,  of  accomplishment  and 
social  power,  and  of  such  there  were 
many  in  that  age. 

We  find  in  the  late  seventh  and  sixth 
centuries  B.  C.  the  beginning  of  modern 
systematic  knowledge,  and  a  careful  study 
of  the  thought  of  the  time  will  give  us  an 
insight  into  the  origin  of  modern  science 
and  philosophy,  for  our  present  use  of 
language  and  our  ideas  of  the  world  are 
permeated  with  the  results  of  that  ancient 
thinking. 

Even  the  emancipation  from  traditions 
and  the  desire  for  independent  individual 
thought,  which  characterize  modern 
ideals,  find  their  counterparts  in  the  age 
of  the  Wise  Men. 

ANCIENT  CULTURE   WAS   ADDRESSED  TO 
THE   EARS 

The  culture  that  arose  in  Ionia  was 
very  different  in  its  form,  however,  from 
any  development  of  later  times,  and  most 
difficult  for  us  to  understand. 


It  was,  first  of  all,  addressed  to  the  ears' 
and  not  to  the  eyes.  We  are  now  essen-' 
tially  an  eye-minded  people,  and  measure 
our  learning  by  the  books  that  we  read 
and  write  and  collect  in  libraries  'and  by 
other  things  that  we  can  see  with  our 
eyes,  but  the  sixth  century  B.  C.  was  an 
age  without  any  free  distribution  of  writ- 
ten records  and  only  the  beginnings  of 
libraries,  which  were  mostly  collections 
of  wooden  tablets.  Some  of  the  great 
men  of  the  latter  part  of  the  period  each 
wrote  a  book,  but  it  was  a  laborious 
process. 

Heraclitus  of  Ephesus  was  one  of 
those  who  wrote  a  book  which  was  kept 
for  safety  in  the  Temple  of  Diana  at 
Ephesus ;  for  a  book  was  not  a  thing  to 
be  lightly  regarded,  and  the  process  of 
writing  was  so  difficult  that  it  was  far 
easier  to  remember  what  one  had  written 
than  to  decipher  it  from  the  book. 

Solon  and  Pittakos  wrote  their  laws  on 
wooden  tablets.  However,  they  did  not 
write  them  for  general  circulation  among 
their  friends,  but  rather  to  preserve  the 
laws  that  they  had  promulgated. 

LABORIOUS  TO  WRITE,  WRITING  DIFFICULT 
TO   READ 

Greek  writing  at  the  time  of  the  Wise 
Men  was  not  easy  to  read,  for  neither  the 
words  nor  the  sentences  were  divided 
from  each  other,  and  the  lines  ran  both 
from  right  to  left  and  from  left  to  right. 

The  length  of  time  which  archeologists. 
even  when  they  are  good  Greek  scholars, 
give  to  puzzling  out  insertions  which 
belong  to  that  period  would  not  lead  us 
to  suppose  that  any  writing  of  the  time 
would  form  easy  reading  for  an  evening 
by  the  fireside  or  an  afternoon  siesta. 

During  the  t>eriod  of  the  Wise  Men. 
however,  writing  was  becoming  more 
common,  as  it  was  in  that  age  that  we 
had  the  beginning  of  Greek  prose;  and 
while  it  is  easy  to  conceive  of  poetry  be- 
ing communicated  from  one  generation 
to  another  by  constant  repetition,  it  would 
not  be  the  same  with  prose,  at  least  in  the 
case  of  prose  that  followed  any  consecu- 
tive train  of  thought. 

There  were  certain  forms  of  prose, 
however,  in  the  age  of  the  Wise  Men  that 
could  be  easily  remembered,  such  as  the 
so-called  gnomic  sayings,  which  were 


Photograph  from  Mary  Mills  Patrick 
AN   OLD  TURKISH   BRIDGE   NEAR  BRUSA 
The  silting  up  of  the  river  beds  in  the  Near  East  shows  the  deplorable  effects  of  deforestation. 


•  Photograph  by  Cass  Arthur  Reed 

THE   CARRIAGE,  THE   CAMEL   TRAIN,    THE   GREEK    PRIEST   SEATED    SERENELY    ASTRIDE 

A  DIMINUTIVE   DONKEY,   AND  THE   PEDESTRIANS   ARE  ALL 

TYPICAL  OF   MODERN   SMYRNA 

This  city,  like  six  others  of  Greece,  the  ^Egean  archipelago,  and  Asia  Minor,  lays  claim 
to  the  distinction  of  being  Homer's  birthplace.  The  poet  was  once  worshiped  here  in  a 
magnificent  building  known  as  the  Homereum. 


ASIA  MINOR  IN  THE  TIME  OF  THE  SEVEN  WISE  MEN 


57 


mostly  proverbs,  and  also  fables. 
and  his  fables  belong  to  that  era,  although 
JEsop  himself,  who  is  one  of  our  most 
precious  literary  heroes,  is,  I  regret  to 
say,  tottering  somewhat  under  the  attacks 
of  historical  criticism. 

HOW  GREEK  POETRY  WAS  PRESERVED 

Culture  was  certainly  not  measured  by 
book-learning,  but  every  educated  man  or 
woman  had  to  be  ready  with  his  lyre, 
when  called  upon  after  dinner,  to  accom- 
pany an  improvisation,,  which  might  be 
good  or  bad,  according  to  his  ability.  If 
he  could  not  improvise,  he  repeated  some 
of  the  wonderful  poetry  which  was  the 
inheritance  of  the  age,  for  the  highest 
expression  of  the  culture  of  the  time  was 
in  its  poetry. 

The  older  epic  poetry  and  the  lyric 
poetry  of  the  era  of  the  Wise  Men  would 
furnish  the  means  of  culture  to  any  age. 
There  was  a  freshness  in  the  thought  and 
delicacy  in  the  use  of  words  in  the  Greek 
lyrics  different  from  anything  found  in 
later  literature,  and  it  is  in  the  poetry  that 
we  find  the  real  soul  of  the  age.  Many 
fragments  of  it  have  been  preserved,  not 
by  any  special  effort  at  the  time,  but  be- 
cause it  was  a  part  of  the  life  of  the 
people  and  must  live. 

Greek  lyrics  were  the  result  of  many 
generations  of  poetical  and  musical  ex- 
pression, and  they  show  the  real  creative 
work  of  the  era  and  furnish  us  with  the 
most  subtle  refinement  of  word  pictures 
that  the  world  has  ever  known. 

Musical  and  poetical  contests  were 
common,  in  which  the  music  and  poetry 
were  given  together  and  depended  on 
each  other  for  the  complete  effect  desired, 
and  it  is  difficult  to  know  which  was  the 
more  important,  the  music  or  the  poetry. 

We  are  familiar  in  classic  study  with 
the  names  of  many  of  the  great  lyric 
poets  of  that  period,  but  they  themselves 
were  as  frequently  called  musicians  as 
poets.  For  instance,  the  poet  Alkalos  had 
the  reputation  of  being  one  of  the  great- 
est musicians  who  had  ever  lived. 

A  profound  moral  and  physical  influ- 
ence was  attributed  to  music.  Good 
music  was  considered  to  have  the  power 
to  reform  the  character  and  to  heal  dis- 
ease, and  to  interpret  poetry  and  make  it 


intelligible  to  the  inner  nature.  The  art 
of  music  was,  therefore,  one  of  the  finest 
things  in  the  education  of  that  time.  It 
was  much  simpler  than  the  music  of  mod- 
ern times  and  was  entirely  subordinate  to 
the  words  sung  or  repeated. 

The  charm  of  the  music  of  this  age 
seems  to  have  been  partly  in  the  extreme 
precision  of  rhythmic  treatment  and  in  a 
protracted  dwelling  of  the  voice  on  one 
syllable.  When .  the  words  which  the 
music  accompanied  were  improvised,  the 
improvising  took  place  under  definite 
rules,  and  the  learning  of  these  rules 
formed  the  most  important  part  of  the 
education  of  a  poet. 

To  the  reciting  and  the  music  there  was 
also  added  a  rhythmic  motion  of  the  body, 
so  that  the  entire  personality  of  the  per- 
former was  absorbed  in  the  attempt  to 
express  the  thought  of  the  poem.  The 
music  was  constant  though  subordinate, 
and  the  whole  performance  produced 
effects  of  which  the  most  melodious  of 
modern  poets  could  never  dream. 

MANY   MUSICAL  INSTRUMENTS 

There  were  many  kinds  of  musical  in- 
struments, but  the  cithara  and  the  lyre 
were  the  ones  commonly  used  in  accom- 
panying poetry,  while  the  flute  was  played 
by  both  men  and  women,  in  furnishing 
martial  music  to  the  soldiers  in  time  of 
war.  Musical  bands  marched  to  war  with 
the  soldiers  and  played  on  flutes,  pipes, 
and  harps. 

For  private  use,  the  lyre  and  the  harp 
were  preferred,  for  it  was  thought  that 
they  did  not  prevent  one  from  remaining 
master  of  himself — a  free  and  thinking 
man  or  woman — while  the  flute,  pipe,  or 
clarinet  put  the  man  beside  himself  and 
obscured  reason. 

There  is  a  story  of  a  harpist  which 
might  belong  to  any  age.  He  started  a 
school  in  which  to  teach  harp-playing. 
He  had  in  his  school  nine  statues  of  the 
nine  muses  and  one  of  Apollo,  but  only 
two  pupils.  When  some  one  asked  him, 
however,  how  many  pupils  he  had,  he 
said :  "Gods  and  all,  twelve !" 

There  were  extensive  choirs,  whose 
music  was  distinctly  connected  with  the 
religious  life  of  the  people.  These  choirs 
were  composed  of  both  men  and  women 


60 


ASIA  MINOR  IN  THE  TIME  OF  THE  SEVEN  WISE  MEN 


61 


•rand  w^er^teg^^^for  public  and  private 
religious  l£sTivaTs: — to  celebrate,  perhaps, 
a  victory,  a  death,  a  holy  day,  a  birth,  or 
a  marriage.  We  are  told  that  Alkman, 
who  lived  as  early  as  650  B.  C.,  wrote  a 
choir  song  for  girls  which  was  a  dramatic 
part  song. 

RHAPSODISTS    PRECEDED    DRAMATISTS    AND 
ACTORS 

There  was,  however,  no  drama  strictly 
speaking ;  the  place  which  the  drama  sub- 
sequently occupied  was  filled  by  the  rhap- 
sodists.  A  rhapsodist  was  one  who  sang 
professionally  or  intoned  to  music  the 
poems  of  his  age  and  of  earlier  ages. 
For  this  purpose  some  part  of  the  so- 
called  Homeric  poems  was  usually  se- 
lected, an  introduction  and  some  closing 
words  added,  and  it  was  presented  to 
companies  of  people  in  private  houses. 

A  professional  rhapsodist  would  nat- 
urally choose  the  most  popular  parts  of 
Homer;  but  if  he  were  a  man  of  some 
thought  power,  he  might  present  his  own 
compositions,  although  that  would  hap- 
pen more  rarely. 

Whenever  a  banquet  was  given,  the 
best  rhapsodist  to  be  procured  was  en- 
gaged, one  who  could  recite  not  only 
Homeric  poems,  but  those  of  Hesiod  and 
Archilochus,  not  neglecting  the  lyric  com- 
posers of  his  own  time. 

In  this  way  the  best  of  the  world's 
poetry  became  a  part  of  the  familiar 
thinking  of  the  common  people,  and  it 
was  surely  a  much  easier  and  pleasanter 
way  of  learning  than  through  studying 
from  books.  There  were  so  many  rhap- 
sodists  in  the  latter  part  of  the  period 
that  they  were  organized  into  guilds  and 
schools. 

PREPARATIONS  FOR  A  BANQUET 

The  room  in  the  house  which  was  used 
for  entertaining  was  usually  rather  large, 
with  an  earthen  floor,  which  was  care- 
fully swept  before  a  feast  was  given. 
Before  the  guests  arrived,  the  hosts  and 
hostesses  washed  their  hands  and  the 
goblets  were  all  rinsed.  In  the  center  of 
the  room  stood  an  altar,  which  was  cov- 
ered with  wreaths  of  flowers.  The  large 
wine  bowl  was  filled  to  the  brim. 

The  guests  arrived  wearing  crowns  of 


flowers,  and  the  wine-cup,  with  wine  and 
water,  usually  mixed  half  and  half,  was 
passed  around,  but  not  before  libations 
were  poured  upon  the  ground  for  the 
gods. 

There  was  very  free  use  of  many  kinds 
of  ointments  and  perfumes,  some  of 
which  were  very  costly,  made  from  all 
kinds  of  flowers.  As  a  poet  of  the  age 
writes : 

From  the  slender  vase 

A  willing  youth  presents  to  each  in  turn 

A  sweet  and  costly  perfume. 

Honey  and  cheese  were  given  the  place 
of  honor  among  the  refreshments.  The 
house  resounded  with  music  and  song. 

Now  the  rhapsodist  enters,  wearing  his 
white  robe  and  golden  crown.  There  is  a 
man  or  woman  with  him  who  also  wears 
a  crown  and  who  sings  or  plays  a  low 
accompaniment  to  the  poetry  which  the 
rhapsodist  recites. 

He  begins,  perhaps,  with  selections 
from  Homer,  whose  poems  always  had 
first  place  in  the  literary  life  of  the  day, 
and  then  follow  some  of  the  lyric  poems 
of  Terpander  and  Archilochos,  Sappho, 
and  others.  He  naturally  selects  the  poet 
that  belongs  to  the  place  where  the  feast 
is  given. 

In  Lesbos  one  would  sing  of  Terpan- 
der, Alkaios,  or  Sappho,  and  in  Paros  of 
Archilochos,  and  in  Smyrna  or  Chios  of 
Homer. 

WOMEN   SHARED   IN   A1X  CIVIC   ACTIVITIES 

Social  life  in  Ionia  and  the  islands  was 
the  life  of  men  and  women  together,  for 
women  were  free  in  that  age  to  share  in 
all  the  activities,  even  in  public  athletic 
exercises  in  the  gymnasium  of  the  town, 
as  we  read  of  their  doing  in  the  Island  of 
Chios. 

There  were,  to  be  sure,  no  suffragettes, 
for  formal  voting  by  citizens  of  any  class 
was  a  thing  of  later  times,  but  the  life  of 
all  was  free  and  open  and  natural,  and 
the  standards  of  morality  were  much 
higher  than  in  subsequent  periods  of 
Greek  history.  It  is  to  the  corruption  of 
later  times  that  we  owe  the  calumnies 
that  injured  the  fame  of  Sappho,  for  the 
free  life  of  the  era  of  the  Seven  Wise 
Men  was  not  appreciated  by  succeeding 
ages. 


63 


64 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Celebrations,  whether  public  or  pri- 
vate, to  be  sufficiently  distinguished,  de- 
manded something  new — a  new  poem, 
new  music,  new  dance  motions.  Thus 
arose  the  professional  schools  of  the  time, 
where  girls  and  women  were  taught  to 
write  poetry  and  music.  The  best  known 
of  these  was  the  School  of  Sappho  at 
Mitylene,  although  there  were  many 
others — two  others  even  in  Mitylene. 

Sappho's  school  was  in  a  house  in  the 
city,  and  young  women  came  from  all 
that  part  of  the  world  to  attend  it.  We 
know  the  name  of  one  girl  who  came 
from  Greece  itself  to  join  this  school. 
They  were  taught  the  rules  of  poetry,  and 
to  compose  music  and  poetry,  for  the  life 
of  the  people  called  for  new  music  and 
new  poetry  almost  every  day. 

There  was  a  great  demand  also  for  new 
hymns  to  the  gods,  as  each  town  wished 
to  surpass  the  others  in  its  festivals,  and 
each  great  victory  in  war  or  celebration 
of  some  local  event  depended  for  success 
on  the  poetry  and  music  of  the  occasion. 

In  time  of  peace,  wedding  songs  were 
constantly  needed,  as  every  bridegroom 
then,  doubtless,  as  at  the  present  time, 
considered  his  own  bride  the  most  beau- 
tiful of  all  living  women,  and  desired  to 
provide  the  newest  and  the  best  poetry 
for  the  nuptial  ceremony.  Thus  it  came 
about  that  the  wedding  songs  written  by 
Sappho  were  among  the  most  beautiful 
of  her  poems. 

These  early  schools  for  music  and 
poetry,  which  provided  for  the  artistic 
needs  of  the  people,  seem  to  have  existed 
before  any  school  of  philosophy  was 
known. 

THE  FIRST  SCHOOL,  OF  PHILOSOPHY 

The  first  school  of  philosophy  was  es- 
tablished in  Miletus  by  Thales,  one  of 
the  Wise  Men,  and  was  quite  a  remark- 
able institution,  exerting  an  influence  for 
more  than  a  century. 

Thales  seems  to  have  given  himself 
more  entirely  to  this  school  than  to  any  of 
his  other  undertakings.  There  is  a  legend 
that  he  never  married,  and  when  his 
mother  pressed  him  to  do  so  he  said :  "It 
is  not  yet  time."  After  his  youth  was 
passed  she  again  urged  him  to  marry  and 
he  said :  "It  is  no  longer  time." 


Many  of  the  subjects  taught  in  his 
school,  such  as  astronomy,  geometry,  and 
geography,  show  the  influence  of  Egypt 
and  Phoenicia;  but  the  philosophy  was 
probably  an  original  product,  for  while 
some  of  the  sciences  were  somewhat  ad- 
vanced, the  philosophy  was  apparently  a 
first  attempt  at  an  explanation  of  the 
origin  of  the  world.  It  originated  a 
movement  which  culminated  more  than 
a  century  later  in  the  idealism  of  Plato. 

We  may  perhaps  understand  something 
of  the  attitude  of  the  common  people  to- 
ward Thales'  School  of  Philosophy  from 
the  story  of  the  old  woman  who  laughed 
when  the  master  fell  backward  into  a 
ditch  after  gazing  too  long  at  the  stars. 
The  old  woman  not  only  laughed,  but 
she  is  said  to  have  called  after  him:  "If 
you  cannot  see  what  is  under  your  feet, 
how  can  you  understand  what  is  in 
heaven  ?" 

GEOGRAPHY  AND  ASTRONOMY  WERE  THEN 
PRIMITIVE  STUDIES 

The  geography  and  astronomy  taught 
in  this  school  were  very  primitive:  The 
earth  was  flat ;  the  sun  circled  around  it 
horizontally,  being  concealed  at  night  by 
high  hills.  One  writer  of  the  time  de- 
scribes the  world  in  the  following  poeti- 
cal way :  "God  makes  a  mantle,  large  and 
fair,  and  embroiders  on  it  earth  and 
ocean  and  ocean's  dwellings." 

It  is  probable  that  the  schools  of  the 
eastern  Mediterranean  possessed  an  an- 
cient form  of  charter  which  consecrated 
them  to  the  purpose  of  learning  and  pre- 
vented interference  in  their  activities  by 
the  city. 

In  their  charter,  some  god  was  selected 
for  the  patron  deity,  and  his  statue  would 
be  the  first  thing  seen  on  entering  the 
school  building  or  the  grounds.  Sacrifices 
were  offered  to  this  particular  deity,  and 
processions  and  banquets  were  made  in 
his  honor  and  holidays  were  given  on  his 
feast  days.  Frequently  some  of  the  god- 
desses or  muses  were  selected,  for  one  of 
the  poets  says :  "Loud  crying  is  not  fitting 
in  a  house  dedicated  to  the  muses." 

This  form  of  charter  was  called  a 
thiasos,  and  is  fully  described  in  later 
times  in  connection  with  the  schools  of 
Athens.  The  strongest  reason  for  be-^ 


Photograph  by  George  M.  Kyrpie 

WATER-CARRYING   HAS   ITS   COMPENSATIONS  IN  THE   NEAR  EAST,  FOR   IT  FOSTERS 
SOCIAL    INTERCOURSE   AMONG   THE    WOMEN 

.At  times  thirty  or   forty  women  may  be  seen  discussing  for  hours  the  news   of  the  day 

at  such  a  fountain. 


65 


66 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Cass  Arthur  Reed 

THE  GREAT  MARBLE  BLOCKS  JUST  OUTSIDE 

THE  THEATER  AT  EPHESUS  SHOW  HOW 

SPLENDIDLY  THE  CITY  WAS  BUILT 

At  Ephesus  the  Phoenicians  introduced  the 
religious  cult  of  their  moon  goddess,  protect- 
ress of  trade.  The  temple  was  defended  by 
armed  virgins,  and  when  the  Greeks  under 
Androclus  met  the  fierce  resistance  of  these 
women  warriors  the  world  gained  the  legend 
of  the  Amazons.  The  supremacy  of  the  heathen 
goddess  was  unchallenged  until  Paul  preached 
the  gospel  which  caused  Demetrius,  the  idol- 
maker,  to  fear  that  his  profession  would  be 
harmed  by  such  doctrines. 

lieving  that  the  custom  of  the  thiasos  ex- 
isted in  such  an  early  age  is  the  subtlety 
and  force  with  which  religious  thought 
penetrated  all  the  life  of  the  period. 

There  seems  to  have  been  a  shrine  at 
almost  every  turn  of  the  mountain  path 


and  a  religious  ceremony  for  every  act 
of  daily  life.  There  were  spirits  in  every 
wood  and  stream  and  spring. 

The  people  thought  oj  their  religion 
in  connection  with  every  event  and  al- 
ways consulted  the  oracle  whenever  they 
undertook  anything  new.  The  oracle  that 
they  honored  most  was  far  away  at 
Delphi,  in  Greece,  and  before  going  to 
war,  or  building  a  town,  or  forming  an 
alliance,  a  messenger  was  sent  there  to 
ask  advice  of  the  oracle. 

Delphi  held  the  imagination  as  the 
place  where  the  gods  spoke  to  men,  in- 
spiring the  priestesses  with  divine  words. 
Yet  I  fancy  that  when  feeling  ran  high 
the  people  did  not  always  wait  to  send  a 
messenger  to  Delphi,  which  would  be  a 
matter  of  several  weeks  at  least.  Prob- 
ably they  often  acted  without  the  au- 
thority of  the  oracle  and  then  secured  it 
afterward. 

People  visited  Delphi,  however,  from 
all  parts  of  the  Grecian  world  to  get  ad- 
vice, and  the  place  became  not  only  a 
kind  of  inspiration  bureau,  but  also  a 
bureau  of  information,  for  the  priestesses 
saw  and  talked  with  people  from  many 
places  and  became  very  wise  in  the  politi- 
cal affairs  of  their  time  and  often  were 
able  to  give  extremely  good  advice. 

Their  influence  was  felt  all  through 
the  Greek  colonies,  and  one  of  them, 
Themistoclea,  is  said  to  have  been  the 
teacher  of  Pythagoras. 

THE  DELPHIC  ORACLE  AS  A  GREAT  DEPOSI- 
TORY OF  WEALTH 

The  oracle  did  not,  however,  send  ad- 
vice free  of  payment.  Rich  presents  were 
expected  in  return,  and  Delphi  became 
a  kind  of  national  banking-house  for  the 
cities  of  Ionia,  with  different  treasuries 
to  contain  offerings  from  the  different 
places.  Gifts  of  every  form  and  degree 
of  value  were  sent  there — iron  spits  on 
which  to  roast  oxen  used  in  the  sacrifices  ; 
bowls  of  gold  and  silver,  and  all  kinds 
of  the  choicest  treasures  of  the  richest 
cities. 

When  the  sayings  of  the  oracle  failed 
to  prove  true,  however,  complaints  were 
sometimes  made,  and  the  priestess  would 
be  obliged  to  justify  herself.  So  it  was 
usually  found  wiser  to  be  rather  non- 
committal and  to  give  commands  that 


ASIA  MINOR  IN  THE  TIME  OF  THE  SEVEN  WISE  MEN 


67 


could  be  carried  out  in  more  than  one 
way;  to  send  an  inscrutable  answer,  that 
sounded  deep  and  wise  and  would  allow 
those  who  sent  to  consult  the  oracle  the 
privilege  of  doing  their  own  way. 

Yet  the  power  of  the  oracle  was  almost 
unlimited  and  controlled  even  the  rights 
of  kings  in  the  most  distant  parts  of  the 
Grecian  world. 

There  was,  however,  another  side  to 
the  religious  life  of  that  time  more  diffi- 
cult to  understand.  During  the  sixth 
century  B.  C.  there  arose  a  great  wave 
of  religious  emotions,  affecting  every 
oracle  and  popular  temple  and  influenc- 
ing even  some  of  the  philosophical  teach- 
ing. It  seemed  to  appear  first  as  an  out- 
burst of  personal  miracle-working  in  con- 
nection with  the  worship  of  Dionysus 
and  was  especially  strong  in  Asia  Minor. 

It  taught  the  purging  of  sin  by  sacri- 
fice, the  immortality  and  divinity  of  the 
soul,  eternal  reward  to  the  pure,  beyond 
the  grave,  and  retribution  to  the  impure, 
the  pure  being  those  initiated  into  these 
teachings.  This  was  the  religion  of  the 
common  people  and  was  closely  connected 
with  the  Orphic  mysteries  which  were 
practiced  in  secret,  took  the  form  of  secret 
societies,  and  therefore  are  almost  impos- 
sible to  investigate. 

THE    BELIEF    IN    INCARNATION 

Certain  of  these  cults  believed  in  the 
incarnation  and  suffering  of  Dionysus 
Zagreus.  Zagreus  was  a  god  who  was 
born  again  as  a  man,  yet  was  a  god,  was 
received  into  heaven,  and  became  the 
highest  and,  in  a  sense,  the  only  god.  An 
individual  who  worshiped  Dionysus  Zag- 
reus could  himself  develop  his  potential 
divinity. 

Dionysus  was  explained  in  the  Orphic 
mysteries  as  the  god  within  the  spirit  of 
worship,  as  inexplicable  joy,  as  the  per- 
sonification of  the  spirit  of  ecstacy,  and 
the  impulse  above  reason  that  lifts  man 
out  of  himself  and  gives  him  power  and 
blessedness.  These  mysteries  were  in 
part  dependent  upon  the  singing  and 
playing  of  sacred  music. 

In  the  time  of  the  Wise  Men  many  of 
the  old  temples  were  rising  on  the  coast 
of  Asia  Minor.  The  Temple  of  Diana 
of  Ephesus,  one  column  of  which  is  now 
in  the  British  Museum,  was  begun. 


There  is  also  to  be  seen  in  the  British 
Museum  a  lion  of  colossal  size  from 
Miletus,  carved  in  marble,  on  which  the 
name  of  Thales,  the  Wise  Man,  is  in- 
scribed. 

Sculpture  had  been  for  some  time  an 
acknowledged  art  and  figures  were  made 
of  gold  and  silver  as  well  as  of  marble. 
Iron  also  was  sometimes  used  for  orna- 
ments, as  soldering  in  iron  was  discov- 
ered in  that  age  by  a  man  in  Chios. 

The  pottery  was  perhaps  the  most 
artistic  product  of  the  time,  and  the 
earliest  known  vase  bearing  a  Greek  in- 
scription, now  in  the  British  Museum, 
was  from  one  of  the  ^Egean  Islands.  It 
is  ascribed  to  the  early  part  of  the  period 
of  the  Wise  Men. 

THE  HALLS  OF  FAME  AND  HOSPITALITY 

The  social  life  was  first  of  all  religious, 
as  the  worship  of  the  gods  and  goddesses 
involved  many  public  and  private  cere- 
monies, but  there  was  also  public  politi- 
cal life  in  various  forms. 

In  every  large  city  there  was  a  pry- 
taneum,  where  national  heroes  were  hon- 
ored and  where  public  feasts  were  given. 
Among  the  cupbearers  who  served  the 
wine  were  sons  of  most  noble  families. 
One  of  Sappho's  brothers  was  a  cup- 
bearer in  the  prytaneum  in  Mitylene. 
The  prytaneum  was  the  state  hearth, 
where  the  sacred  fire  was  ever  burning, 
and  there  was  the  center  of  the  life  of 
the  whole  city  and  of  the  colonies  sent 
out  from  that  city. 

Of  the  details  of  the  lives  of  the  Wise 
Men  we  know  very  little,  and  the  stories 
told  about  them  are  probably  mythical. 
Bias  of  Priene  is  sometimes  placed  at 
their  head,  but  Thales  and  Solon  are  the 
best  known.  Pittakos  was  a  wise  re- 
former and  king  in  Mitylene,  and  there 
is  one  figure  of  his  head  in  existence 
which  is  found  in  the  Bibliotheque  Na- 
tionale,  in  Paris,  on  a  coin  of  later  date 
from  Mitylene. 

The  life  of  each  one  of  them  "was 
doubtless  thrilling  with  interest,  but  the 
utmost  that  we  can  do  to  revive  their  ac- 
tivities is  to  associate  the  few  events  that 
are  known  with  the  places  which  were  the 
theater  of  their  actions  and  which  are  also 
a  part  of  our  own  surroundings. 


c.s 

*+^     ^"» 

rt 

s'l 

£  o 

tn 

o  QJ 


D 
O 

O    _ 

u  ^ 
<  in 

W      M 

w  w 

a  g 

j-.  5-1 
2:  S 

M 

. .   tn 

SI 

j-   O 

W  o 
o  > 


Q    A 


3  £ 

^3    OJ 

«-! 


« 


O 
X 

S 

K 
tr> 
2 
W 


C 

W 

Pri 

fa 


«-"        VJ 

o  o 
'be'C 

tu  n 
i-  o 

Sx 


«  g 

w  o 
-G  b 


§ 


|S 

J3  o 

rt  o 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  AND 
BATAK  HIGHLANDS  OF  SUMATRA 

BY  MELVIN  A.   HALL 

With  Photographs  by  the  Author 


A  FEW  low  islands,  eventually  to  be 
gathered  to  the  shores  of  the  im- 
mense mother-island  by  steadily 
encroaching  alluvial  deposit,  appeared 
and  dropped  from  sight  in  the  sultry  haze 
of  mid-afternoon  as  we  steamed  up  the 
Straits  of  Malacca.  Sumatra  itself  was 
never  visible,  although  on  the  other  side 
of  the  Straits,  to  the  northeast,  the  palm- 
fringed  Malayan  coast  and  blue  dorsal 
range  of  the  interior  remained  all  day  in 
view. 

But  the  Sumatran  east  coast  is  so  low 
and  flat  that  its  long,  dark-green  out- 
line can  seldom  be  distinguished  above 
the  black  water  before  the  ship  actually 
approaches  its  harbor. 

It  is  a  swampy,  unhealthy  coast,  formed 
by  the  deposits  of  silt  washed  down  from 
the  mountains  in  the  periodic  inundations 
of  an  enormous  annual  rainfall.  In  this 
way  the  whole  of  the  broad  plain  be- 
tween mountains  and  sea,  which,  behind 
its  mangrove  fringe,  forms  the  splendidly 
rich  lands  of  rubber  and  tobacco  estates, 
has  gradually  been  built  up  and  is  steadily 
being  extended. 

The  mangrove  plays  a  considerable 
part  in  this  extension  because  of  its  re- 
markable powers  of  reproduction.  Grow- 
ing partly  in  the  shallow  water  of  the 
littoral,  these  trees  spread  out  a  labyrinth 
of  surface  roots  that  act  as  a  framework 
for  the  accumulating  mud,  which  in  the 
course  of  time  rises  above  the  surface 
and  forms  land. 

CURIOUS  SIGHTS  ON  THE  RIVER 

The  ripe  seeds  of  the  mangrove  do  not 
fall  off,  but  germinate  upon  the  parent 
tree,  growing  downward  in  long,  straight 
shoots.  Eventually  these  drop  from  their 
own  weight,  and,  falling  upright  in  the 
shoal  water,  sink  to  the  muddy  bottom 
and  there  take  root.  Many  fall  beyond 
the  outer  edge  of  the  swamp,  and  as  the 


process  continues  more  land  is  formed 
and  the  coast-line  is  gradually  pushed 
farther  out  into  the  sea. 

The  morning  after  leaving  Singapore 
we  sighted  the  thin,  dark  line  of  the 
shore  as  the  ship  steamed  in  between 
the  closely  set  bamboo-and-string  nets 
of  the  Malay  coast  fishermen.  Then  the 
water  became  the  color  of  pea  soup  from 
the  river-brought  silt  of  volcanic  moun- 
tains, and  shortly  after  the  first  glimpse 
of  Sumatra  we  crept  into  Kuala  Belawan, 
one  of  the  mouths  of  the  Deli  River,  the 
screw  churning  up  the  dirty  yellow  mud 
into  a  frothy  trail. 

The  shallow  water  and  shifting  mud- 
banks  of  the  coast  make  the  location  of 
ports  unreliable  and  frequently  necessi- 
tate their  removal  or  abandonment  after 
they  have  once  been  established. 

Although  large  steamers  now  dock  in 
the  port  of  Deli,  like  most  other  Sumatran 
ports  it  is  but  a  broad,  mud-colored 
stream,  winding  sluggishly  through  dense 
equatorial  swamps. 

The  ship  ploughed  over  the  bar  into 
the  midst  of  scenery  typical  of  low  rivers 
near  the  line.  Dripping  mangroves,  with 
black,  snake-like  roots,  shut  in  the  river's 
edge,  only  here  and  there  grudgingly 
yielding  a  little  space  to  tiny  coconut 
groves  where  palm-thatched  huts  roosted 
high  on  piles  above  the  oily  water. 

A  few  sampans  and  narrow  dug-out 
canoes  idled  along  the  banks,  the  fierce 
rays  of  the  sun  reflected  from  the  ripples 
in  their  wake  and  glistening  on  the  bare 
brown  backs  of  their  oarsmen. 

Farther  up-river  a  line  of  high-sterned 
praus  from  Borneo,  gayly  colored  and 
carved,  regarded  the  steamer  with  mis- 
trustful, painted  eyes.  Their  cargoes  of 
Bandjermasin  matting  for  tobacco  bales, 
and  anak  kajoe  (poles  for  tobacco  dry- 
ingf),  and  atap  for  thatchine  roofs  lay 
piled  high  around  their  curious  masts, 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


DRIVING  THROUGH   A  TEAK   FOREST   NEAR   MEDAN,  AN    IMPORTANT   SEAPORT  ON   THE 

NORTHEAST   COAST   OF   SUMATRA 

Of  all  the  timbers  of  the  world,  teak  is  the  most  valuable.  Its  durability  is  remarkable, 
rafters  in  some  of  the  temples  of  India  having  served  their  purpose  for  more  than  a  thou- 
sand years.  It  is  used  for  shipbuilding  and  interior  paneling  and  in  the  manufacture  of 
furniture.  It  can  be  easily  worked  and  is  susceptible  of  a  high  polish.  When  properly  sea- 
soned, it  neither  cracks,  shrinks,  nor  alters  its  shape.  The  teak  is  not  one  of  the  giants  of 
the  jungle,  however,  for  it  seldom  attains  a  height  greater  than  150  feet. 


one  rising  upright  amidships,  the  other 
with  a  weird  forward  rake  near  the 
sharp-pointed  bow.  Beyond,  the  steamer 
rounded  a  bend  in  the  river  and  tied  up 
to  the  dock,  where  groups  of  men  in 
immaculate  white  suits  and  white  topees 
awaited  its  arrival. 

LANDING  LABOR   FOR   SUMATRA 

While  waiting  to  supervise  the  unload- 
ing of  my  automobile,  I  watched  all  the 


fourth-class  passengers  as  they  were 
counted,  checked  off,  and  landed. 

The  latter  process,  however,  was  so 
interesting  that  I  did  not  begrudge  the 
time  it  required. 

All  the  deck  space  not  reserved  for 
first-cabin  passengers  was  packed  with 
coolies  from  Batavia  and  littered  with 
their  effects.  A  considerable  number  of 
them  had  camped  in,  on,  and  under  my 
motor — chattering,  smoking,  combing 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


71 


•  &,  :  '    •'  '  ,,M  .  ^  ,  if" 


DRYING-SHEDS  FOR  CURING  THE  FAMOUS  SUMATRAN  TOBACCO 

These  atap-thatched  buildings  are  no  longer  used  for  tobacco,  however,  for  this  plain  has 
been  given  over  to  rubber  trees,  which  are  being  extensively  planted  nowadays. 


each  other's  hair,  tending  their  babies, 
and  munching  little  packages  of  strange 
food  folded  up  in  plantain  leaves. 

They  were  contract  coolies  on  their 
way  to  labor  on  the  tobacco  and  rubber 
estates  of  Deli  and  were  chiefly  Javanese, 
though  a  few  Bandjarese  from  Borneo, 
Klings  of  southern  Indian  origin,  Malays, 
and  other  nationalities  appeared  among 
them. 

SUMATRA  is  THIRTEEN  TIMES  THE  SIZE 

OF  HOIXAND 

Sumatra  is  an  immense  island,  nearly 
four  times  the  size  of  Java  and  thirteen 
times  larger  than  Holland  itself,  but  its 
war-decimated  population  amounts  to  less 
than  3,200,000,  most  of  which,  for  vari- 
ous reasons,  is  not  available  for  labor. 
Because  of  this  the  island  is  barely  be- 
ginning to  attract  attention,  although 
more  favorably  situated  than  Java  and 
richer  in  natural  resources. 
'~>/VtJava  is  a  country  of  magnificent  reali- 
zation, Sumatra  one  of  great  future." 
In  the  development  of  that  future  practi- 
cally all  the  labor  has  to  be  imported  on 
short-term  contracts.  Chiefly  it  is  Chinese, 
which  is  expensive ;  Kling,  which  is 


viewed  with  disfavor  by  the  British  In- 
dian Government,  or  Javanese,  which  is 
unwilling  to  come  and  does  not  thrive  in 
the  climate. 

The  tribulations  of  a  labor  contractor 
from  the  time  of  collecting  his  gang  to 
their  final  safe  delivery  in  Sumatra  are 
legion  and,  to  one  disinterested,  very 
amusing. 

The  Javanese  is  tractable  and  physi- 
cally a  fair  laborer,  but  neither  very  am- 
bitious nor  reliable.  He  likes  his  feast 
days,  his  rice  harvesting,  his  little  com- 
forts and  luxuries,  and  is  not  eager  to 
forego  them  for  the  uncertain  induce- 
ments of  foreign  lands.  But  his  mind 
is  receptive,  and  the  clever  contractor, 
fortifying  it  with  well-chosen  stories  of 
fortunes  easily  made,  belittling  the  coolie's 
fears  and  objections,  is  often  able  to  se- 
cure his  contract  by  the  timely  offer  of  a 
new  sarong  (the  chief  article  of  dress 
worn  in  the  Malay  Archipelago)  and 
perhaps  a  month's  wages  in  advance. 

But  here  the  contractor's  troubles  be- 
gin. Unless  carefully  guarded,  the  cool- 
ie's enthusiasm  is  very  apt  to  wane,  and 
the  moment  for  departure  arrives  with 


72 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A  UTTLE  GOSSIP   NOW   AND  THEN   IS  RELISHED  EVEN   BY   PRIMITIVE   WOMEN:  AT  A 

KARO-BATAK    MARKET 


coolie,  new  sarong,  and  month's  wages 
unaccounted  for. 

LURING  THE  JAVANESE  COOLIE  FROM  THE 
CONTRACTOR 

Even  when  safely  gathered  on  board 
ship  and  the  coast  of  Java  has  been  sunk, 
there  remains  still  to  be  cleared  the  inter- 
vening port  of  Singapore.  There,  in  dis- 
guise, wily  touts  for  the  Malayan  coolie 
brokers  smuggle  themselves  aboard,  no 
matter  how  vigilant  the  ship's  officers 
may  be,  for  labor  is  everywhere  in  de- 
mand. With  much  astuteness  they  pro- 
ceed to  poison  the  minds  of  the  already- 
frightened  Sumatra-bound  Javanese. 

"Sumatra?  A  country  of  tigers  and 
ferocious  savages  who  eat  nothing  but 
coolies;  a  cold  land,  where  there  is  no 
sun,  no  rice ;  where  laborers  are  unpaid, 
cruelly  treated,  and  whence  they  rarely 
return !" 

So  the  tout  whispers  on,  adding  terror 
to  their  own  premonitions,  refuting  all 
that  the  contractor  had  said,  and  in  the 
end  offering  to  aid  in  their  immediate 
escape  from  the  horrible  fate  in  store,  to 


the  tempting  security  of  fortune  and  hap- 
piness in  the  Malay  States. 

Strict  watch  is  kept  over  the  ship  while 
in  Singapore,  but  scarcely  a  trip  is  taken 
that  a  few  of  those  under  contract  are 
not  among  the  missing  when  the  final 
count  is  made.  For  every  one  lost  the 
first  mate  is  personally  fined,  I  think 
about  fifty  gulden ;  but  if  he  brings  a  cer- 
tain percentage  safely  to  their  destination 
he  receives  a  liberal  bonus.  Consequently 
the  final  checking  off  is  fraught  with  deep 
anxiety  for  all  concerned. 

STRIKING    COLOR    EFFECTS    IN    WOMEN'S 
ADORNMENTS 

Single  file,  as  I  watched,  the  ship-load 
of  coolies  passed  before  me  and  down  the 
gangway  between  two  officers  and  a  con- 
tractor's agent,  who  checked  them  as  they 
went — men,  women,  boys,  and  girls,  with 
folded  mats  under  their  arms  and  their 
possessions  tied  up  in  long  cloths  slung 
around  their  necks  and  resting  on  their 
hips.  Only  those  with  babies  were  kept 
apart  and  counted  last,  lest  one  tiny  head 
should  be  overlooked. 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


73 


THESE  FEMALE  PORTERS  ARE  NOT  AS   HEAVILY  BURDENED  AS  THEY  APPEAR  TO   BE  | 
THEIR  HEAD  PACKS  CONSIST  OF  FINE  MATTING 


They  were  a  picturesque  lot  in  their 
gay-colored  clothes.  Most  of  the  women 
were  bareheaded,  their  black  hair  brushed 
back  and  knotted  behind,  with  strings  of 
coral  beads  hanging  around  their  necks 
and  big  buttons  of  gold  and  silver,  jade, 
amber,  or  ebony  extending  their  pierced 
ear-lobes.  Brilliant  scarves  half-con- 
cealed their  fresh  white  corsages,  and 
leather  belts  with  massive  silver  buckles 
encircled  sarongs  of  many  hues. 

Around  the  heads  of  nearly  all  the  men 
were  twisted  the  universal  brown  ker- 
chiefs of  Java  flaunting  starched  corners ; 
and,  in  addition  to  their  sarongs  and  a 
few  short  coats  and  pajama  tops,  there 
was  a  noticeable  partiality  for  white  un- 
dershirts and  long  pink  drawers. 

Following  the  others  came  a  tall  Pun- 
jabi Mohammedan  with  a  long  gray 
beard.  His  dignified  bearing  and  the 
striking  eyes  of  the  Indian  Mussulman, 
which  looked  straight  out  from  under  an 
enormous  turban,  marked  him  at  once  as 
a  very  different  type  from  his  casual  Ma- 
lay brethren. 

Two   hours   more   elapsed   before   the 


next  landing  party,  ourselves  and  the  car. 
finally  left  the  ship.  The  dock  was  many 
feet  below  the  deck  and  the  spaces  in 
which  the  car  had  to  be  turned  were  all 
shorter  than  its  length. 

A  mathematician  might  have  amused 
himself  by  figuring  out  the  possible  com- 
binations in  which  that  car  could  have 
been  jammed — I  am  sure  we  missed 
none — and  when  finally  it  was  disentan- 
gled from  the  forest  of  stanchions,  rail- 
ings, projecting  corners,  and  other  checks 
to  its  progress,  the  crew  and  I  breathed 
deep  sighs  of  relief. 

But  as  Belawan  is  isolated  in  the  man- 
grove swamps,  except  for  the  long  new 
bridge  of  the  Deli  Railway,  one  further 
struggle  was  necessary  before  the  motor 
was  really  "landed"  in  Sumatra,  and  we 
toilsomely  manipulated  it  onto  an  under- 
sized railway  truck.  Then  I  relaxed  into 
a  seat  and  made  faces  back  at  the  silver- 
gray  monkeys  which  derided  me  from  the 
trees,  as  the  train  took  us  up  to  Medan, 
fourteen  miles  inland. 

The  capital  of  the  Government  of  the 
East  Coast  of  Sumatra  and  headquarters 


EVEN  THE  CARTS  IN  SUMATRA  ARE  THATCH-ROOFED 

Central  Africa  has  not  a  greater  variety  of  animal  life  than  Sumatra.  Elephants,  tigers, 
myriad  apes  and  monkeys,  two-horned  rhinoceroses,  and  the  most  gorgeous  butterflies  in  the 
world  are  to  be  found  in  the  magnificent  jungles  of  the  island.  The  plant  life  is  amazing 
in  its  luxuriance.  Some  varieties  of  bamboo  shoot  up  like  giant  stalks  of  asparagus,  at  the 
rate  of  a  foot  or  more  a  day,  and  in  three  or  four  months  are  waving  their  fronded  tops 
above  centuries-old  monarchs  of  the  forest. 


PRIMITIVE  TRANSPORTATION  AND  MODERN  COMMUNICATION  SIDE  BY  SIDE  IN 
SUMATRA.    NOTE  THE  TELEPHONE  WIRES 


74 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


75 


of  the  Amsterdam-Deli  Company,  the 
most  important  tobacco  company  of  the 
Indies,  is  a  modern  town,  created  by  the 
Dutch  and  laid  out  in  a  very  attractive 
manner. 

MEDAN   A  CITY   OF    MANY   MIXED   RACES 

There  is  an  airy  appearance  and  a  cheer- 
ful, "white-man's"  atmosphere  about  the 
official  buildings  around  its  spacious 
square  and  the  cool,  shaded  streets  of  its 
European  quarter. 

The  white  bungalows  are  extremely 
attractive  in  their  green  and  well-kept 
grounds,  shaded  by  tall  royal  palms,  rub- 
ber trees,  bamboo,  banyans,  "flames  of 
the  forest,"  travelers'  trees,  and  other 
tropical  growth. 

The  huge  buildings  of  the  Deli  Com- 
pany, with  a  European  hospital  and  a 
well-appointed  asylum  for  native  immi- 
grants, are  almost  hidden  in  the  dense 
verdure  of  a  park  filled  with  beautiful 
shade  trees. 

Farther  out  are  the  native  compounds 
and  various  Asiatic  quarters,  having  each 
its  own  characteristics. 

The  Chinese  compound,  with  its  elab- 
orate temple,  bears  the  unmistakable 
mark  of  the  Celestial  Republic,  with  adap- 
tations to  East  Indian  conditions.  Its 
houses,  joined  together  in  even-fronted 
rows,  faced  with  cement  or  white  and 
tinted  plaster,  with  carved  and  colored 
decorations  and  roofs  flaring  slightly  up- 
ward at  the  corners,  are  much  the  same 
as  are  found  in  Malayan  towns.  Many 
of  the  stores  and  a  large  part  of  the  trade 
of  Medan  are  in  the  hands  of  Chinese, 
who,  as  usual,  are  extremely  prosperous. 

Medan's  prosperity  and  importance  are 
due  to  its  location  in  the  center  of  the 
rich  tobacco  lands;  and  owing  to  this, 
with  the  consequent  demand  for  labor 
and  to  the  scarcity  of  native  Sumatrese, 
its  population  of  about  14,000  is  a  very 
mixed  one. 

THE   "BIG  DAY,"   SUBSTITUTE   FOR   SUNDAY 

We  had  arrived  in  the  midst  of  hari- 
basar  and  so  were  immediately  intro- 
duced to  this  interesting  feature  of  Su- 
matran  life. 

The  tobacco,  rubber,  and  various  other 
estates  of  the  east  coast  are  spread  over 


such  a  vast  amount  of  territory,  with  so 
comparatively  small  a  number  of  white 
men  in  their  administration,  that  the 
Dutch  planters  and  managers  outside  of 
the  head  office  and  shipping  ports  are  apt 
to  be  more  or  less  isolated  from  the  so- 
ciety of  their  own  kind.  Since  it  is  quite 
without  significance  to  the  Asiatic  labor- 
ers, Sunday  is  not  recognized  as  a  holiday 
on  the  estates,  but  in  its  place  a  substitute 
has  been  instituted  in  the  fortnightly 
hari-basar,  occurring  about  the  first  and 
fifteenth  of  each  month  and  literally 
meaning  "big  day"  or  "holiday."  Both 
are  pertinent. 

On  these  days  all  the  planters — the 
general  term  for  white  men  in  any  capac- 
ity on  an  estate,  either  their  own  or  a 
company's — who  are  able  to  do  so,  flock 
in  from  their  estates  to  the  towns,  those 
within  reach  of  Medan  naturally  seeking 
the  capital. 

Very  few  are  free  to  celebrate  every 
hari-bazar,  and  when  they  do  come  into 
town,  usually  arriving  the  night  before 
the  "big  day"  with  weeks  of  silence  and 
loneliness  to  make  up  for,  they  waste  very 
little  of  their  time  in  sleep.  Neither  does 
any  one  else  whose  room  happens  to  be 
in  the  vicinity  of  their  gathering  places. 

The  club  and  hotels  are  filled,  as  they 
were  the  night  we  arrived,  with  ruddy, 
healthy-looking  Dutchmen  in  fresh  white 
suits,  sitting  around  big  tables  in  unre- 
mitting conversation,  while  vast  quanti- 
ties of  gin  and  bitters  and  other  beverages 
are  consumed,  but  with  very  little  effect 
on  these  hardy  men  of  the  open  air. 

COMFORT   AND   PRIVACY   IN   A    MEDAN 
HOT-EL 

Among  its  other  advantages,  Medan 
possesses  one  of  the  best  hotels  in  the 
Netherlands  Indies.  The  Hotel  de  Boer 
is  built  upon  the  plan  largely  used 
throughout  Farther  India — the  dining- 
room,  cafe,  office,  and  kitchen  by  them- 
selves in  one  single-story  building,  open 
on  all  sides  to  the  air  and  shaded  by  large 
covered  verandas  and  splendid  big  trees. 
Around  this,  forming  three  sides  of  a 
square  separated  by  a  driveway  from  the 
central  building,  the  bed-rooms  occupy 
the  entire  depth  of  a  second  single-story 
structure. 


c  __ 
u   O 


o  c 

6 

>>  w 


•o  " 


rt    p, 
S    1) 


sl 

S 


-c 
c 


G  j; 


O  aj 

•a  c 


w 
H 


4)      1-1     </)  «+H 


'.  J  V    CQ 

*Jj    4)  «-i-i    >i   li 

••Sboo.    rt 


w 
I 


s    iejll 

Q          bo  §  4>  ^  "5 
en         'C  "~>  *-   o 

</^  J"1  h—/  **       » 

r3      ^      I=0 
cj    .£.2.2 

•w  «  cs  -^  tu)  « 

j  o  jj       ^  £! 

<  o    &-S  S  S  «'2 

^  S    8^5*^ 

o  <          §     g.8 

|U    '     ^cs^o^'bb 


•c  o 


I.S   > 


•— '    tn   O 

j«  *.*{  y 

5  2    -2i 

a!   C   c  "O 


rjai.t:1 


77 


DWELLING  IN   SUMATRA  IS  ITS  OWN   BARNYARD 

Contrary  to  the  custom,  the  floor  of  this  porch  is  made  of  whole  bamboo  poles  rather 
than  the  split  pieces.  The  floors  of  most  of  the  houses  sag  in  the  middle.  The  roofs  are 
of  thatch,  made  of  the  leaves  of  the  atap  palm. 


78 


79 


Each  room  has  its  own  covered  veranda 
in  front,  cool  and  shady  and  screened 
from  view,  and  its  own  bath  in  the  rear. 
The  comfort  and  privacy  of  this  style  of 
construction  is  unequaled  for  warm  cli- 
mates. 

With  the  aid  of  the  proprietor  of  the 
hotel,  I  procured  a  servant,  a  Malay- 
speaking  Kling,  to  take  with  us  into  the 
interior.  Kling  is  the  term  used  in  Malay 
countries  for  Tamils  and  occasionally  for 
other  races  of  Southern  India  who  come 
to  these  countries  as  settlers  or  for  trade. 
(All  other  continental  Indians  are  called 
Bengalis.)  Joseph  was  a  Tamil,  a  Cath- 
olic from  French  Pondicherry,  and  a  very 
good  servant. 

THE  WHITE)  MAN'S  ADVENT  RESISTED 
WITH  FANATICAL  COURAGE 

The  whole  of  Sumatra  has  presented 
a  very  different  problem  to  Dutch  coloni- 
zation from  the  organization  of  Java, 
with  ten  times  its  population.  The  in- 
habitants of  the  larger  island,  though 
few  in  numbers,  have  resisted  foreign 
interference  with  the  most  stubborn  and 
fanatical  courage.  Each  one  of  its  nu- 
merous tribes  and  principalities  has  had 
to  be  subdued  in  turn,  a  long  and  difficult 
process,  as  there  was  none  of  the  almost 
docile  submission  of  the  Javanese. 

Sumatra  is  immense  in  area  and  be- 
tween its  different  sections  there  is  little 
inland  communication,  that  which  exists 
being  of  a  treacherous  and  warlike  char- 
acter. Much  of  the  island  remains  un- 
explored ;  other  parts,  as  the  whole  of 
Achin,  in  the  north,  are  still  in  a  state  of 
protracted  warfare,  which  seems  destined 
to  end  only  with  the  eventual  extermina- 
tion of  the  resisting  tribes. 

The  Achinese  war  alone  has  cost  over 
200.000  lives  and  been  an  expense  to  Hol- 
land of  $200.000,000.  The  first  hostili- 
ties date  back  to  1599,  but  for  the  last 
forty  years  fighting  has  been  continuous, 
a  guerrilla  warfare  of  surprises  and  am- 
bushes in  the  jungles,  in  which  the  deter- 
mined resistance  of  the  Achinese  contin- 
ues undiscouraged,  although  their  gov- 
ernment has  been  deposed  and  all  their 
towns  and  strategic  positions  occupied  by 
Dutch  troops. 

Leaving  the  capital,  our  road  at  first  led 


through  some  miles  of  country  dense  and 
green  with  vegetation,  with  tiny  thatched 
native  huts  making  picturesque  brown 
spots  in  the  midst  of  fruit  trees  and  coco 
palms.  As  we  approached  nearer  to  the 
hills,  this  gave  way  to  open  plains  cov- 
ered with  high  grass  and  low  bushes,  the 
characteristic  tobacco  land  of  Deli. 

THROUGH    THE    FAMOUS    TOBACCO    LANDS 

The  larger  estates,  especially  those  of 
the  Deli  Company,  are  divided  into  sec- 
tions under  the  administration  of  assist- 
ant managers.  Each  year  only  one-tenth 
to  a  fifth  of  their  enormous  area  is  under 
cultivation,  since  to  maintain  the  high 
quality  of  the  tobacco  grown  the  land  is 
left  fallow  for  from  five  to  ten  years  after 
each  crop.  During  the  first  year  the  na- 
tives are  permitted  to  grow  rice  upon  the 
fallow  fields ;  then  the  soil  is  left  to  itself 
and  to  the  bushes  and  rank  grass  which 
soon  cover  it. 

The  tobacco  crop  is  a  rich  one,  but  the 
demands  it  makes  upon  the  land  and  upon 
labor  are  such  that  it  is  npt  surprising  to 
find  the  newer  estates  annually  devoting 
more  and  more  of  their  attention  and  ter- 
ritories to  rubber  and  other  less  exacting 
products. 

Gradually  ascending  in  altitude,  we 
passed  through  many  miles  of  these  mon- 
otonous, fallow-lying  plains,  their  deso- 
late appearance  only  increased  by  an  oc- 
casional row  of  unused  drying-sheds 
and  a  few  fire-blackened  trunks  of  huge 
toealang  trees,  solitary  survivors  of  the 
primeval  forest. 

The  sections  actually  in  cultivation, 
however,  were  extremely  interesting,  with 
many  acres  of  magnificent  tobacco  plants 
growing  to  a  height  of  five  or  six  feet  in 
closely  planted  parallel  ridges.  Frequently 
they  hedged  the  road  on  both  sides  and 
extended  in  unbroken  rows  as  far  as  the 
eye  could  follow  over  the  rolling  fields. 

EACH    RACE   TO   ITS   OWN   TASK 

The  work  of  the  plantation  is  many- 
sided  and  the  various  nationalities  em- 
ployed are  usually  engaged  in  their  own 
distinctive  branches  of  labor.  Thus,  al- 
though sometimes  replaced  by  other  races, 
Chinese  predominate  in  the  actual  work 
on  the1  tobacco  plants ;  the  bullock-cart 


80 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


AN  ELABORATE  PIGEON-HOUSE  IN  THE  VILLAGE  OF 
KEBON  DJAHE 

Sumatra  has  an  area  exceeding  the  combined  areas  of  the 
New  England  States,  New  York,  and  Pennsylvania.  If  it 
were  superimposed  on  this  continent,  it  would  extend  from 
St.  Louis  to  Boston. 


drivers  are  Klings ;  the  carpenters  are 
Boyans ;  the  Javanese  are  woodmen, 
road-builders,  and  gardeners ;  and  the 
Bataks  and  Sumatra  Malays,  who  are  not 
obtainable  in  large  numbers  nor  reliable 
for  sustained  labor,  clear  the  land  pre- 
paratory to  planting,  and  build  roads  and 
sheds. 

The  ubiquitous  Sikh  is  often  found  in 
his  favorite  capacity  of  guard  or  police- 
man. 

At  the  time  of  our  trip  the  tobacco 
plants  were  half  to  three-quarters  grown 


and  the  drying-sheds  were 
being  prepared  to  receive 
them.  Upon  some  of  the 
more  advanced  estates  the 
lower  leaves  of  the  plants 
had  already  been  picked 
and  were  hanging  in  the 
sheds,  threaded  on  long 
strings  and  labeled,  while 
wood  fires  smouldered  at 
intervals  on  the  ground. 

Lines  of  two  -  wheeled 
bullock  carts  with  loose 
roofs  of  thatched  palm 
leaves,  matting,  or  even 
sheet  tin,  rumbled  slowly 
up  and  down  the  roads, 
hauling  supplies  and  ma- 
terial for  the  estates.  Many 
of  the  slow-plodding  Indian 
oxen  were  magnificent  big 
Guzerat  animals,  with  large 
humps  and  long  silky  dew- 
laps, and,  with  their  red- 
turbaned  Tamil  drivers  sit- 
ting on  the  floor  of  the 
open- fronted  carts,  were 
strongly  reminiscent  of  the 
tea  plantations  of  Ceylon. 

THE    HIGHWAYS    OF 
SUMATRA 

The  road  was  very  good, 
wide,  well  made,  and  much 
better  than  I  had  expected. 
There  is  practically  no  rock 
in  this  part  of  the  island, 
and  the  metaling  for  the 
roads  must  be  imported ; 
nevertheless,  the  chief  high- 
ways of  the  coastal  plains 
and  the  pass  over  the  moun- 
tains are  all  macadamized. 
In  the  highlands,  where  metaling  has 
not  yet  been  attempted,  such  roads  as 
exist  are  of  a  very  different  type.  These 
are  of  dirt  or  clay,  well  built  and  main- 
tained, and  said  to  be  very  good  in  dry 
weather. 

Unfortunately,  we  were  there  when 
seventeen  days  of  continuous  rainfall  had 
reduced  them  to  an  almost  impassable 
state  of  soft  mud  and  slippery  clay,  and, 
while  our  experience  is  perhaps  hardly 
a  fair  criterion,  I  can  scarcely  believe  that 
with  the  enormous  annual  rainfall  of 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


Sumatra  such  is  not  the  condition  a  large 
part  of  the  time. 

The  road  from  Medan  to  the  interior, 
however,  gave  no  warning  of  what  was 
to  follow.  Leaving  the  plains  and  the 
tobacco  plantations,  it  gradually  ascended 
through  wilder  country,  and  presently, 
with  well-engineered  zigzags,  began  to 
climb  into  the  mountains. 

At  3,000  feet  altitude  we  came  to  the 
tiny  sanatorium  of  Bandar  Baroe,  a  re- 
cuperating station  in  the  clearer  atmos- 
phere of  the  hills  for  Europeans  of  the 
Deli  Company  enervated  by  the  un- 
healthy life  of  the  lowlands.  It  was  a 
wee  bungalow  of  three  or  four  rooms 
with  a  wide,  pointed  roof  of  thatch,  and 
from  its  perch  on  top  of  the  usual  piles 
it  looked  out  between  tall  tree-ferns 
over  the  plain  below. 

Here  we  spent  the  night,  having  first 
applied  to  the  Controleur  for  permis- 
sion. The  native  in  charge  had  no  sup- 
plies, so  we  had  recourse  to  our  own  for 
the  first  of  a  series  of  "tinned  meals" 
that  continued  without  interruption  until 
we  returned  to  Medan. 

A  WAGON  TRAIN  OF  SHIFTING  SHADOWS 

In  the  evening,  stretched  out  in  com- 
fortable wicker  chairs  on  the  bungalow's 
little  veranda,  we  watched  a  train  of 
loaded  buffalo  carts  winding  stiffly  up 
the  hill  in  a  heavy  rain.  The  air  was  so 
fresh  and  cool  it  was  difficult  to  think 
of  the  hot,  sultry  coast  less  than  forty 
miles  away.  The  rain  pattered  gently 
on  the  ground  and  rolled  off  the  over- 
hanging thatch  of  the  eaves  in  big  drops, 
while  the  creaking  of  wheels  and  soft 
cries  of  the  drivers  drifted  up  from  the 
laboring  freighters  on  the  road. 

For  more  than  an  hour  the  train  crept 
slowly  past  in  a  single  file  of  vague,  in- 
determinable shapes,  with  swaying  lan- 
terns casting  dim  circles  of  light  and 
queer  shifting  shadows  in  the  misty 
darkness.  We  watched  in  fascination 
while  the  tiny  spots  appeared  out  of  the 
jungle  below  and  lengthened  into  a  twink- 
ling line  which  wound  up  past  the  bunga- 
low and  disappeared  one  by  one  above  us 
into  the  night  and  the  forest. 

Early  the  next  morning  we  continued 
our  climb  over  the  pnss.  The  semi- 
tropical  vegetation  which  had  succeeded 


the  coarse  grass  of  the  denuded  plains 
gave  way  in  turn  to  magnificent  virgin 
forests,  unbroken  except  for  the  narrow, 
winding  path  of  the  road. 

THE  SUMATRAN  JUNGLE 

The  enormous  straight-trunked  trees, 
ensnared  by  giant  creepers,  vines,  and 
huge  air  plants,  made  so  thick  a  canopy 
overhead  that  only  a  dim  twilight  filtered 
in,  and  that  failed  to  reach  the  ground 
through  the  dense,  impenetrable  tangle  of 
vegetation. 

Little  brooks  of  clear  water  rushed 
steeply  down  the  mountainside,  hurrying 
along  to  the  sluggish  yellow  rivers  of  the 
plains  their  tiny  contributions  for  the  ex- 
tension of  Sumatra's  coast.  Butterflies 
flitted  in  the  blue-black  shadows ;  jungle 
fowl,  their  brilliance  all  subdued  in  the 
obscure  half  light,  vanished  silently  from 
the  edges  of  the  road  as  we  approached, 
and  other  little  creeping  and  fugitive 
things  sought  the  security  of  the  unbe- 
traying  jungle. 

Insects  with  voices  out  of  all  propor- 
tion to  their  probable  size  screamed 
shrilly  from  the  branches,  and  the  occa- 
sional whistle  of  a  bird  or  the  dull  boom 
of  a  falling  tree  echoed  through  the 
silent,  dark  recesses  of  the  wood. 

Much  of  the  life  of  the  jungle  we  saw 
along  this  little  frequented  road  which 
opened  up  the  very  heart  of  the  virgin 
forest,  but  infinitely  more  were  we  our- 
selves observed.  Sometimes  the  crack 
of  a  broken  branch  betrayed  the  hurried 
withdrawal  of  a  larger  animal,  or  a 
whirr  of  wings  that  of  some  startled 
bird ;  but  only  one's  own  sixth  sense  told 
of  the  hidden  watchers  who  silently  fol- 
lowed our  progress  with  wondering,  un- 
friendly eyes. 

PURSUED  BY  HOSTS  OF  CURIOUS   MONKEYS 

The  swaying  of  branches  overhead  as 
we  zigzagged  up  the  pass  did  not  mean 
wind  in  the  quiet  forest ;  it  meant  mon- 
keys, and  their  antics  were  an  unfailing 
amusement,  whether  we  kept  on  or  stop- 
ped to  watch  them.  Some  waited  in 
silence  until  we  drew  near,  then  plunged 
back  into  the  forest  with  a  crash  of 
branches  which  inevitably  produced  on 
us  the  shock  they  seemed  to  have  de- 
signed. Some  tore  furiously  along  be- 


82 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


side  us  through  the  trees  in  a  desperate 
attempt  to  cross  in  front  of  the  car  be- 
fore we  could  catch  up  to  them. 

When  they  did  cross,  far  overhead,  in 
a  stream  of  small  gray  bodies  flying 
through  the  air  between  the  treetops, 
they  as  furiously  raced  along  on  the  other 
side  and  crossed  back  again.  Others 
clung  to  swaying  branches  and  bounded 
up  and  down  in  a  frenzy  of  excitement, 
shrieking  gibes  in  sharp  crescendo  as  we 
passed. 

Often  in  the  midst  of  their  agitation 
they  suddenly  lost  all  interest  and  forth- 
with paid  no  more  attention  to  us ;  or  sat 
in  silence  with  weazened,  whiskered 
faces  peering  solemnly  down  from  the 
trees. 

As  in  Ceylon,  it  would  have  been  dis- 
astrous to  leave  the  motor  unguarded 
anywhere  in  a  Sumatra  forest,  for  every- 
thing that  prying  fingers  could  unscrew 
or  remove  would  soon  be  reposing  merrily 
in  the  tree-tops. 

There  were  many  tribes  of  the  monkey 
people  :  little  black  fellows  with  very  long 
tails ;  troops  of  impudent  brown  ones ; 
shy  black-and-white  monkeys  with  fine 
silky  coats ;  and  hordes  of  big  gray  beasts 
who  chased  and  tweaked  each  other, 
evoking  shrieks  of  protest. 

Near  by,  yet  aloof  from  the  bands  that 
fed  and  gamboled  together,  were  a  few 
enormous  black  bulks  which  from  the 
distance  might  have  been  curious  vegeta- 
ble formations  in  the  trees.  But  they 
moved,  and  I  stopped  to  examine  one 
through  the  glasses,  when  my  mother 
suddenly  called  my  attention  to  some- 
thing on  the  other  side. 

From  a  leafy  branch  less  than  forty 
feet  away  a  great  round  head  protruded 
and  a  solemn  black  face,  comically  like  a 
sulky  old  savage,  gazed  out  upon  us.  For 
a  few  minutes  it  stared  in  silence ;  then 
with  unhurried,  deliberate  movements  re- 
turned to  a  leisurely  search  for  food. 

WATCHING  THE  POWERFUL  ORANG- 
OUTANG 

"Orang-outang,"  I  whispered.  "Only 
found  here  and  in  Borneo.  There  are 
two  more  on  the  other  side.  .  .  .  See 
him  pull  that  branch  down !"  He  reached 
up  one  tremendous,  sinewy  arm  and  with 


the  greatest  ease  drew  down  a  branch  that 
would  scarcely  have  bent  beneath  the 
weight  of  a  heavy  man.  Holding  it  with 
one  hand,  he  pawed  idly  over  it  with  the 
other,  occasionally  transferring  some 
morsel  to  his  mouth  and  promptly  spitting 
it  out  if  it  displeased  him. 

When  the  branch  was  duly  inspected 
he  released  it,  and  the  swish!  of  leaves 
as  it  flew  back  through  the  air  gave  some 
idea  of  the  strength  that  had  bent  it. 

There  was  no  need  of  whispering,  for 
although  we  watched  this  one  for  half  an 
hour  with  the  glasses  he  ignored  our  pres- 
ence completely,  and  except  for  the  first 
brief  inspection  not  one  of  the  big  apes 
showed  a  sign  of  consciousness  of  our 
proximity.  They  were  very  well  aware 
of  it,  but  were  too  powerful  for  fear,  and 
the  orang-outang  rarely  troubles  those 
who  do  not  bother  him.  We  were  not 
inclined  to  regret  this  indifference,  how- 
ever, for  the  "old  man  of  the  forest" 
can  be  extremely  disagreeable  when  he 
chooses. 

AN  UNSOCIABLE  JUNGLE  BEAST 

The  other  monkeys  and  apes  all  moved 
in  troops,  but  the  orang-outangs  went 
alone — severely  alone — for  their  smaller 
relations  seemed  to  give  them  a  wide 
berth. 

Unlike  the  monkeys,  they  appeared  con- 
servative of  energy,  and  every  movement 
was  carried  out  with  a  careful  delibera- 
tion most  amusing  to  watch.  Their  huge 
black  bodies  were  very  conspicuous  in  the 
trees ;  their  trunks  thicker  than  a  man's, 
with  short,  heavy  legs  and  arms  of  extra- 
ordinary length  and  power. 

Apparently  quite  satisfied  with  the  food 
within  reach,  the  great  apes  moved  lazily 
along  the  branches,  holding  on  with  their 
feet  and  scarcely  changing  their  positions 
while  we  watched  them.  One  eventually 
decided  to  transfer  his  operations  else- 
where and  sauntered  off  through  the 
trees,  swinging  his  upright  body  from 
branch  to  branch  with  powerful,  far- 
reaching  arms.  His  movements  were  still 
slow  and  deliberate,  but  the  progress  he 
made  was  astonishing,  though  now  and 
then  interrupted  as  he  stopped  to  investi- 
gate some  delicacy. 

The  last  we  saw  of  him  he  was  hang- 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


83 


IN  FRONT  OF  EACH  SUMATRAN  DWELLING  THERE  STANDS  A  SMALL  SQUARE  BUILDING 
WHICH  IS  USED  FOR  A  "GOEDANG,"  OR  RICE  GRANARY 


ing  serenely  by  one  long  arm,  indolently 
exploring  a  branch  with  both  feet  and  his 
other  hand. 

The  Boekit  Barisan,  a  series  of  moun- 
tain ranges  running  the  whole  length  of 
the  island  near  the  western  coast,  splits 
in  the  north  into  parallel  chains  which  en- 
circle the  broad  Karo-Batak  plateau  and 
the  vast  area  of  Toba  Lake.  In  these 
partially  explored  ranges  there  have  al- 
ready been  discovered  ninety  volcanoes, 
twelve  of  which  are  now  active,  the  con- 
structive and  destructive  forces  of  Su- 
matra's formation. 

The  road  from  Deli  crosses  over  the 
northeastern  part  of  the  parallel  chains 
into  the  Batak  Highlands,  as  the  plateau 
is  called,  by  a  pass  between  the  mountains 
Sibajak  and  Baros. 

As  we  neared  the  summit  of  the  pass  a 
narrow  break  in  the  forest  revealed  a 
superb  view  through  the  trees,  over  the 
blue  ravine  and  densely  timbered  moun- 
tainside, to  the  wide  coastal  plain  shim- 
mering in  the  heat-haze  below ;  then  the 
foliage  again  closed  in  until  we  reached 
the  height-of-land  and  looked  out  on  the 
other  side. 


A  dull,  treeless  expanse,  scarcely  lower 
than  the  top  of  the  pass,  stretched  out 
before  us  in  limitless  brown  waves,  a 
desolate  tangle  of  grass  broken  only  by 
detached  volcanic  heights.  Two  active 
volcanoes,  the  northernmost  of  the  range, 
towered  threateningly  above  the  others — 
Sibajak  guarding  the  entrance  through 
which  crept  the  highland  road  ;  Sinaboeng 
rising  from  the  plateau  in  majestic  isola- 
tion, its  smoke-crowned  peak  and  deep 
purple  sides  outlined  against  the  heavy 
white  clouds  that  hung  behind  it. 

A  LAND  THAT  NEEDS  PEOPLE 

The  first  strong  impression  of  loneli- 
ness and  monotonous  solitude  that  the 
highlands  gave  was  little  changed  by  the 
few  scattered  compounds  and  occasional 
patches  of  cultivation  later  revealed  as 
we  progressed. 

In  common  with  the  greater  part  of 
Sumatra,  which  could  easily  support 
twenty-five  times  its  present  population, 
this  section  is  sparsely  inhabited  and  the 
villages  are  small  and  far  apart. 

The  Batak  tribes  lead  a  communistic 
life,  and  outside  of  the  hedged  confines 


84 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE   SUMATRAN    MOTHER   IS    NEVER   PREVENTED   FROM    DOING   HER  DAILY   STINT 
WEAVING  BY  HER  LATEST  BORN,  WHO  IS  STRAPPED  ACROSS  HER  BACK 


of  their  compounds — each  a  little  cluster 
of  huts  around  a  large  central  house — 
very  few  buildings  are  found.  The  Ba- 
taks  are  mostly  peaceful  and  industrious, 
occupying  themselves  with  agriculture 
and  farming  as  well  as  in  hunting  and 
fishing.  Their  agriculture  depends  upon 
the  rainfall,  which,  however,  rarely  fails ; 
but  it  consists  only  of  little  patches  of 
rice  and  other  grain  struggling  weakly 
against  the  all-encompassing  rank  growth 
and  is  barely  sufficient  to  supply  their  own 
modest  needs. 

Not  far  from  the  top  of  the  pass  we 
overhauled  the  long  train  of  freighters 
which  we  had  watched  in  the  rain  of 
the  evening  before  creeping  up  the  moun- 
tain side  past  Bandar  Baroe.  The  two- 
wheeled  carts,  with  low,  roughly  thatched 
roofs  of  branches,  extended  in  a  close 
single  file  far  out  across  the  plain,  with 
the  thin  legs  of  their  red-turbaned  Tamil 
drivers  dangling  between  the  shafts. 

The  buffaloes  were  dry  and  dusty,  and 
by  the  discouraged  droop  of  their  heads 
seemed  to  express  deep  discontent  with 
the  wallowless  uplands.  Among  the  slate- 
gray  backs  of  the  slow-plodding  line,  half 
a  dozen  light  pink  albinos — an  absurd 


color  on  an  animal  of  that  size — regarded 
us  suspiciously  out  of  curious  white  eyes. 

THE  SIMPLICITY  OE  THE  WOMEN'S  ATTIRE 

Except  for  this  train,  we  saw  no  vehi- 
cles in  the  highlands,  but  several  times 
passed  little  groups  of  pedestrians  walk- 
ing single  file  along  the  roadside,  on  their 
way  to  or  from  one  of  the  markets  that 
are  held  at  intervals  in  the  different 
Batak  villages.  Some  were  even  tramp- 
ing from  the  other  side  of  the  mountain, 
for  since  the  building  of  the  road  the 
Bataks  frequently  trade  with  the  nearer 
compounds  of  the  Deli  plain. 

Almost  all  were  women,  balancing 
heavily  packed  baskets  of  fine  matting  on 
their  heads,  with  babies  astride  their  hips, 
supported  by  a  long  scarf  tied  over  one 
shoulder.  The  simplicity  and  similarity 
of  their  dress  was  striking,  after  the 
variegated  colors  favored  in  Java  and 
Malaya,  ope  dark  blue  garment — a  long 
sarong  hung  loose  from  under  the  arms 
or  around  the  waist — sufficing  in  the  ma- 
jority of  cases. 

Their  turban-like  head-dresses  were  of 
the  same  dark  -  blue  cloth,  peculiarly 
folded,  with  drooping  corners  sometimes 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


85 


A   NATIVE   CLOTH   FACTORY 
Evidently  "industrial  employment"  does  not  tend  to  race  suicide  in  Sumatra. 


used  to  support  part  of  the  weight  of 
enormous  coiled  silver  earrings. 

We  rarely  saw  men  on  the  road ;  the 
few  that  accompanied  the  women  strolled 
along  behind,  quite  unencumbered  with 
either  baggage  or  babies,  and  saluted  us 
with  a  friendly  courtesy  rather  unex- 
pected in  a  tribe  once  so  notorious  for 
cannibalism.  Their  garments  were  quite 
similar  to  those  of  the  women,  with  a 
shorter  sarong  tied  around  the  waist,  and 
often  a  coat  or  short  pair  of  breeches  in 
addition. 

Both  men  and  women  were  barefoot, 
as  usual,  and  although  a  stripe  or  a  plaid 
occasionally  varied  the  dark  blue  of  their 
clothes,  exceptions  to  the  general  style 
were  very  rare. 

The  earrings  worn  by  many  of  the 
women  were  of  extraordinary  dimen- 
sions. Only  the  wealthier  could  afford 
them,  for  each  pair  was  worth  about  one 
hundred  and  fifty  gulden  and  must  have 
represented  a  considerable  part  of  the 
family  treasure.  They  consisted  of  long 
circular  rods  of  solid  silver,  about  three- 
eighths  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  passed 


through  the  upper  part  of  the  ear  and 
bent  back  into  the  form  of  double,  re- 
versed coils,  the  coils  projecting  far  for- 
ward on  the  left  side,  to  the  rear  on  the 
right.  Their  weight  would  have  torn 
them  from  the  ears  had  they  not  been 
partially  supported  by  the  corners  of  the 
headdresses,  and  there  was  apparently  no 
way  of  removal  without  first  uncoiling 
one  side. 

THE  BATAKS,   KINDRED  OF  THE  HEAD- 
HUNTING DAYAKS 

The  Batak  people  are  in  many  ways 
the  most  interesting  and  remarkable  of 
all  the  tribes  of  Sumatra,  although  as  yet 
comparatively  little  is  known  of  them. 
Ethnologically  they  are  related  to  the 
head-hunting  Dayaks  of  Borneo.*  Their 
type  has  not  been  modified  by  contact 
with  the  outside  world,  nor  even  with 
the  more  advanced  peoples  of  the  coast, 
and  their  state  of  civilization  and  de- 
velopment is  still  quite  rudimentary,  al- 

*See  "Sarawak,  the  Land  of  the  White 
Rajahs,"  by  Harrison  W.  Smith,  in  THE  GEO- 
GRAPHIC for  February,  1919. 


86 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


AS  A  SOCIAL  CENTER  THE  HAND  LOOM  AND  THE  YARN  REEL  IN  SUMATRA  TAKE  THE 
PLACE  OF  THE  VILLAGE  FOUNTAIN  IN  THE  NEAR  EAST 

Many  of  the  sarongs  made  by  the  natives  are  elaborately  interwoven  with  gold  threads. 
They  are  lacking  in  originality  of  pattern,  however.  The  silver  filigree-work  of  the  men  is 
much  more  artistic. 


though  it  is  thought  that  they  were  once 
more  advanced  than  they  are  today. 

The  reports  of  early  Arabs  trading 
with  the  Sumatran  coast  gave  the  Bataks 
their  evil  notoriety  as  cannibals,  eaters 
of  captives,  foreigners,  and  their  own 
aged  and  decrepit  relatives. 

The  half  million  Bataks  scattered 
throughout  the  mountains  and  uplands 
of  northern  and  central  Sumatra  are 
roughly  divided  into  groups  according  to 
differences  in  dialect.  Over  a  fifth  pro- 
fess Mohammedanism  and  about  half 
that  number  Christianity ;  but  in  both 
cases  the  faith  amounts  to  little  more 
than  a  form  of  superstition,  showing  only 
vague  traces  of  those  beliefs  and  hardly 
affecting  the  village  law  of  racial  customs 
and  traditions. 

The  remainder,  including  the  Kara- 
Bataks  and  the  tribes  of  Toba  Lake,  are 
animistic  pagans,  and  the  circumcision 
practiced  by  the  former,  although  doubt- 


less due  to  some  forgotten  Mohammedan 
influences,  is  not  a  religious  rite. 

It  is  now  general  in  the  case  of  most  of 
these  tribes  to  refer  to  cannibalism  as  a 
practice  of  the  past  and  at  present  non- 
existent. 

CHEATING  DEATH  BY  GIVING  ONE'S  BODY 
TO  BE  EATEN 

As  to  whether  or  not  any  tribes  con- 
tinue the  practice  of  eating  their  aged 
and  decrepit  relatives  I  found  a  diverg- 
ence of  opinion  among  the  European 
residents  of  Sumatra.  This  form  of 
cannibalism  is  by  no  means  rare,  and 
usually  consists  of  the  ritual  killing  and 
consumption  of  old  and  infirm  males  by 
the  younger  members  of  their  own  tribe. 

When  the  aging  warrior  feels  the  wan- 
ing of  his  powers,  he  climbs  into  a  tree 
encircled  by  his  relations,  who  dance  and 
chant  below.  The  old  man  presently 
drops  to  the  ground,  symbolic  of  the  fall 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


87 


THE   COMMUNAL   HOUSE  AT    KAMPONG   KINALANG,   SUMATRA 

Note  the  means  by  which  the  thatched  roof  is  anchored,  awakening  recollections  of  the 
stone-weighted  chalets  of  Switzerland.  Many  of  the  houses  in  Sumatran  villages  are  com- 
munal in  character,  three  or  four  families  living  in  the  same  dwelling.  In  places  where  the 
natives  have  come  in  contact  with  the  Dutch,  the  interiors  of  their  homes  are  not  without 
modern  conveniences,  such  as  beds,  pillows,  and  canopies.  These  houses  are  more  comfort- 
able than  those  of  any  other  people  in  the  Dutch  East  Indies- 


.of  a  ripe  fruit,  and  is  knocked  on  the 
head  and  promptly  eaten.  In  this  both 
parties  are  mutually  benefited:  the  con- 
sumers in  partaking  of  the  wisdom  of 
their  late  progenitor;  the  eaten  ancestor 
by  finding  immortality  as  a  dimly  con- 
scious member  of  the  bodies  of  his  strong, 
young  descendants. 

To  an  animistic  form  of  religion  which 
regards  the  decay  of  a  body  in  the  ground 
as  the  end  of  all  existence,  this  method 
of  cheating  death  is  welcomed  alike  by 
the  failing  tribesman  and  his  younger  re- 
lations. Not  infrequently  the  practice  is 
extended  to  the  unfortunate  strangers 
falling  into  the  hands  of  such  tribes,  who 
are  devoured  that  their  capturers  may 
receive  the  benefit  of  whatever  wisdom 
they  happen  to  embody.  To  this,  rather 
than  to  a  mere  partiality  for  human 
flesh,  cannibalism  as  practiced  by  many 
tribes  may  probably  be  attributed. 

Dark  clouds  presaging  the  usual  rain 
of  afternoon  had  already  appeared  on 
the  horizon  when  we  stopped  for  a  hasty 


tiffin  by  the  roadside.  The  rains  of  many 
afternoons  had  reduced  the  road  to  a 
bottomless  morass  of  mud  and  clay,  for 
we  had  left  behind  the  last  traces  of 
metaling  a  few  miles  after  clearing  the 
mountains. 

While  the  average  altitude  of  the  plains 
is  about  four  thousand  feet,  the  level  of 
the  rolling  surface  varies  more  than  a 
thousand,  and  the  steep  clay  hills  become 
appallingly  slippery  when  wet.  Up  these 
the  car  barely  crawled,  moving  crab- 
fashion,  with  the  rear  wheels  revolving 
furiously  in  spite  of  "non-skid"  tire 
chains,  and  flinging  unbroken  streams  of 
clay-mud  in  all  directions,  which  my  boy 
Joseph  vainly  tried  to  dodge  while  he 
threw  armfuls  of  cut  grass  under  our 
track. 

On  the  down  grades  we  tobogganed 
with  hair-raising  speed,  wheels  locked, 
and  the  whole  road  surface  sliding  with 
us,  frequently  finishing  up  in  the  ditch 
if  there  happened  to  be  curves  on  the 
descent.  Fortunately  the  ditches  were 


EJ- 

rt"e 
C    ^ 

rt  en 

S3   rt 
rt   <U 

c  £ 


W 

w 
fa  •&' 


& 


b-  -t  9- 
3    g 
^    I- 

B  ^^c 
m     a> 


«)•&<• 

>      3  rt 

§  1 5 

p  r'e 


4) 


>>  rt 
bo  3 
0-0 

I2 
c  bo 
.c 


" 


"c  "- 


B" 

S.S 

O    co 
co   O 


\Lt      ^ 

bfi  C 
bo  o 
3  ,„ 


W    '^1 


^3    V 


—  O 


I-     Q, 

P.S1 


o  c 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


89 


not  very  deep,  but  they  were  quite 
enough,  in  their  saturated  condition,  to 
call  out  the  shovel  before  the  car  could 
be  extricated. 

Near  the  mud-hole  in  which  we  elected 
to  stop  for  tiffin,  fifty  or  sixty  Batak 
women  were  holding  a  market,  all  squat- 
ting about  on  the  ground,  surrounded  by 
piles  of  dried  palm  leaves,  rattan,  and 
big  woven  baskets  full  of  grain,  dried 
fish,  and  various  other  comestibles. 

As  seemed  generally  to  be  the  case 
throughout  the  highlands  wherever  work 
was  in  progress,  men  were  conspicuously 
absent,  and  the  women  bargained  and 
gossiped  or  waited  for  some  one  to  come 
and  bargain  with  them,  paying  little  heed 
to  my  intrusion  in  search  of  photographs. 
A  few  were  young  and  not  uncomely  in 
feature,  but  the  vast  majority  appeared 
old  and  hideous,  the  inevitable  results  of 
early  jnarriage,  overwork,  and,  above  all, 
the  custom  of  filing  the  teeth. 

THE  PRACTICE  OF  FILING  THE  TEETH 

This  practice  is  quite  common  among 
the  tribes  of  Sumatra,  and  with  the 
Bataks  it  is  invariable  among  both  sexes. 
The  operation,  an  extremely  painful  one, 
is  begun  at  an  early  age  and  continued 
until  maturity,  when  both  sets  of  teeth 
have  been  completely  filed  away  down  to 
the  jawbone.  Although  the  Bataks'  usual 
food  of  rice,  syrup,  and  finely  chopped 
meat  and  fish  is  soft  and  easily  digested, 
their  inability  to  chew  must  be  a  serious 
physical  disadvantage. 

The  custom  originated  as  a  form  of 
personal  adornment,  no  more  strange 
than  many  similar  practices  among  other 
wild  tribes  of  the  tropics ;  but  the  reasons 
for  it  do  not  seem  to  have  been  inherited 
with  the  practice  itself.  To  my  repeated 
inquiries  the  answer  was  always  the  same, 
the  usual  native  explanation  for  native 
customs — "Batak  people  have  always 
done  so." 

The  afternoon  rain  came  up  earlier 
than  usual  and  caught  us  on  a  winding 
ascent  to  one  of  the  higher  levels  of  the 
plain.  Our  doubts  of  ever  reaching  the 
top  grew  very  acute,  but  after  many 
futile  attempts  and  the  burial  of  a  great 
deal  of  grass  in  the  deep  ruts  made  by 
the  whirling  rear  wheels,  the  car  strug- 


gled up  and  we  were  saved  from  another 
night  in  the  open. 

The  rain  was  falling  in  floods  when  we 
finally  splashed  and  skidded  into  the  lit- 
tle compound  of  Sariboe  Dolok  and 
sought  the  meager  protection  of  a  tiny 
rest-house.  It  had  two  dark  little  rooms 
with  a  kitchen  house  in  the  rear,  and  as  I 
groped  my  way  inside  I  sprawled  over 
the  body  of  a  large  tiger.  It  was  quite 
dead,  but  the  encounter  was  somewhat 
startling. 

The  house  boasted  of  little  in  the  way 
of  furniture  or  supplies  and  the  night 
was  very  cold,  but  we  were  comparatively 
dry  and  were  offered  the  luxury  of  a 
chicken  for  supper. 

"Luxury"  is  perhaps  a  trifle  eulogistic 
for  the  rubber-like  fowl  that  was  set  be- 
fore us.  Had  we  been  able  to  eat  him, 
we  might,  like  the  Batak  cannibals,  have 
absorbed  the  wisdom  of  his  hardy  ex- 
perience; but  life  had  been  too  long  and 
death  too  recent  to  admit  of  any  such 
liberties  with  the  corpse.  , 

Sariboe  Dolok,  the  capital  of  Simelun- 
gen  and  Karolanden,  is  not  of  the  impor- 
tance that  its  official  title  might  suggest. 

It  is  a  lonely  settlement  of  eight  or  ten 
native  houses,  an  opium  store,  the  guest- 
house, and  the  bungalow  of  the  Assistant 
Resident,  whose  life  there  must  be  any- 
thing but  socially  gay.  This  courteous 
official  spoke  excellent  English,  as  do  the 
majority  of  Dutch  in  the  colonies,  and, 
besides  affording  a  great  deal  of  informa- 
tion, made  us  a  present  of  six  eggs — a 
welcome  addition  to  our  tinned  supplies, 
as  we  had  found  eggs  an  unprocurable 
commodity,  even  where  chickens  were 
to  be  had. 

I  also  learned  from  him  that  the  Kam- 
pong  Kebon  Djahe,  architecturally  the 
most  interesting  of  the  Karo-Batak  vil- 
lages and  the  one  I  was  most  anxious  to 
see,  lay  about  twenty-five  miles  back  by 
the  way  we  had  come,  on  a  hill  nearly  a 
mile  off,  and  not  visible  from,  the  main 
road. 

So  the  following  morning  we  retraced 
our  way  over  the  fearful  clay-mud  track, 
by  no  means  improved  by  the  evening's 
downpour,  until  we  came  to  a  half-oblit- 
erated trail  leading  westward  toward  two 
isolated  little  white  houses.  These  formed 


90 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A    COMMUNAL    HOUSE    IN    THE    KARO-BATAK    COUNTRY 

The  independence  of  the  native  women  impresses  European  trav- 
elers as  most  unusual  for  an  Oriental  country.  This  independence 
may  be  the  outgrowth  of  curious  marriage  customs.  For  instance, 
among  some  tribes  a  man  and  woman  do  not  establish  a  home  of 
their  own.  The  husband  remains  among  his  own  circle  of  relations 
and  resides  only  temporarily  with  his  wife.  The  children  remain  in 
the  mother's  custody  and  inherit  all  of  her  property,  as  well  as  half 
of  that  earned  by  the  father  and  mother  together.  The  remaining 
half  goes  to  the  father's  sisters  or  to  the  children  of  those  sisters. 


the  "Government  Center,"  or  "European 
Quarter,"  of  Kebon  Djahe,  and  half  a 
mile  beyond,  perched  on  the  top  of  a 
steep  clay  bank  above  a  small  river,  the 
remarkable  buildings  of  the  native  kam- 
pong  lay  hidden  away  in  a  clump  of  trees. 

A    REMARKABLE    BATAK    COMMUNITY 

In  their  chief  features,  all  Batak  kani- 
pongs  are  more  or  less  alike,  but  in  ar- 


chitectural elabora- 
tion Kebon  Djahe  is 
unique.  Confined,  as 
usual,  within  a  rect- 
angular space  of 
smooth -trodden  clay 
hedged  by  a  bamboo 
thicket,  the  buildings 
were  all  raised  on 
wooden  piles,  their 
immense  thatched 
roofs  and  extraordi- 
nary decorations  com- 
pletely dwarfing  the 
low,  windowless  sides. 
Clumps  of  plantains, 
encircled  by  fences  of 
woven  bamboo,  sprung 
like  oases  from  the 
hard  clay  ground,  and 
innumerable  evil-look- 
ing dogs,  chickens,  and 
black  pigs  scratched 
or  rooted  in  the  rub- 
bish beneath  the 
houses.  The  build- 
ings ranged  in  size 
from  little  granaries 
and  storehouses  of 
quaint  and  graceful 
design  to  the  huge 
communal  house, 
where  the  men  delib- 
erate and  banquet  and 
where  the  fetishistic 
treasures  of  the  vil- 
lage are  kept  and 
friendly  strangers  en- 
tertained (see  illustra- 
tion on  this  page  and 
on  page  76). 

Each  end  of  the 
larger  houses  termi- 
nated in  a  narrow 
veranda  of  bamboo 
poles,  with  a  bamboo 
ladder  or  a  notched  log  leading  up  to 
the  small  opening  which  it  gave  into  the 
dark  interior. 

The  immense  roofs  sloped  uniformly 
on  the  sides  from  widely  flaring  ridges  to 
low,  overhanging  eaves,  but  the  ends  were 
broken  in  about  half  way  down,  forming 
great  gables  beneath  the  jutting  ridge- 
poles. Brilliantly  colored  matting  woven 
into  artistic  designs  filled  these  triangular 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


91 


AN    ELABORATE   "SCARECROW"   ERECTED  TO 
PROTECT    SUMATRAN    GRAIN    FIELDS 

This  lookout  is  made  of  bamboo,  and  from 
the  numerous  poles  long  strings  are  run  to  all 
parts  of  the  field.  On  these  strings  are  tied 
bits  of  cloth,  which  are  made  to  dance  as  the 
boy  watchman  strikes  the  pole  whenever  feath- 
ered marauders  appear. 

spaces  and  closed  the  similar  ends  of 
huge  dormer-like  projections  thrown  out 
from  the  roofs  of  the  more  pretentious 
buildings. 

On  the  communal  house  and  a  few 
others,  the  vast  roofs  had  a  double  over- 
hang, with  gigantic,  top-heavy  cupolas 
towering  above  them,  thatched  and 
shaped  in  miniature  of  the  dormered 
roofs  below.  From  their  corners,  and 
from  the  ends  of  all  the  ridge-poles  and 
the  blind  dormers  carved  wooden  buffalo 
heads  with  arched,  white-painted  necks 
and  savagely  lowered  horns,  looked 
fiercely  down  to  challenge  the  intruder. 

The  cupolas  were  surmounted  by  curi- 
ous wooden  figures,  some  on  foot,  some 
riding  Batak  ponies,  but  all,  brilliantly 


POUNDING   GRAIN  :    IN    SUMATRA   THE 
MILLER  IS  THE  DAUGHTER 

The  European  traveling  in  this  island  fre- 
quently finds  it  difficult  to  get  food,  especially 
in  the  season  when  vegetables  are  scarce.  Dur- 
ing the  wet  season  the  natives  live  almost  ex- 
clusively on  rice.  The  cereal  is  cooked  very 
dry  and  eaten  with  salt  and  peppers. 

colored,  facing  out  over  the  treetops,  with 
hands  raised  in  supplication  toward  the 
little  white  house  of  the  Dutch  Con- 
troleur  on  the  plain. 

A   PIGEON-HOUSE   AND  A   TOMB 

Beside  the  communal  house  stood  two 
remarkable  structures  quite  similar  in  de- 
sign, both  gay  with  colored  carving  and 
decoration.  One  was  a  pigeon-house; 
the  other  a  tomb,  from  within  which  the 
upright  body  of  the  last  head-man  looked 
out  on  the  village  he  had  once  directed. 

Under  the  thatched  roof  of  an  open 
building  near  by,  a  group  of  women  with 
long  poles  were  pounding  grain  in  hol- 
lowed-out  wooden  logs,  while  other  blue- 
garbed  figures,  bearing  flat  trays  or 


92 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


*• 


TWO  LITTLE  PIGS  WENT  TO  MARKET 


The  live-stock  market  of  a  Sumatran  village  is  a  lively  scene, 
with  its  excellent  cattle,  closely  resembling  the  Alderney  type,  its 
porkers,  wiry  little  ponies,  goats,  and  Indian  buffalo. 


with  deepest  suspicion 
and  not  infrequently 
thwarted.  With  the  ad- 
ditional limitations  of 
low-hanging  clouds  and 
lack  of  direct  sunlight, 
and  the  penetrating 
moisture  so  disastrous  to 
films,  photographic  re- 
sults in  the  Batak  coun- 
try were  never  wholly 
dependable. 

Kebon  Djahe  was  un- 
like any  other  village  I 
have  ever  seen.  For  sev- 
eral hours  we  roamed 
around,  exploring  the 
compound,  fascinated  by 
all  its  singular  pictur- 
esoueness — the  remark- 
able sky-line  of  the  roofs 
and  their  fantastic  dec- 
orations, the  blue  -  clad 
figures  grouped  at  their 
divers  tasks  below,  and 
the  effective  blending  of 
brilliant  colors  with  the 
green  of  bamboo  leaves 
and  grayish  brown  of 
the  moss-covered  thatch. 

THE  AUTOMOBILE  DROWNS 
IN  MUD 

The  sun  had  gone 
down  unobserved  in  the 
clouds  and  the  early  twi- 
light had  fallen  before 
we  left  Kebon  Djahe. 


woven  baskets  on  their  heads,  moved 
about  the  inclosure  at  their  various  occu- 
pations. A  few  men  idled  around,  but 
showed  little  interest  in  any  work  more 
strenuous  than  chewing  sirih  or  follow- 
ing the  various  strategies  I  had  to  employ 
to  obtain  the  photographs  I  wanted. 

STRENUOUS  OBJECTION  RAISED  TO  THE 
CAMERA 

As  was  often  the  case  in  the  highlands, 
the  natives,  especially  the  women,  were 
averse  to  having  a  one-eyed  devil-box 
aimed  at  them,  and  even  my  disguised 
efforts  in  this  direction  were  regarded 


Vaeue  misgivings  of  the 
road  from  there  to  Sari- 
boe  Dolok  in  the  dark 
had  begun  to  assail  my  mind,  when  the 
car,  which  had  bsen  rocking  and  skid- 
ding over  the  rain-soaked  trail,  suddenly 
plunged  deeper  into  the  mud,  stopped 
short,  and  began  to  sink. 

There  was  a  little  hole  in  the  center  of 
the  track,  no  bigger  than  a  man's  hand, 
which  on  the  way  up  had  scarcely  been 
noticeable,  but  in  passing  over  it  in  re- 
turning, the  whole  road  seemed  to  open 
up  and  engulf  us.  A  furious  effort  to 
clear  the  chasm,  whatever  it  might  be, 
only  succeeded  in  hastening  our  doom. 
When  we  stopped  settling  the  car  was  so 
deep  that  a  list  to  the  right  brought  the 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


93 


top,  which  was  up,  to  the 
level  of  the  road  surface, 
while  between  the  top  and 
the  ground  on  the  other 
side  there  was  barely 
enough  space  left  to  crawl 
through. 

Any  further  sinking  of 
the  car  might  have  perma- 
nently imprisoned  us,  so  we 
hastily  crept  out  on  our, 
stomachs  through  the  sticky 
clay-mud  and  viewed  the 
catastrophe.  It  was  not  en- 
couraging. A  careful  sur- 
vey of  the  car  showed  it  to 
be  hopelessly  buried,  be- 
yond any  possibility  of  my 
disinterring  it  unaided. 

The  chain  falls,  in  the 
equipment  box  on  the  rear, 
were  completely  out  of 
sight  some  four  feet  un- 
derground; but  even  had  I 
dug  them  out  there  was 
nothing  to  which  to  attach 
them,  and  in  any  case  the 
car  was  too  thoroughly  in 
the  grip  of  the  mud  to  have 
yielded  to  single-handed  ef- 
forts. 

With  some  difficulty  I 
discovered  the  cause  of  the 
accident.  A  bamboo  cul- 
vert far  under  the  road, 
which  had  rotted  peacefully 
and  undisturbed  since  it 
had  been  laid,  had  finally 
collapsed  from  our  weight, 
after  being  weakened  by  our  first  pas- 
sage over  it. 

To  extricate  the  car  was  a  task  for  a 
first-class  train-wrecking  crew,  and  I  felt 
little  confidence  of  being  able  to  raise 
half  a  dozen  helpers  in  that  country, 
especially  as  I  had  left  Joseph  in  Sariboe 
Dolok  and  would  be  unable  to  explain 
our  predicament  to  any  natives  I  might 
meet. 

Kebon  Djahe  seemed  the  one  light  on 
the  situation;  but  night  was  falling  rap- 
idly, and  as  my  speedometer  cable  had 
broken  in  the  morning  and  there  were 
no  noticeable  landmarks,  I  had  only  a 
dim  idea  how  far  away  the  compound 
might  be. 


EVERY  MOTHER  IS  HER  OWN  PERAMBULATOR 
IN  SUMATRA 


For  my  mother  to  be  left  alone  at  night 
in  the  wilds  of  a  country  until  recently 
addicted  to  cannibalism,  while  I  set  out 
on  an  indeterminate  search  for  help  was 
an  unpleasant  prospect;  but  as  Kebon 
Djahe  might  have  been  eight  or  ten 
miles  away — a  nasty  walk  in  the  mud  and 
the  dark — that  seemed  the  only  solution. 

NATIVE  PRISONERS  MARCH  TO  THE  RESCUE 

For  over  an  hour  I  walked,  or  rather 
waded,  down  the  road  in  the  utter  still- 
ness of  the  desolate  highlands.  Then  a 
few  barely  audible  shouts  drifted  up 
from  across  the  plain,  and  I  struggled 
through  the  grass  in  their  direction  to  a 
tiny  paddy  field  on  the  top  of  a  low  hill. 


94 


THE  NATIONAL.  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


WOMEN  Of  CERTAIN   SUMATRAN  TRIBES  ARE   NOTED  THROUGHOUT  THE  DUTCH 

INDIES   FOR  THEIR  BEAUTY 

On  "Passar,"  or  market  days,  wonderful  arrays  of  strange  fruits  and  vegetables  are 
displayed  for  sale,  and  on  special  occasions  children's  toys,  ornaments  for  head-dresses, 
cooking  utensils,  and  cloth  of  gay  colors  may  be  purchased.  Among  the  tempting  edibles 
are  peanut  cheese  and  pineapple  sauces.  The  palm  wine  of  Sumatra  is  most  refreshing  on 
a  hot  day — and  all  days  are  hot  in  the  lowlands. 


Through  the  dusk  I  could  see  a  little 
bamboo  lookout,  such  as  is  erected  in 
every  grain  field,  and,  squatting  on  its 
platform,  two  blue  -  clad  figures,  who 
stopped  their  shouting  as  I  approached. 
But  to  my  weak  efforts  in  Malay  they 
merely  stared  in  silence  and  continued  to 
jerk  on  the  strings  which,  tied  with  flut- 
tering bits  of  cloth,  intersected  the  field 
to  frighten  away  feathered  marauders. 

From  the  hill,  however,  I  discovered 
in  the  twilight  two  solitary  little  white 
houses  about  a  mile  away  and  struck  off 
to  investigate.  Soon  a  tiny  light  sprang 
out  of  the  darkness,  and  when  I  arrived 
in  its  cheery  glow  I  found  the  Dutch 
Controleur  just  returning  from  inspect- 
ing a  jail  which  was  in  course  of  con- 
struction, and  I  accosted  him  with  my 
tale  of  disaster  and  appeal  for  help. 

"Certainly,"  he  promptly  said,  as  if 
foreign  motorists  mired  in  the  interior 
of  Sumatra  came  to  him  everv  day  with 
requests  to  be  dug  out,  "I  will  lend  you 
my  prisoners." 

Although  his  jail  was  not  yet  built,  he 


had  a  fine  collection — thirty-eight  Bataks 
and  Achinese  in  whom  respect  for  Dutch 
control  had  not  been  sufficiently  evident. 
This  was  my  wrecking  crew,  and  joined 
by  a  Dutch  planter,  who  was  recuperat- 
ing in  the  higher  altitude  of  the  Batak 
lands  from  an  assault  made  on  him  by 
two  coolies,  we  marched  as  if  on  a  night 
attack  back  to  the  buried  motor,  with  two 
armed  native  soldiers  as  a  guard. 

A  "SHIVERY"  EXPERIENCE  FOR  A  WOMAN 

I  had  been  absent  several  hours  before 
the  lanterns  picked  out  ahead  of  us  the 
dark  outline  of  the  sunken  car  blocking 
the  road.  As  we  approached  I  saw  the 
figure  of  my  mother  apparently  seated 
in  the  clay  mire  of  the  roadside,  with  a 
dozen  motionless  forms  standing  in  a 
shadowy  row  on  the  bank  behind  her. 
She  struggled  stiffly  to  her  feet,  reveal- 
ing one  of  the  mud-soaked  seat  cushions 
that  she  had  succeeded  in  dragging  from 
the  car,  and  the  silent  row  melted  back 
into  the  darkness. 

"Who    are    your    friends?"    I    asked, 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


95 


after  ascertaining  that  she  had  suffered 
nothing  more  than  an  unpleasant  wait. 

"I  don't  know,"  she  replied,  "but  I'm 
very  glad  to  have  you  back.  I've  felt 
rather  'shivery' ;  first  watching  them  ap- 
pear out  of  the  dark,  one  or  two  at  a 
time ;  then  hearing  them  talk  in  low 
voices.  I  didn't  know  whether  they  were 
planning  to  eat  me  or  simply  discussing 
why  I  chose  this  particular  place  to  sit 
in.  But  for  the  last  half  hour  they  have 
stood  like  a  row  of  vultures  and  haven't 
made  a  sound,  and  that  was  the  worst 
of  all !" 

"These  are  not  bad  people  around 
here,"  said  Mr.  von  der  Weide,  the  Dutch 
planter;  "but  they  are  not  always  to  be 
trusted.  I  do  not  think  it  well  to  be  alone 
in  the  highlands  at  night." 

Armed  with  native  spades,  shaped 
somewhat  like  a  wide-bladed  adze,  and  a 
small  forest  of  strong  cut  poles  which 
we  had  fortunately  discovered  piled  by 
the  roadside,  the  crew  attacked  the  motor. 

The  prisoners  were  strong  and  willing ; 
my  training  in  the  recovery  of  automo- 
biles from  strange  places  had  been  varied 
and  thorough,  and,  aided  by  the  untiring 
efforts  of  Mr.  von  der  Weide,  we  soon 
had  a  wide  excavation  made  around  the 
car,  supporting  it  meanwhile  with  shores 
to  prevent  further  sinking. 

Then  with  the  poles  as  huge  levers  we 
pried  up  each  end  of  the  machine  a  little 
at  a  time,  filling  the  chasm  underneath 
with  a  cob-house  of  other  poles  cut  into 
various  lengths,  until  the  car,  resting  on 
a  wooden  pier,  rose  to  the  road  level 
and  was  dragged  to  comparatively  firm 
ground.  I  scraped  off  the  worst  of  the 
clinging  mud  from  those  parts  that  were 
completely  choked  with  it,  and  coaxed 
the  motor  into  starting. 

There  seemed  to  be  no  damage  except 
for  twisted  mudguards,  and  we  ran  back 
to  Kebon  Djahe  accompanied  by  Mr.  von 
der  Weide,  who  insisted  on  our  spending 
the  night  there — we  did  not  require 
much  urging — while  our  army  was 
marched  ceremoniously  back  to  jail. 

The  night  was  extremely  cold,  at  least 
for  within  three  degrees  of  the  equator, 
but  we  had  been  spared  the  usual  evening 
storm  and  although  plastered  from  head 
to  foot  with  clay  mud  when  we  came  in, 
we  were  very  comfortable. 


In  the  morning,  after  a  very  early 
breakfast  of  Dutch  cheese,  brown  bread, 
and  delicious  cocoa,  and  another  hour  or 
more  spent  in  wandering  about  the  fasci- 
nating buildings  of  the  native  compound, 
we  ran  back  to  Sariboe  Dolok.  The 
road,  although  still  in  a  wretched  con- 
dition, had  dried  considerably,  as  there 
had  been  no  rain  the  previous  day,  and 
we  reached  Sariboe  Dolok  without  diffi- 
culty, picked  up  Joseph,  and  kept  on  to- 
ward Toba  Lake. 

HOW  THE  NATIVE   MOTHERS  WEAVE 

Not  far  beyond  the  Assistant  Resi- 
dency was  the  small  compound  of  Kina- 
lang  where  we  made  another  long  stop. 
It  was  concealed  by  the  customary 
thicket  of  bamboo,  and  although  the 
houses  were  smaller,  poorer,  and  not 
nearly  so  elaborate  in  design  as  those  of 
Kebon  Djahe,  the  native  life  was  even 
more  interesting. 

Scattered  about  the  inclosure  were 
crude  bamboo  frames,  attached  to  the 
piles  of  the  houses  or  to  poles  driven 
into  the  ground  and  fastened  at  the  cor- 
ners with  straw  rope.  At  these  the 
women  of  the  village  were  seated — their 
legs  stretched  out  on  the  ground  before 
them  and  one  end  of  the  frame  in  their 
laps — and  with  the  most  primitive  kind 
of  equipment  were  producing  the  sarongs 
for  which  Kinalang  is  noted  throughout 
the  highlands  (see  illustration,  page  84). 

Their  movements  seemed  in  nowise 
hampered  by  the  babies  tied  on  their 
backs,  nor  were  the  babies  themselves  in 
the  least  disconcerted  at  having  their 
small  heads  almost  snapped  off  as  their 
mothers  worked. 

Large  bamboo  reels  held  the  yarn  to 
be  transferred  to  the  spindles,  and  in  lit- 
tle bamboo  pails  beside  each  frame  were 
the  strong  vegetable  dyes  which  the 
weavers  applied  on  their  work,  spreading 
the  color  with  bunches  of  chicken  feath- 
ers, while  they  kept  shooting  the  spindles 
from  side  to  side  between  the  separated 
strands  of  the  warp. 

In  spite  of  its  thriving  industry  in 
sarongs,  the  houses  of  Kinalang  showed 
none  of  the  neatness  and  decorative  fea- 
tures of  those  of  Kebon  Djahe.  All,  ex- 
cept the  huge,  oddly  shaped  communal 
building,  were  loosely  thrown  together, 


96 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


SUMATRA  PROBABLY  HAS  THE  MOST  REMARKABLE  VEGETATION  IN  THE  WORLD 

Here  are  seen  the  giant  "elephant  ears"  and  other  characteristic  plants  and  vines  which 
the  jungle  sends  out  to  recover  the  land  stolen  from  it.  One  plant,  the  tjindawanmatahara, 
has  a  blossom  more  than  three  feet  in  diameter. 


sided  with  strips  of  split  bamboo  or  rat- 
tan, carelessly  thatched,  and  appearing  as 
if  the  first  strong  wind  would  blow  them 
to  pieces. 

The  interiors  were  dingy,  littered  with 
utensils,  and  filled  with  smoke  and  soot 
from  the  open  fires  that  burned  in  the 
center  of  their  bamboo  floors,  while  dogs 
and  chickens  shared  with  the  owners  what 
little  space  was  left. 

SUMATRA'S  LARGEST  LAKE 

About  two  miles  from  Kinalang  the 
road  descended  in  a  sharp  curve,  plunged 
through  a  narrow  cut,  and,  emerging 
abruptly  on  the  sheer  edge  of  the  plateau, 
revealed  a  superb  view  of  Toba  Lake, 
over  a  thousand  feet  below. 

Toba  Meer — the  Sea  of  Toba,  as  it 
is  called — is  the  largest  inland  body  of 
water  in  the  Dutch  Indies.  It  covers  an 
area  of  nearly  eight  hundred  square  miles, 
entirely  hemmed  in  by  the  mountains 
of  the  Boekit  Barisan,  at  an  altitude  of 
about  3,100  feet,  and  it  averages  nearly 
1,400  feet  in  depth. 

We  followed  the  uncompleted  road  to 


its  sudden  end,  about  two  miles  below, 
and  then  stopped  to  eat  our  tiffin  and  en- 
joy the  magnificent  view.  The  rugged 
mountains  rising  precipitously  from  the 
dark  water,  and  the  narrow,  fjord-like 
recesses  of  its  winding  arms,  gave  an 
extraordinary  beauty  to  the  great  high- 
land lake,  which  from  that  point  was  not 
unlike  the  Bocche  di  Cattaro  seen  from 
the  Montenegrin  Pass. 

A  cataract  tumbled  down  the  mountain 
side  opposite ;  far  below  us  the  fantastic 
roofs  of  the  village  of  Harangaul  showed 
picturesquely  above  a  grove  of  fruit  trees 
in  the  midst  of  the  green  paddy  fields  of 
the  rich  ravine,  while  out  in  the  lake  the 
long,  narrow  canoes  of  the  Batak  fisher- 
men slipped  through  the  blue  shadows, 
with  an  occasional  glint  of  wet  paddles 
and  dripping  nets. 

We  left  reluctantly  to  return  to  where 
the  road  had  branched  off,  backing  up  to 
the  plateau  again  because  the  unprotected 
trail  was  too  narrow  to  enable  us  to  turn 
the  car,  then  continued  down  the  lake. 

The  road  had  dried  off  rapidly  and  for 
more  than  half  the  distance  was  vastly 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


better  than  above,  as  well  as  traversing 
a  more  wooded  and  much  prettier  coun- 
try. There  were,  to  be  sure,  two  narrow 
rain-soaked  cuts  where  the  water  had  not 
run  off,  through  which  the  car  barely 
succeeded  in  struggling;  but  the  high- 
land roads  had  made  us  indifferent  to 
anything  short  of  being  permanently 
mired. 

A    MEETING   Of  BATAK   AND    MALAY 
HEADMEN 

We  made  further  stops  at  two  other 
diminutive  compounds.  In  Poerba  Dolok, 
as  at  Kinalang,  the  women  were  weaving 
sarongs  and  pounding  rice ;  at  Pematang 
Rajah  there  was  a  market,  and  a  meeting 
of  Batak  and  Malay  headmen  —  gor- 
geously dressed,  with  huge  golden  but- 
tons in  their  jackets,  finely  wrought 
bracelets  around  their  arms,  and  kris 
with  beautifully  carved  hilts  stuck  into 
the  brilliant  sashes  at  their  waists. 

As  we  left  this  picturesque  group  and 
drove  slowly  on,  a  bamboo  chair  swung 
high  on  the  shoulders  of  four  bearers 
appeared  hurriedly  up  the  road,  and  from 
it,  as  we  passed,  a  wife  of  one  of  the 
chiefs  gazed  curiously  down  at  our  un- 
familiar equipage. 

Shortly  behind  her,  preceded  by  dire 
shrieks,  three  men  in  equal  haste  to  reach 
the  market  came  trotting  around  a  cor- 
ner, each  carrying  two  live  black  pigs 
tightly  bound  in  split  bamboo  and  pro- 
testing volubly,  as  they  were  swung  at 
the  ends  of  the  shoulder  poles. 

We  ran  over  a  swampy  road,  gradually 
working  upward,  across  a  desolate,  grass- 
covered  plain.  Only  a  few  mountains 
dim  in  the  distance  gave  any  sense  of 
limit  to  the  rolling  plateau,  and  except 
for  the  swift-flying  wild  pigeons,  a  few 
of  which  I  shot  to  add  variety  to  our 
larder,  there  was  nowhere  any  sign  of 
life. 

Dark,  ominous  clouds  bore  down  upon 
us  as  we  splashed  over  the  soft  level 
stretches,  skidded  down  short,  slippery 
descents,  and  labored  on  the  upgrades 
among  the  holes  and  crevasses  of  deep 
washouts. 

In  one  place  the  road  was  evidently 
being  lowered,  and  for  several  hundred 
yards  more  than  half  of  it  had  been  cut 


away,  leaving  a  shelf  on  one  side  too  nar- 
row to  drive  on,  and  on  the  other  a  six- 
foot  trench  which  was  simply  a  morass 
of  mud  and  water.  As  the  shelf  was 
quite  impossible,  I  chose  the  trench, 
started  up  it  with  a  rush,  and  promptly 
stuck  fast. 

No  efforts  could  move  the  car  in  either 
direction.  The  sticky  clay  formed  solid 
disks  about  the  flying  wheels,  completely 
hiding  tire-chains  and  rope  under  its 
smooth  yellow  coating. 

After  an  hour  of  unavailing  labor, 
Joseph  and  I  abandoned  the  effort  to 
extricate  the  machine,  and  as  darkness 
was  rapidly  falling  we  held  a  hurried 
consultation  to  determine  what  should  be 
done.  It  was  finally  decided  to  desert 
the  car  and  attempt  to  flounder  through 
the  mud  to  the  nearest  native  village.  It 
was  a  desperate:  decision,  but  the  only 
alternative  was  a  night  in  the  car. 

Detaching  one  of  the  side  lamps, 
whose  fitful  rays  would  enable  us  to 
avoid  the  deepest  pools  of  water,  the 
three  of  us  began  the  sliding,  splashing 
tramp. 

About  a  mile  beyond  where  the  car 
was  entombed  we  came  to  a  cut,  and  at 
its  edge  the  dull  rays  of  another  lantern 
showed  half  a  dozen  natives  putting  away 
some  tools  in  a  little  shed.  Joseph  and  I 
immediately  scrambled  over  to  question 
them.  Only  one  spoke  Malay ;  the  others 
were  part  of  his  gang  of  road  laborers — 
an  evil-looking  lot. 

I  was  surprised  at  finding  human  be- 
ings there,  and,  feeling  consequent  mis- 
givings over  the  security  of  our  aban- 
doned car  and  luggage,  I  asked  the  man 
in  charge  if  he  or  one  of  his  men  would, 
for  a  suitable  consideration,  spend  the 
night  in  an  automobile  about  a  mile  down 
the  road,  to  guard  it  from  being  molested 
during  my  absence.  To  my  astonishment 
he  promptly  refused,  and,  asking  the 
question  in  turn  of  his  men,  met  with, 
immediate  negatives. 

THE  NATIVES*  DREAD  OF  TIGERS 

I  could  not  account  for  their  unwilling- 
ness. The  cushions  of  the  tonneau  would, 
surely  afford  as  comfortable  quarters  as 
any  they  were  accustomed  to;  it  could 
not  be  the  storm  of  which  men  of  the 


2  ° 
rt'C 


— '  c 

|S 

rs'rt 
O   § 


.-.    (U 

I* 

J^ 


_  .-=  o 

<-  <u 

=  =-J 

v,  '-*-1 

C/3  ^ 

r-  s  5 

i,  °  rt 

^  s  = 


2 

rt  -^ 


'3  "2 


J-.       n3   O   w 
I      Il| 

<     >  Z^ 


i?J 


O      3fcc  ° 

M    ^  w^ 


08 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


99 


highlands  were  afraid;  and  the  reward  I 
had  offered,  though  small  enough,  was 
probably  equivalent  to  about  a  week's 
income. 

Then  it  occurred  to  me  that  they  were 
afraid  of  the  automobile  itself,  and  I 
hastened  to  assure  them  that  it  was  not 
only  dry  and  comfortable,  but  quite  safe ; 
that  I  had  locked  it  up,  and  that  it  could 
not  move  until  I  myself  released  it. 

"Oh,  it  is  not  that,"  said  the  spokes- 
man, with  an  air  of  having  slept  in  auto- 
mobiles most  of  his  life. 

"Well,  what  is  it  then?"  I  was  both 
•curious  and  a  trifle  annoyed. 

"Tigers." 

"Tigers?" 

"Yes,  indeed,"  said  Joseph  nervously, 
translating.  "He  say  plenty  of  tigers 
here  come  down  sure  and  eat  him  up !" 

"But  not  in  the  automobile,"  I  objected. 

"Oh,  no ;  tiger  first  take  him  out." 

I  readily  persuaded  the  men  to  help 
•carry  our  luggage  to  the  village,  five 
miles  as  he  estimated  it,  but  nothing 
would  induce  any  of  those  natives  to 
spend  the  night  within  reach  of  the  great 
prowling  beasts. 

A  walk  down  the  mountain  to  the  rest- 
house  on  the  lake  was  quite  as  arduous 
as  we  had  feared.  The  trail  descended 
some  1,500  feet  in  long  zigzags.  When 
we  finally  reached  our  destination,  my 
mother  was  nearly  exhausted,  and  we 
were  both  too  grateful  for  the  shelter 
to  be  critical  of  what  we  found.  But 
even  so,  one  could  hardly  have  called 
the  accommodations  luxurious.  The 
whole  building  leaked ;  it  was  overrun 
"with  toads,  lizards,  spiders,  cockroaches, 
and  various  other  pests. 

We  rose  stiff  and  unrested  in  the 
morning,  but  when  the  early  mists  had 
lifted  from  the  green  island  facing  us, 
the  beauty  of  the  clear  highland  lake 
"banished  every  thought  of  weariness  and 
discomfort. 

Few  lakes  in  all  the  world  can  offer 
such  a  setting  as  the  Toba  Meer.  The 
•encircling  mountains  of  the  Barisan  chain 
rise  sheer  from  the  water's  edge,  their 
guttered  sides  white  -  flecked  with  the 
foam  of  many  rain- fed  cataracts. 

In  the  purple  shadows  along  this  som- 
ber rim,  indistinct  little  villages  cling  pre- 
cariously to  the  steep  slopes,  checkered 


with  the  tiny  squares  of  a  few  light  green 
or  yellow  paddy  fields. 

Overhead  the  winds  of  the  monsoon 
may  moan  and  whistle  about  the  peaks, 
but  the  deep  blue  surface  of  the  lake  is 
seldom  ruffled,  save  by  the  V-shaped 
wakes  of  the  dug-out  canoes,  which  skim 
about  like  tiny  water-bugs  in  the  vast  di- 
mensions of  the  silent  mountain  amphi- 
theater. 

Amid  such  surroundings  we  lost  all 
count  of  'time  until  hunger  necessitated 
our  return  to  the  motor,  car,  which  was 
salvaged  from  the  mud  only  with  great 
difficulty. 

Many  trials  and  adventures  were  en- 
countered in  making  our  way  down  from 
the  heights,  but  when  we  reached  Pema- 
tang  Siantar  we  were  out  of  the  high- 
lands and  back  again  on  the  coastal  plain, 
although  still  at  a  considerable  elevation 
and  a  long  distance  inland.  The  moun- 
tains from  this  point  sloped  quite  grad- 
ually toward  the  sea.  It  was  again  warm 
at  night,  warm  and  soggy,  and  we  re- 
turned to  sleeping  on  the  bedclothes,  after 
the  unaccustomed  treat  in  the  highlands 
of  sleeping  under  them. 

A    MALAY    COSMOPOLIS 

Siantar  forms  a  trade  link  between  the 
highlands  and  the  coastal  regions,  and  at 
its  market  half  the  nationalities  of  the 
Sundas  may  be  found,  beside  many  from 
the  rest  of  Malaysia,  from  India  proper, 
and  from  the  extreme  East.  There  in 
the  morning  I  wandered  for  over  an  hour 
between  rows  of  women  and  boys  who 
squatted  on  their  heels  behind  their  trays 
and  baskets,  while  the  stream  of  different 
tribes  flowed  steadily  past. 

Mostly  they  were  Bataks,  hideous  with 
red-stained,  toothless  mouths ;  Sumatra 
Malays  in  brilliantly  flowered  sarongs; 
and  blue-trousered  Chinese  wearing  the 
typical  broad  brown  topees,  or  straw  af- 
fairs woven  in  the  form  of  baskets  and 
filled  with  a  kind  of  lacquer. 

Others  bargained,  gossiped,  or  wan- 
dered aimlessly  among  them  —  Malays 
from  far  corners  of  the  archipelago; 
pretty  Sundanese  girls  with  white  jackets 
and  smoothly  combed  hair ;  Tamil  women 
in  scarlet  sari,  and  Tamil  men  with  white 
dhoti  and  red  turbans ;  Bandjarese, 
Sikhs,  and  even  wandering  Pathan,  trad- 


SALESGIRLS  IN  THEIR  SUMATRAN   OPEN-AIR  GROCERY   STORE 

The  young  woman  standing  in  the  central  background  is  wearing  the  curious  coiled 
silver  earrings  peculiar  to  the  island.  The  preparation  for  the  reception  of  these  earrings 
begins  in  babyhood,  when  the  lobe  of  the  ear  is  pierced  and  a  bit  of  tightly  coiled  banana 
leaf  is  inserted.  The  puncture  is  gradually  expanded  by  the  pressure  of  the  unrolling  leaf. 


BY  MOTOR  THROUGH  THE  EAST  COAST  OF  SUMATRA 


101 


ers  from  the  Afghan  frontier,  long- 
haired and  dirty,  with  heavy,  boat-shaped 
shoes  and  Inngi  trailing  from  their  rak- 
ishly  set  caps. 

THE  CHINESE  COOUE's  GROWING  POWER 

There  were  many  more,  but  of  every 
five  two  were  Chinese.  Some  were  nearly 
naked,  half-starved  new  arrivals  peddling 
trays  of  small  nicknacks  hung  from  poles 
across  their  calloused,  sweating  shoul- 
ders. Others,  laborers  earning  high 
wages  on  the  plantations,  squatted  about 
a  native  restaurant  in  one  corner  of  the 
market,  talking  at  high  speed  with  their 
mouths  full  of  rice  or  sundry  delicacies 
that  no  one  else  would  eat. 

And  there  were  many,  sleek,  well 
dressed,  and  bejeweled,  who  had  passed 
in  a  brief  time  through  both  these  first 
stages  and  now  showed  the  result  of  in- 
difference to  privation  and  an  infinite 
capacity  for  overwork,  the  only  assets 
brought  with  them  from  the  Middle 
Kingdom. 

The  irrepressible  Chinese  immigrant 
coolie  seems  destined  to  become  the 
financial  power  of  Sumatra,  as  he  already 
is  in  Malaya,  Java,  and  elsewhere  in  the 
East  Indies. 

From  Siantar  we  ran  back  to  Medan. 
The  road  was  hard  and  dry,  a  trifle 
rough  at  first,  but  such  a  transition  from 
the  soft  ditches  we  had  been  following 
through  the  highlands  that  the  very 
steadiness  of  our  progress  began  to  alarm 
us. 

After  the  conditions  of  Batak  high- 
ways, an  uninterrupted  run  of  thirty-five 
miles  makes  one  gravely  expectant  of 
dire  things  to  follow ;  but  the  road  grew 
better  instead  of  wrorse,  and  we  drove 
into  Medan  early  in  the  afternoon  with  a 
ninety-mile  run  behind  us — our  longest 
in  Sumatra. 

Before  we  reached  Medan  we  passed 
a  heavy,  two-wheeled  transport  cart  on 
its  way  to  some  estate,  drawn  by  the 
most  enormous  buffalo  I  had  even  seen. 
A  thin,  sweating  Chinese  coolie  walked 
beside  it,  wearing  a  battered  pair  of  blue 
trousers  and  a  round,  peaked  hat  of 
bamboo,  undoubtedly  the  aggregate  of  his 
worldly  possessions.  Just  as  we  drew 
alongside,  the  buffalo  got  wind  of  a 
near-by  wallow,  stretched  his  neck,  and 


snapped  the  extremely  simple  harness — a 
piece  of  rope  holding  the  wooden  collar 
to  the  shafts. 

While  the  huge  beast  ambled  off  to 
enjoy  his  mud  bath  the  coolie  repaired 
the  harness  by  unraveling  a  few  lengths 
of  thread  from  some  burlap  sacking  in 
the  cart,  plaiting  it  into  a  cord,  and  then 
splicing  the  broken  rope.  This  done,  he 
extracted  from  the  waistband  of  his 
trousers  what  appeared  to  be  a  handful 
of  dried  peas — probably  counted  down  to 
the  last  grain  that  would  support  life — 
ate  his  meal,  and  set  out  to  recover  his 
cumbersome  charge.  But  the  buffalo  was 
otherwise  minded. 

For  thirty-five  minutes  the  patient 
Chinaman  vainly  tried  to  make  the  huge 
animal  leave  the  mud-hole,  himself  get- 
ting plastered  with  slime  and  deeply 
scratched  on  some  dead  branches. 

At  last  the  relentless  yanking  on  his 
nose-rope  spoiled  the  buffalo's  repose, 
and  he  followed  his  driver  to  the  cart 
with  a  fine  effect  of  being  very  bored. 
When  the  collar  was  again  fitted  over  his 
neck  the  oversized  animal  swung  his 
head  fretfully  and  the  harness  promptly 
snapped  once  more.  Without  a  change 
in  expression  the  coolie  started  to  make 
a  new  repair,  and  the  last  we  saw  of  him 
was  a  patient  figure  squatting  on  the 
road,  laboriously  sawing  off  with  his 
teeth  the  end  of  the  buffalo's  nose-rope. 

From  Siantar  to  Tebing  Tinggi  the 
road  had  passed  through  dense  forest, 
the  edges  of  the  right  of  way  choked 
with  wild  plantains,  "elephant  ears,"  and 
all  the  quick-growing  plants  and  vines 
that  the  jungle  sends  out  to  recover  the 
land  stolen  from  it. 

Only  a  few  ambitious  tobacco  estates 
broke  in  on  the  ranks  of  the  vine-en- 
tangled, straight-trunked  trees  ;  but  from 
Tebing  Tinggi  the  run  to  Medan  took  us 
through  some  of  the  most  thriving  estates 
in  Sumatra.  In  that  fertile  section  was 
represented  nearly  every  variety  of  plan- 
tation found  on  the  island. 

THE  RUBBER  PLANTATIONS  OF  SUMATRA 

Second  in  extent  and  in  importance  to 
the  vast  tobacco  fields — surpassing  them 
in  many  cases — were  the  acres  devoted  to 
rubber,  both  indigenous  Ficus  clastica, 
nany  branched  and  buttress-rooted  like  a 


102 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A  CHINESE  COOLIE:  MENDING  THE  HARNESS  OF  HIS  BUFFALO  CART 
In  the  meantime  the  buffalo  is  taking  his  daily  noonday  bath  and  siesta  in  a  near-by  mud-hole. 


"banyan,  and  Hc\pca  brazilicnsis,  enor- 
mously popular  in  Malaya. 

Siberian  coffee  thrived  in  the  shade  of 
the  hc\vca  or  under  the  protection  of 
vast  coco-palm  groves ;  ten-foot  pepper 
Tines  climbed  thickly  up  the  trunks  of 
small  trees,  clumps  of  tall  areca  palms 
waved  their  graceful  fronds  high  in  the 
air,  and  dense  forests  of  teakwood, 
planted  in  even  rows,  overhung  and 
shaded  the  road. 

Other  things  without  end  grew  in  like 
profusion,  and  all  helped  prove  what  the 
planter  enthusiasts  had  told  of  the  is- 
land's future.  With  rich  alluvial  soil, 
.unfailing  rainfall,  and  tremendous  nat- 
ural resources,  only  the  lack  of  labor 
and  the  deterrent  influence  of  warring 
tribes  has  held  Sumatra  practically  at  a 
standstill  while  its  sister  island,  Java,  has 
flourished  so  greatly. 

Sumatra's  exploitation  has  been  carried 
on  very  slowly  and  cautiously,  it  is  true, 
but  without  the  aid  of  the  severe  though 
wonderfully  beneficial  methods  of  the 
Java  culture  system ;  and  before  the  close 
of  many  years  its  economic  development 


and  wealth  will  astonish  even  those  fa- 
miliar with  the  statistics  of  Java. 

We  reached  Medan  early  in  the  after- 
noon, and  the  next  morning  ran  down 
ten  miles  to  the  end  of  the  road  and  took 
the  Deli  railway  for  two  or  three  miles 
to  the  port  of  Belawan,  in  the  mangrove 
swamps. 

A  wearying  two-hour  struggle  ensued 
in  the  moist,  oppressive  heat  of  the  low 
coast — a  contest  against  heavy  odds  in 
the  shape  of  booms  that  were  too  short, 
planks  that  were  too  weak,  spaces  too 
narrow,  and  stanchions  that  interfered, 
and  all  the  other  things  that  make  a 
nightmare  of  loading  and  unloading 
motor  cars  on  ships  unprepared  to  handle 
them. 

But  we  wron  in  the  end,  with  the  help 
of  a  placid  Dutch  officer,  who  showed 
no  anxiety  over  the  disruption  I  was 
causing  the  company's  sailing  schedule ; 
and  when  the  car  was  at  last  on  board, 
the  Rnmphius  dropped  down  the  river  to 
the  Straits,  swung  southeast  for  Singa- 
pore, and  shortly  sunk  the  low  east  coast 
of  Sumatra  in  the  haze  of  late  afternoon. 


VOL.  XXXVII,  No.  2        WASHINGTON 


FEBRUARY,  1920 


BY  LIEUTENANT-COMMANDER  NOEL  DAVIS,  U.  S,  NAVY 

Photographs  from  the  U.  S.  Navy  Department 

For  an  account  of  the  extraordinary  feat  of  the  U.  S.  Navy  in  planting 
56,611  mines  in  the  North  Sea,  the  reader  is  referred  to  ''The  North  Sea  Mine 
Barrage,"  printed  in  THE  GEOGRAPHIC,  February,  /p/p.  The  removal  of  the 
mines  zvas  perhaps  an  even  more  remarkable  achievement,  and  was  under  the  direct 
command  of  Rear-Admiral  Joseph  Strauss,  who  also  had  command  of  the  expe- 
dition that  laid  the  mines. — THE  EDITOR. 


WHEN  time  and  study  have  en- 
abled an  accurate  history  of  the 
World  War  to  be  written,  it  is 
not  at  all  unlikely  we  shall  read  that  the 
North  Sea  Mine  Barrage  was  primarily 
responsible  for  the  collapse  of  Germany. 
The  inconceivably  great  task  of  closing 
the  exits  of  the  North  Sea  had  been  ac- 
complished ;  an  impregnable  wall  of  mines 
stretching  from  Scotland  to  Norway,  a 
distance  of  240  miles,  had  become  a  re- 
ality, and  that  deadly  weapon,  the  sub- 
marine, which  had  daily  brought  us 
nearer  to  inevitable  defeat,  regardless  of 
the  gallant  efforts  on  the  battlefields  of 
France,  at  last  was  bottled  up  within  the 
North  Sea,  no  longer  free  to  carry  on  its 
depredations. 

The  construction  of  the  barrage  was  a 
magnificent  achievement,  typically  Amer- 
ican, demanding  the  concentrated  efforts 
of  many  of  our  largest  manufacturing 
establishments  to  produce  the  countless 
complicated  parts  which  make  a  mine ; 
the  building  of  huge  assembly  plants  in 
Scotland ;  a  special  fleet  of  mine-layers ; 
and  then,  in  the  face  of  the  enemy,  the 


laying  of  these  thousands  upon  thousands 
of  delicately  adjusted  spheres,  one  at  a 
time,  each  in  its  predetermined  position 
in  the  North  Sea. 

The  hitherto  intrepid  submarines  were 
conquered,  because  they  would  not  risk  a 
passage  across  the  barrage.  Several  tried 
and  were  destroyed ;  others,  critically 
damaged,  managed  to  reach  port  and  told 
of  this  new  danger  which  confronted 
them.  And  here  it  was  that  the  barrage 
became  most  fruitful. 

As  long  as  the  submarines  had  an  even 
chance  in  battle,  they  were  willing  to  con- 
tinue. Now  the  realization  was  forced 
upon  them  that  they  faced  an  intangible 
foe,  an  ever-present  foe,  always  waiting 
and  ready  to  explode  upon  the  slightest 
contact.  Realization  grew  into  fear,  the 
fear  to  mutiny ;  new  crews  could  not  be 
mustered,  and  so  the  U-boat  menace  was 
ended. 

WHEN  GERMANY'S  ONLY  CHANCE  otf 
VICTORY  FADED 

With  the  collapse  of  the  submarine 
campaign,  Germany's  only  chance  of  vie- 


104 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


MAP  SHOWING  THE  LOCATION  OF  THE  MINE)  FIELDS 

The  narrow  Straits  of  Dover  had  been  closed  previously  by  mines  and  nets.  With  the 
completion  of  the  North  Sea  Barrage,  stretching  from  Norway  to  the  Orkney  Islands,  the 
fate  of  the  German  submarine  was  sealed.  . 


tory  faded.  She  knew  it  better  than  we, 
and  at  once  circuitously  sent  forth  her 
first  proposals  for  peace,  which  developed 
with  such  remarkable  rapidity  that  a  few 
weeks  later  the  Armistice  was  signed  and 
the  war  was  over. 

Then  came  the  period  of  reconstruc- 
tion, with  tasks  almost  as  great  as  those 
of  the  war  itself.  The  havoc  and  devas- 
tation had  been  frightful.  Cities  and 


farms  without  number  must  be  rebuilt, 
millions  of  starving  people  had  to  be  fed, 
and,  perhaps  most  immediately  serious  of 
all,  the  thousands  upon  thousands  of 
mines  which  had  been  laid  must  now  be 
cleared  away,  in  order  that  the  countless 
vessels  loaded  with  food  and  troops  might 
navigate  in  safety  the  long-obstructed 
ocean  highways. 

Concentrated  in  the  North  Sea  Barrage 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MIXK  BARRAGE 


105 


DETAIL    MAP   OF  THE    MINE   GROUPS 

The  mines  laid  by  the  United  States  Xavy  are  represented  by  full  lines,  and  are  further 
distinguished  by  group  numbers.  The  broken  lines  indicate  the  mines  laid  by  Great 
Britain. 


were  more  than  70,000  mines — more  than 
had  been  laid  during  the  entire  war  in  all 
the  other  waterways  combined — and  of 
these  slightly  better  than  80  per  cent  had 
been  laid  by  the  United  States  Navy  dur- 
ing the  six  months  preceding  the  Armis- 
tice. Now,  with  the  arrival  of  peace,  we 
had  accepted  the  responsibility  of  remov- 
ing every  mine  that  we  had  laid. 

Think  what  it  meant.  Here  was  a  death 
trap  containing  more  than  21,000,000 
pounds  of  TNT  and  extending  over  an 
area  of  approximately  6,000  square 
miles !  This  mighty  belt  of  destruction 
had  plucked  from  Germany  her  only  hope 
of  victory,  because  the  crews  of  her  sub- 
marines, after  losing  their  comrades,  who 
tried  in  vain  to  cross  it,  mutinied  and  re- 
fused to  risk  their  lives  in  what  appeared 
a  certain  death  (see  maps,  pages  104 
and  105). 

Although  the  Germans  had  learned  the 
secret  of  our  mines  within  a  month  after 
the  first  one  was  laid,  they  were  unable 
to  devise  any  means  of  safeguarding  their 
ships  to  prevent  them  from  exploding 
these  delicate  weapons — we?oons  which 
now  confronted  us  with  all  the  potential 


destruction    that    had   been    designed   to 
subdue  an  enemy. 

We  had  veritably  sown  our  wild  oats, 
and  now  we  had  to  reap  them ;  for  the 
only  means  of  removing  the  mines  was  to 
cross  and  recross  the  mine  fields,  time 
after  time,  until  we  were  sure  that  not  a 
single  mine  was  left. 

HOW   MINES  ARE  SWEPT 

Sweeping  mines,  for  by  such  name  is 
the  process  of  removing  them  called,  is 
not  a  particularly  intricate  art.  It  con- 
sists essentially  in  dragging  a  heavy  wire 
between  two  vessels.  In  order  to  bury 
the  wire  to  a  sufficient  depth  beneath  the 
surface  to  insure  catching  the  mines, 
"kites"  are  attached  to  the  sweep-wire 
just  astern  of  each  vessel.  These  kites 
fly  down  in  the  water  in  much  the  same 
manner  that  an  ordinary  kite  flies  up  in 
the  air  (see  page  108). 

When  a  mine  is  caught  in  the  sweep- 
wire,  it  is  dragged  along  until  the  slender 
wire  which  holds  it  to  its  anchor  breaks, 
allowing  the  mine  to  rise  to  the  surface, 
where  it  is  destroyed.  This  is  ordinarily 
done  by  puncturing  it  with  rifle-shots,  so 
that  it  sinks  and  becomes  innocuous.  No 


REAR-ADMIRAL  JOSEPH  STRAUSS  AND  HIS   STAFF  ON   BOARD  HIS   FLAGSHIP,  THE 

"BLACK  HAWK" 

Left  to  right:  Lieut.-Commander  Noel  Davis,  Rear- Admiral  Joseph  Strauss,  Lieut.  W.  K. 
Harrill,  arid  Ensign  K.  C.  Richmond. 


MARKER  BUOYS  TO  INDICATE  THE  POSITIONS  OF  THE  LINES  OF  MINES  WERE  PLACED 
AT  INTERVALS  OF  THREE  MILES  THROUGHOUT  THE  LENGTH  OF  EACH  GROUP 

Besides  a  differently  arranged  flag,  each  buoy  was  painted  to  show  which  line  of  mines 
it  marked  and  its  position  in  the  group,  in  much  the  same  manner  that  the  signs  on  the 
street  corners  indicate  the  streets.  The  buoys  were  assembled  on  board,  using  the  sphero- 
cylindrical  cans  which  are  seen  on  the  stern  of  the  ship. 


106 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


attempt  is  made  to  recover  the  mines,  for 
the  risk  involved  is  far  greater  than  the 
mine  is  worth  (see  pictures,  pages  no 
and  116). 

During  the  war  the  German  submarines 
laid  hundreds  of  mines  in  the  entrances 
to  European  harbors,  and  toward  the  end 
had  scattered  some  along  our  own  At- 
lantic coast.  Permanent  sweeping  forces 
were  required  to  keep  the  channels 
cleared,  and,  while  vessels  so  engaged 
were  occasionally  lost,  our  chief  concern 
was  from  a  totally  different  source. 

These  mines  which  Germany  had  laid, 
likewise  the  British  mines,  were  what  is 
known  as  the  "horn  type."  Leaden  horns 
project  from  the  mine  and  must  be  struck 
and  broken  before  the  mine  explodes. 

Our  mine  was  different.  Invented 
shortly  after  the  United  States  had  en- 
tered the  war,  it  had  made  the  construc- 
tion of  the  North  Sea  Barrage  possible. 
A  piece  of  metal  the  size  of  a  nail  was 
sufficient  to  explode  it.  Furthermore,  a 
long  antenna  stretching  up  above  the  mine 
enormously  increased  its  radius  of  action. 
Vessels  built  of  anything  but  wood  could 
not  survive  in  such  a  field.  Even  the 
sweep-wire  was  sufficient  to  detonate  the 
mine,  and,  worse,  one  mine  frequently 
caused  other  mines  to  countermine,  and 
if  one  of  these  should  be  beneath  a 


sweeper ! 

THE   MAN   CHOSEN   FOR  THE    INTRICATE 

TASK 

The  task  before  us  indeed  was  deli- 
cate. It  called  for  concentrated  genius 
and  iron-handed  resolution  to  tackle  such 
a  problem,  and  Rear-Admiral  Joseph 
Strauss,  United  States  Navy,  was  selected 
for  the  job.  Possessing  an  intricate 
knowledge  of  explosives  and  their  ca- 
prices, a  knowledge  derived  from  long 
periods  of  duty  in  the  Bureau  of  Ord- 
nance, and  having  personally  directed  the 
actual  construction  of  .the  barrage,  he 
was,  without  qualification,  the  one  man 
in  the  Navy  best  suited  for  such  an  ex- 
acting undertaking.  But  even  he  didn't 
have  the  faintest  idea  what  the  ultimate 
method  of  sweeping  would  be. 

Every  possible  scheme  must  be  tried 
with  the  hope  of  finding  a  solution — a  so- 
lution not  only  for  clearing  the  mines  in 
the  shortest  possible  time,  so  that  ship- 


ping might  resume  its  normal  routes,  but, 
primarily,  one  which  would  afford  the 
maximum  safety  to  the  men  who  were  to 
be  engaged  in  this  hazardous  work,  for 
human  life  had  at  last  returned  to  par. 

The  first  thing  to  be  done  was  to  ascer- 
tain the  then  existing  condition  of  the 
barrage. 

It  was  now  December.  The  mines  had 
been  laid  from  three  to  six  months.  In 
order  to  limit  the  depredations  of  the  U- 
boats  as  quickly  as  possible,  it  had  been 
necessary  to  lay  these  newly  developed 
mines  without  subjecting  them  to  the  ex- 
haustive tests  so  essential  to  the  logical 
development  of  all  intricate  and  delicate 
mechanisms.  Perhaps  the  firing  batteries 
had  become  exhausted  or  some  other  un- 
foreseen defect  had  rendered  them  inac- 
tive. This  we  must  know  at  once ;  for, 
aside  from  the  shortness  of  the  winter 
days  in  such  high  latitudes  (60  degrees 
north),  gale  follows  gale  with  such  ra- 
pidity that  small  craft  are  scarcely  ever 
safe,  and  sweeping  during  the  winter 
would  be  impossible. 

If  we  were  to  complete  our  task  dur- 
ing the  coming  summer,  everything  must 
be  in  readiness  to  begin  active  operations 
at  the  first  break  of  spring. 

MAKING    SAILING-SMACKS     MINE-PROOF 

Steel  vessels  could  not,  of  course,  be 
used  for  this  first  experiment,  and  self- 
propelled  wooden  vessels  invariably  have 
so  many  iron  fittings  about  their  hulls 
that  they,  too,  would  be  in  constant  dan- 
ger. Admiral  Strauss  therefore  borrowed 
from  the  British  two  of  the  only  type 
of  vessels  left — wooden  sail-boats  sixty- 
nine  feet  long. 

Sweep  mines  with  these  ?  The  idea  was 
discouraged  from  the  beginning.  How 
could  two  small  fishing-smacks,  with  their 
sterns  tied  together  by  a  heavy  sweep- 
wire,  keep  position  on  each  other,  pass 
sweep,  and  maneuver  back  and  forth 
across  the  mine  field?  Ridiculous  as  the 
idea  seemed,  it  was  our  only  chance  to 
gain  the  information  that  was  needed. 

The  first  step  was  to  make  them  mine- 
proof,  as  far  as  such  a  thing  were  possi- 
ble. They  were  hauled  out  upon  the 
ways  at  Inverness,  the  hulls  inspected, 
nail-heads  driven  in  and  plugged,  and 
other  metal  fittings  sheathed  with  wood. 


108 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


V 


>     Q      OT 

p  E  I 


s  8  5    *!« 

S      O     <-H<  .C    G    « 


torS 

c  o 


W   co  S 

Q 

X 


c  S~£ 


•0    ° 

- 


O    oj  C 
-^    >•  = 

a  «  c 

.h  £•  c 


o   ;=: 


JH        « 


C   tn   iu   «J 


>  G  « 

S  >.- 


.S-~  £' 


I 

O   « 
cT  r 


They    then    were    given    a 
heavy  coating  of  tar. 

Manned  with  volunteer 
crews,  these  little  vessels, 
the  Red  Rose  and  the  Red 
Fern,  got  under  way  from 
Inverness  with  the  two 
tugs,  Patapsco  and  Patitx- 
ent,  at  sundown,  December 

22,   1918. 

The  Patuxcnt  and  Patap- 
sco were  to  escort  them  as 
far  as  the  mine  fields,  stand 
by  while  the  experiments 
were  being  made,  and  then 
give  them  assistance,  if  re- 
quired, when  they  again 
were  off  the  field. 

THE  FIRST  MINE  EXPLODES 

The  next  morning  found 
the  Red  Rose  and  Red  Fern 
on  the  southern  edge  of  the 
barrage.  There  was  a 
threat  in  the  air  as  the  little 
vessels  stood  up  to  each 
other,  passed  the  sweep, 
and  headed  across  the  lines 
of  mines;  low-flying  black 
clouds  scudded  rapidly 
across  the  gray  sky,  while 
the  barometer  went  down 
with  alarming  rapidity. 

Then,  grr-ung! 

A  towering  column  of 
white  water  impelled  by  the 
explosion  of  300  pounds  of 
TNT  sprang  high  above  the 
masts  of  the  Red  Rose. 
Separated  by  only  a  short 
length  of  manila  rope, 
which  insulated  the  sweep- 
wire  from  the  ship,  the  ex- 
plosion virtually  lifted  the 
little  vessel  from  the  water, 
shaking  her  until  it  seemed 
as  if  the  timbers  in  her  hull 
would  fly  apart.  When  she 
settled  down  again  the  sea 
gushed  in  between  the 
planks  until  the  pump  could 
scarcely  keep  the  vessel  dry. 

This  was  the  first  mine. 
Five  others  followed,  most 
of  them,  fortunately,  fur- 
ther astern.  .It  was  indeed 
a  pretty  sight  to  see  these 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


109 


tiny  vessels  tacking  and  wearing 
in  perfect  unison,  keeping  sta- 
tion on  each  other  by  furling  top- 
sails or  streaming  sea  anchors. 

But  the  experiments  were  cut 
short  by  the  gale  foretold  by  the 
morning's  sky,  which  broke  with 
the  fury  of  a  hurricane  in  the 
early  part  of  the  afternoon.  The 
sweep  was  cut  adrift,  sails  reefed, 
and  course  set  to  pick  up  the 
Patapsco  and  Patuxent,  who  by 
now  had  been  left  out  of  sight 
beyond  the  horizon. 

EXPERIENCING  ONE  OF  THE  GALES 

THAT  MAKE  THE  NORTH 

SEA    NOTORIOUS 

By  3  o'clock  the  sun  had  set 
and  the  oncoming  darkness  added 
to  the  difficulties.  Shortly  be- 
fore midnight  the  tugs  were  over- 
taken, but  they  were  suffering 
equally  in  the  gale,  and  a  few 
minutes  later  were  again  out  of 
sight. 

How  it  blew !  The  Red  Rose 
was  hove  to  under  storm- jib  and 
staysail  forward  and  triple-reefed 
mizzen  aft.  First,  the  jib  went, 
followed  by  the  topmast,  then 
but  a  bare  pole.  A  few  hours 
later  the  mizzen-boom  snapped, 
and  for  the  next  36  hours  the 
Red  Rose  wallowed  in  the  North 
Sea  waves — vicious  waves,  that 
seemed  to  come  at  once  from  all 
directions. 

The  Patuxent's  rudder  was 
carried  away,  and  she  had  to  re- 
turn to  port. 

Not  knowing  whether  the  Red 
Rose  and  Red  Fern  were  safe,  a 
number  of  British  men-of-war 
were  sent  out  to  join  the  search, 
but  most  of  the  would-be  rescue 
ships  had  to  return  to  port,  for 
they  could  not  weather  the  gale. 

Then  followed  days  of  anxiety 
at  Inverness.  Had  it  been  ask- 
ing too  much  of  such  fragile 
craft  to  undertake  this  expedition 
at  this  period  of  the  year?  The 
North  Sea  is  notorious  the  world 
over  for  its  violent  weather.  But, 
when  hope  had  almost  ebbed 
away,  word  came  from  Peter- 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


111 


head  that  the  Red  Rose  had  reached 
port  on  Christmas  morning.  The  next 
day  the  Red  Fern  anchored  in  St.  An- 
drews Bay,  blown  200  miles  from  her 
destination. 

So  ended  the  first  experiment  on  the 
mine  fields.  Six  mines  out  of  56,000  had 
been  destroyed — a  negligible  number,  of 
course ;  but  we  had  found  what  we  had 
set  out  to  find — the  mines  were  still 
there,  waiting  for  us  now,  as  they  had 
waited  for  the  enemy's  submarines  previ- 
ously. 

To  clear  the  whole  barrage  by  means 
of  sail-boats  was,  of  course,  impossible. 
From  the  outset  Admiral  Strauss  realized 
that  rugged,  powerful  vessels,  able  to 
keep  the  sea  in  practically  all  weather, 
would  be  required  to  do  this  work. 
Furthermore,  the  United  States  Navy  at 
last  possessed  an  ample  fleet  of  vessels 
of  this  type,  for  almost  every  week  one 
of  the  new  mine-sweepers  was  being  com- 
pleted and  placed  in  commission. 

But  here,  again,  we  were  confronted 
with  that  ever-baffling  problem :  How 
could  we  protect  these  vessels  so  that 
they  could  cross  the  mine  fields  and 
strike  the  mines  without  exploding  them  ? 

Sheathe  them  with  wood?  It  would 
take  a  year  to  fit  out  the  necessary  ships, 
if  it  could  be  done  at  all.  Paint  them 
heavily  writh  tar  or  other  non-conductor? 
Not  sufficient  protection. 

THE    MIRACULOUS    HAPPENS 

It  began  to  look  as  if  the  task  were 
impossible  of  accomplishment.  Then  the 
miraculous  happened.  I  can  remember 
it  as  if  it  were  yesterday.  A  timid  knock 
at  the  Admiral's  door  and  Ensign  D.  A. 
Nichols  (now  lieutenant)  hesitated  and 
came  in. 

"I  have  a  scheme,  sir,"  he  addressed 
the  Admiral,  "for  protecting  ships  against 
the  mines ;  but  it  is  so  simple  that  I'm 
almost  ashamed  to  suggest  it." 

It  was  simple,  too,  but  one  of  those 
simple  things  which  require  the  mind  of 
a  genius  to  discover.  Fifteen  minutes 
later  the  necessary  gear  to  test  the  scheme 
was  being  assembled,  and  that  same  aft- 
ernoon the  tests  were  carried  out — and 
were  successful ! 

Our  greatest  handicap  was  now  re- 
moved and  we  were  free  to  use  steel 


ships  for  sweeping  the  barrage  as  soon 
as  they  could  be  fitted  with  the  Electrical 
Protective  Device ! 

More  exhaustive  tests  were  carried 
out — rigid  to  a  detail — to  find  if  there 
were  any  points  which  had  been  over- 
looked ;  but  every  test  proved  even  more 
conclusively  the  effectiveness  of  the  de- 
vice. Specifications  for  its  construction 
were  cabled  to  Washington  and  the  actual 
manufacture  began  a  few  days  later. 

OUTFITTING  THE  MINE-SWEEPERS 

Our  most  pressing  task  now  was  to 
get  the  new  mine-sweepers,  which  were 
still  scattered  among  the  various  ports 
on  the  Atlantic  coast,  equipped  with  this 
device,  fitted  with  sweep-gear,  provis- 
ioned for  a  long  period  away  from  home, 
and  then  get  them  started  for  the  North 
Sea  to  begin  actual  work  at  the  break  of 
spring. 

Admiral  Strauss  returned  to  the  United 
States  to  supervise  this  work,  leaving 
Captain  R.  C.  Bulmer,  U.  S.  N.,  in  com- 
mand of  the  mine-sweeping  detachment 
at  Inverness,  to  make  the  necessary  ar- 
rangements preliminary  to  the  arrival  of 
the  mine-sweepers. 

A  base  for  operations  had  to  be  se- 
lected ;  fuel  and  water  facilities  provided  ; 
suitable  sweep-gear  must  be  developed, 
and,  if  possible,  further  experiments  car- 
ried out  to  gain  some  definite  knowledge 
of  the  behavior  of  the  mines. 

It  was  March  before  the  Patuxent's 
rudder  had  been  replaced,  and  while  this 
was  being  done  both  she  and  the  Patap- 
sco  were  equipped  with  home-made  elec- 
trical protective  devices,  so  they  might 
cruise  in  safety  through  the  fields  of 
mines. 

Newly  developed  kites,  capable  of  at- 
taining the  great  depth  at  which  we  were 
required  to  sweep,  were  borrowed  from 
the  British  Admiralty,  together  with  a 
few  lengths  of  serrated  sweep-wire,  so 
called  because  of  its  peculiar  lay,  which 
enables  it  to  saw  the  mooring  of  a  mine, 
and  the  Patapsco  and  Patuxent  set  out 
for  the  barrage  to  experiment  with  this 
equipment,  which  was  later  to  be  used 
by  the  vessels  fitting  out  at  home. 

The  sweep  was  passed  and  sounding 
tubes  were  slid  down  to  the  kites  to 
measure  the  depths  at  which  they  were 


112 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


ONCE  A   MIGHTY  UNIT  OF  GERMANY'S  PROUD  HIGH  SEAS  FLEET 

Kirkwall,  the  base  of  the  American  mine-sweepers,  is  separated  from  Scapa  Flow  by 
only  a  narrow  neck  of  land.  When  it  was  known  that  the  interned  German  fleet  was  being 
scuttled  by  the  men  on  board,  Admiral  Strauss  ordered  all  his  fleet  then  in  harbor  to  pro- 
ceed at  full  speed  to  Scapa,  hoping  that  they  might  succeed  in  beaching  some  of  the  vessels 
before  they  had  filled  and  sunk.  But  the  work  of  destruction  was  so  complete  that  our 
vessels  were  of  no  assistance. 


flying;   then   the   course   was   altered  to 
head  across  the  mine  field. 

The  first  few  explosions  were  well 
astern  and  in  the  center  of  the  sweep, 
and  although  the  terrific  concussion  shook 
the  ships  from  end  to  end,  the  men 
quickly  became  used  to  the  novel  sensa- 
tion and  apparently  enjoyed  it.  Mines, 
too,  kept  popping  up  behind  the  sweep, 
having  been  cut  from  their  moorings  be- 
fore the  sweep-wire  could  reach  the  mines 
and  cause  them  to  explode. 

A  MINE  EXPLODES  BENEATH  THE 
"PATUXENT" 

Then  suddenly  it  seemed  as  if  all  bed- 
lam had  broken  loose.  Towering  col- 
umns of  water  were  belched  up  on  every 
side !  The  Patuxent  seemed  to  stop  for 
a  moment  as  if  stunned,  and  then,  as  the 
spray  and  water  settled  back  again,  great 
clouds  of  black  smoke,  mingled  with 
flame,  poured  from  her  funnel. 


The  lights  below  decks  dimmed  and 
went  out;  the  floor  plates  in  the  fire- 
rooms  had  been  hurled  from  the  decks ; 
an  ever-widening  circle  of  brown,  dis- 
colored water  spread  out  around  the  ship. 
The  vessel  had  been  countermined. 

Luckily,  the  mine  which  had  exploded 
below  her  had  been  planted  at  the  deep- 
est level,  and,  aside  from  minor  damages, 
which  could  be  repaired  in  a  few  hours, 
she  had  not  been  injured.  A  mine  fired 
by  the  sweep-wire  had  caused  these  others 
to  explode  sympathetically. 

We  had  sampled  a  danger  with  which 
we  were  to  be  faced  constantly  in  the 
coming  months — a  danger  that  no  human 
effort  could  avert. 

Many  of  the  supersensitive  mines  had 
exploded  prematurely  shortly  after  the 
barrage  was  laid,  and  we  had  hoped  that 
only  those  possessing  normal  stability 
now  were  left ;  but  such  was  not  the 
case.  The  Electrical  Protective  Device 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINK  BARRAGE 


113 


THE  LITTLE  TOWN  of  KIRKWALL,  SCOTLAND,  WITH  ITS  BARREN,  WIND-SWEPT  HILLS, 

HAS    PLAYED    AN     IMPORTANT    ROLE    IN    AMERICAN     NAVAL 

LIFE    DURING    THE    PAST    FIVE    YEARS 

Hundreds  of  patrol  craft  engaged  in  hunting  submarines  and  in  escort  work  were  based 
here  until  the  Armistice.  Four  months  later  the  Mine-Sweeping'  Force  made  this  its  base 
while  clearing  the  North  Sea  Barrage. 


would  prevent  mines  from  exploding 
when  in  contact  with  the  ship,  but  against 
these  countermines  it  was  of  no  avail — 
and  an  upper-level  countermine  beneath 
sweeper  would  undoubtedly  destroy  her. 

KIRKWALL,      AMERICA'S      MINE-SWEEPING 
BASE   IN    THE   ORKNEYS 

The  next  mine  encountered  in  the 
sweep  exploded,  shattering  the  sweep- 
wire,  and  before  the  break  was  mended 
a  blinding  snow-storm  cut  short  further 
experiments.  The  two  ships  then  pro- 
ceeded to  Lerwick,  a  drowsy  little  town 
in  the  Shetland  Islands,  and  later  to 
Kirkwall,  in  the  Orkneys,  choosing  the 
latter  place  as  our  base  for  the  coming 
operations. 

During  this  experimental  trip  twenty- 
five  mines  were  exploded  and  fourteen 
were  cut  adrift.  As  many  of  these  float- 
ing mines  as  possible  were  sunk  by  rifle 
fire,  but  it  was  difficult  to  find  them  after 
they  had  once  been  lost  to  sight.  It  was 
evident  that  special  ships  would  be  re- 
quired to  follow  up  each  pair  of  sweepers 


and  sink  the  mines  as  fast  as  they  ap- 
peared. The  only  vessels  then  available 
were  the  little  sub-chasers,  which  had 
been  doing  patrol  duty  in  the  English 
Channel,  and  twenty  of  them  were  ob- 
tained and  sent  to  Inverness. 

By  the  middle  of  April  all  arrange- 
ments were  completed  and  we  were  ready 
to  begin  actual  sweeping  the  moment  that 
the  mine-sweepers  arrived.  Oil-ships, 
colliers,  gasoline,  and  water  boats  had 
been  borrowed  from  the  British  Admi- 
ralty ;  the  sub-chasers  had  been  drilled  in 
their  new  duties:  special  buoys  had  been 
obtained  for  marking  the  barrage,  and  the 
sweepers  were  by  then  halfway  across 
the  Atlantic. 

THE  SWEEPERS  ARRIVE  FOR  THE  BIG  TASK 

On  April  20,  1918,  the  first  twelve  of 
these  sturdy  little  vessels  arrived  in  In- 
verness. What  a  weird  future  confronted 
them! 

A  veil  of  mystery  surrounded  every- 
thing, even  more  than  in  the  silent  oper- 
ations of  the  war.  Those  who  manned 


114 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THOUSANDS   AND   THOUSANDS   OF   FISH 

WERE  KILLED  BY  THE  EXPLOSIONS 

OF  THE   MINES 

The  sub-chasers  kept  the  larger  ships  con- 
stantly supplied  with  cod,  pollack,  and  herring, 
which  are  most  abundant  in  the  North  Sea. 
Occasionally  a  curious  specimen,  such  as  shown 
above,  was  picked  up  by  a  vessel. 

the  sweepers  only  knew  that  they  had 
been  selected  to  sweep  the  hitherto  invin- 
cible barrage.  The  ships  had  suddenly 
been  ordered  to  the  navy  yards  at  Boston 
and  Norfolk,  where  curious  appliances  of 
every  description  had  been  placed  on 
board.  Workmen  invaded  the  ships  and 
began  stringing  wires  and  installing  elab- 
orate electrical  panels.  Some  one  said 
these  were  to  keep  the  mines  from  ex- 
ploding when  their  vessels  struck  them. 


Then,  too,  rumors  had  reached  home  that 
the  Patuxent  had  narrowly  escaped  de- 
struction while  experimenting  in  the  bar- 
rage. 

The  day  following  the  arrival  of  the 
sweepers  Rear-Admiral  Strauss  returned 
to  Inverness  and  hoisted  his  flag  on  the 
Black  Hawk,  the  flag  and  repair  ship  of 
the  force. 

Not  a  moment  was  to  be  lost.  If 
humanly  possible,  the  barrage  must  be 
cleared  away  during  the  year,  and  that 
meant  by  October,  for  from  then  on  the 
short  days  and  severe  storms  would  make 
our  efforts  futile. 

As  soon  as  the  necessary  overhaul  inci- 
dent to  a  transatlantic  voyage  had  been 
completed,  the  mine  force  got  under  way ; 
the  sweepers  and  six  chasers  headed  for 
the  barrage ;  the  Black  Hawk  and  other 
chasers  for  their  new  base  at  Kirkwall. 

THE  RESULTS  OF  THE  FIRST  TRIP 

No  attempt  was  to  be  made  on  this 
first  operation  to  clear  a  definite  area  of 
mines.  The  object  was  experimental. 
Several  appliances  remained  to  be  tested, 
chiefly  an  amplification  of  the  Electrical 
Protective  Device  whereby  the  mines 
would  all  be  exploded  by  an  electrical 
connection  to  the  sweep-wire ;  also,  we 
must  know  more  definitely  the  present 
condition  of  the  field — what  percentage 
of  the  mines  remained,  and  were  they 
still  in  the  positions  in  which  originally 
planted,  or  had  the  storms  and  currents 
scattered  them  about. 

At  the  end  of  two  days  the  ships  re- 
turned to  port,  having  accounted  for  221 
mines — less  than  half  of  I  per  cent  of 
the  total  number  we  had  laid.  The  elec- 
trical scheme  for  exploding  the  mines 
was  not  successful,  and,  even  worse,  it 
had  a  most  alarming  effect  on  the  mag- 
netic compasses.  The  powerful  solenoids 
caused  by  the  current  in  the  insulated 
sweep-wire  wound  around  the  drums  had 
made  the  compasses  point  as  much  as 
ninety  degrees  from  the  magnetic  me- 
ridian ;  and  the  navigators  found  their 
ships  actually  going  east  or  west  when 
they  were  thought  to  be  headed  north. 

The  mines,  as  far  as  could  be  told, 
were  still  in  place  and  had  not  dragged 
from  their  original  positions. 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  XORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


115 


None  of  the  ships  had  been  damaged, 
although  numerous  instances  of  counter- 
mining had  occurred. 

From  the  results  of  these  first  two  days 
it  was  obvious  that  at  the  present  rate  of 
sweeping  it  would  be  impossible  to  com- 
plete the  work  within  the  year;  so  Ad- 
miral Strauss  cabled  a  request  to  Wash- 
ington that  sixteen  additional  sweepers 
be  fitted  out  and  dispatched  as  expedi- 
tiously  as  possible.  He  also  made  ar- 
rangements to  charter  from  the  British 
Admiralty  twenty  newly  built  steam 
trawlers  and  man  them  with  our  own 
crews,  these  vessels  being  required  as 
marker  boats  to  enable  the  sweepers  to 
maintain  their  positions  while  maneuver- 
ing upon  the  field. 

A  BARRIER  260  FEET  DEEP   IMPENETRABLE 
FOR    SUBMARINES 

By  the  loth  of  May  the  sweepers  were 
ready  to  go  out  again.  This  time  a 
definite  area  was  to  be  cleared. 

The  barrage  was  composed  of  thirteen 
separate  groups  of  American  mines. 
Each  group  consisted  of  from  two  to  six 
parallel  rows  of  mines,  and  the  mines  in 
each  row  were  laid  at  one  of  three 
levels — upper,  middle,  or  lower — the 
three  forming  a  complete  barrier  in  a 
vertical  plane  to  a  depth  of  260  feet. 

The  average  group  contained  five  rows, 
and  of  these  three  were  laid  at  the  upper 
level  to  give  the  surface  barrage  the 
greatest  density.  The  reason  was  psy- 
chological :  Submarines,  knowing  the  bar- 
rage was  there,  would  prefer  to  risk 
crossing  on  the  surface,  even  if  they 
knew  their  chances  were  less. 

The  upper-level  mines  were  now  our 
gravest  concern,  for  the  damage  done  a 
sweeper  by  the  explosion  of  one  of  these 
would,  of  course,  be  far  more  serious 
than  from  a  lower-level  mine. 

Group  12  (see  chart,  page  105)  was 
selected  to  be  cleared  on  this  coming  op- 
eration, since  it  consisted  of  only  three 
rows  of  mines,  only  one  of  which  was 
laid  at  the  upper  level. 

With  the  danger  from  countermining 
reduced  to  the  minimum,  the  experience 
gained  in  sweeping  this  group  might  pro- 
vide a  further  means  of  safeguarding 
the  ships  before  the  more  dangerous 
groups  were  undertaken. 


A  GIANT  HALIBUT,  WEIGHING  MORE  THAN 

4OO  POUNDS,  CAUGHT  NEAR  THE 

ORKNEY    ISLANDS 

In  order  to  reduce  the  possible  effects 
of  countermining  still  further,  each  pair 
of  sweepers  was  to  work  independently 
of  the  others,  so  that  all  pairs  should  be 
evenly  spaced  along  the  length  of  the 
field.  Then,  if  an  exploding  mine  should 
cause  others  in  its  vicinity  to  countermine, 
the  possibility  of  damaging  other  sweep- 
ers than  the  one  pair  was  very  remote. 

The  method  of  sweeping  to  be  used 
was  what  is  called  transverse  sweeping — 
that  is,  the  sweepers  were  to  cross  the 
lines  of  mines  perpendicular  to  their  di- 
rection, then  turn,  recross,  and  so  on. 
This  method  is  much  more  laborious  than 
attempting  to  keep  a  line  of  mines  be- 


110 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A  MINE;  FOUL  OF  THE  "PATUXENT'S"  KITE; 

In  less  than  a  minute  after  the  picture  was  taken  the  mine  exploded,  blowing  several 
men  overboard  and  slightly  injuring  the  commanding  officer.  Most  of  the  force  of  the 
explosion  was  expended  in  the  air,  however,  and  the  damage  to  the  ship  was  not  extensive 
(see  text  on  this  page). 


tween  the  pair  of  sweepers  and  steaming 
longitudinally  down  its  length  (longi- 
tudinal sweeping),  but  was  deemed  to  be 
safer,  since  the  possibility  of  being  above 
a  mine  when  it  exploded  was  considered 
less. 

THE;  CASUALTIES  BEGIN 

No  sooner  had  the  sweepers  reached 
the  field  than  the  casualties  began,  and, 
curiously,  the  cause  was  from  an.  en- 
tirely unexpected  source.  From  now  on 
this  same  thing  happened  so  frequently 
that  it  seemed  almost  incredible  that  it 
had  not  occurred  before. 

The  Patuxent  was  the  first  victim. 
Her  sweep  had  been  severed  by  the  ex- 
plosion of  a  mine  and  had  to  be  hauled 
on  board  to  be  repaired.  By  the  time  the 
kite  was  within  sight  (it  can  be  seen  only 
a  few  feet  below  the  surface),  a  mine 
could  be  seen  floating  near  it.  Evidently 
its  mooring  had  fouled  the  kite  and  it 
was  necessary,  of  course,  to  clear  it  be- 
fore the  kite  could  be  lifted. 

The  commanding  officer,  realizing  the 
danger,  sent  all  hands  forward  and  went 
aft  himself  to  do  the  work,  assisted  by 
one  man. 


The  mine  was  within  four  or  five  feet 
of  the  ship's  side  when,  suddenly,  with- 
out warning  or  apparent  cause,  it  ex- 
ploded. 

For  an  instant  the  entire  ship  was 
obscured  in  the  mass  of  flying  spray,  and 
when  it  had  subsided  four  of  the  crew 
could  be  seen  struggling  in  the  water. 
Fortunately,  all  of  them  were  rescued  by 
their  comrades.  The  captain  was,  per- 
haps, the  luckiest  of  all;  standing  only 
a  few  feet  from  the  mine  when  it  had 
detonated,  the  only  injury  he  sustained 
was  the  loss  of  his  right  thumb,  which 
had  been  amputated  by  a  flying  frag- 
ment. 

Since  the  mine  was  not  submerged,  the 
force  of  the  explosion  was  largely  spent 
in  the  air,  and  consequently  the  damage 
to  the  ship  was  not  serious.  A  few  days 
in  dry-dock  were  sufficient  to  repair  her. 

Up  to  the  time  of  this  accident,  when 
mines  were  found  foul  of  the  kites  or  the 
sweep  they  had  been  regarded  more  or 
less  as  curios.  Many  had  been  hauled  on 
board ;  for,  according  to  design,  they  were 
supposed  to  be  quite  safe  when  on  the 
surface.  Xow  no  one  trusted  them.  One 


REMOVAL  OF  TIIF.  XORTH  SEA  MTXE  BARRAGE 


117 


A  CURIOUS  EXPLOSION 

While  a  sweeper  was  going  alongside  her  mate  to  pass  the  sweep,  a  mine,  from  some 
unknown  cause,  exploded  between  them.  The  entire  after  part  of  this  vessel  was  drenched, 
but  the  damage,  fortunately,  was  not  serious. 


ship  which  at  the  time  had  a  mine  on 
board  even  went  so  far  as  to  double  the 
risk  by  throwing  it  back  into  the  sea. 

Infinite  care,  however,  could  not  en- 
tirely eliminate  this  particular  danger.  In 
the  first  place,  the  mine  could  never  be 
seen  until  it  was  dangerously  close  to  the 
ship;  then  the  course  of  action  that  was 
chosen  might  or  might  not  prove  the 
proper  one. 

A  TRAGIC  MISHAP 

Two  days  after  the  Patuxent  was  dam- 
aged an  identical  casualty  befell  the  Bob- 
olink, but  with  far  more  serious  conse- 
quences. The  captain,  as  in  the  Patit.v- 
ent's  case,  went  aft  to  clear  the  mine 
himself,  sending  all  hands  forward  to  a 
place  of  safety  except  those  actually  re- 
quired to  assist  him. 

The  towing  engine  had  been  stopped  as 
soon  as  the  mine  was  sighted,  leaving  it 
somewhat  submerged.  It  exploded  be- 
fore anything  could  be  done  to  clear  it. 

The  commanding  officer,  Lieutenant 
Frank  Bruce,  U.  S.  N.,  was  killed.  The 
first  lieutenant  and  several  men  were 


blown  into  the  water,  the  first  lieutenant 
falling  100  feet  from  the  ship.  The  men 
who  plunged  in  after  them  succeeded  in 
saving  all,  even  though  the  first  lieuten- 
ant had  been  rendered  unconscious  by  the 
fall. 

The  Bobolink  was  critically  damaged 
by  the  explosion.  The  entire  after  body 
had  been  distorted,  parts  of  the  plating 
being  driven  in  two  to  three  feet  by  the 
concussion.  The  rudder  was  gone,  the 
engine  disabled,  and  the  ship  was  leaking 
badly.  Her  boilers,  which  are  well  for- 
ward, were  not  injured  and  enabled  the 
powerful  wrecking  pumps  to  take  care  of 
the  water. 

Two  other  sweepers  towed  the  dam- 
aged vessel  to  Scapa  Flow,  near  Kirk- 
wall,  where  she  was  docked  and  tempo- 
rary repairs  made.  Later  she  was  towed 
to  Devonport,  where  she  still  remained  in 
dock  when  the  Mine  Force  sailed  for 
home,  five  months  later. 

Seventeen  days  after  the  operation  be- 
gan, Group  12  was  completed  and  the 
vessels  returned  to  port.  Several  other 
accidents  had  happened,  two  of  which 


118 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


DUE;  TO  AN  ELECTRICAL  PROTECTIVE  DEVICE,  THE    LAPWING    SUCCEEDED  IN  PASSING 

SAFELY  OVER  THIS  MINE,  WHICH  EXPLODED  AS  SOON  AS  IT  WAS  OUTSIDE  THE 

RADIUS  OF  IMMUNITY  ESTABLISHED  BY  THAT  REMARKABLE  CONTRIVANCE 

Aside  from  shaking  the  vessel  severely  and  breaking  such  articles  as  chinaware  and  lamp 
globes,  no  damage  was  ordinarily  incurred  by  an  explosion  so  far  astern. 


necessitated  docking  the  sweepers  to  stop 
the  leaks  caused  by  explosions. 

The  rate  of  sweeping  had  been  far  be- 
low our  expectations,  but  we  were  learn- 
ing. 

VAST  QUANTITIES  OF  SWEEPING  GEAR 
BLOWN    AWAY 

The  most  serious  factor,  aside  from 
the  loss  of  life,  was  the  expenditure  of 
sweeping  gear.  Thousands  upon  thou- 
sands of  fathoms  of  serrated  sweep-wire, 
together  with  more  than  fifty  plunger 
kites,  had  been  blown  away  by  the  ex- 
ploding mines.  Our  original  estimates 
had  not  anticipated  so  large  a  loss  for  the 


entire  barrage  as  had  been  expended  by 
this  single  operation.  Moreover,  both  of 
these  articles  were  exceedingly  difficult  to 
obtain. 

Our  present  rate  of  work  was  far  too 
slow  to  complete  the  barrage  within  the 
year,  and  even  the  thought  of  the.  idle 
winter  days  in  that  miserable  climate, 
while  we  waited  again  for  spring  weather 
to  resume  operations,  was  most  disheart- 
ening. 

WORKING   EIGHTEEN    HOURS   A  DAY 

Every  minute  on  the  mine  fields  was 
being  utilized.  In  that  high  latitude, 
where  the  summer  days  are  so  unusually 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


119 


long,  the  sweepers  worked 
from  four  in  the  morning 
until  ten,  and  sometimes 
even  later,  at  night. 

The  days  in  port  were 
equally  busy.  Fuel,  water, 
provisions,  and  new  sweep 
gear  had  to  be  obtained ; 
boilers  had  to  be  cleaned 
and  many  repairs  were  al- 
ways required.  The  ma- 
chine-shops on  the  two  re- 
pair-ships buzzed  inces- 
santly, and  as  soon  as 
everything  could  be  finished 
the  ships  were  under  way 
once  more  for  the  barrage. 

Group  9,  the  largest 
group  of  mines  that  has 
ever  been  laid,  was  selected 
for  the  next  operation. 

Five  thousand  five  hun- 
dred and  twenty  mines  had 
been  laid  within  its  bound- 
aries. The  same  method  of 
sweeping  was  to  be  used  as 
on  the  previous  operation, 
except  that  the  three  pairs 
of  sweepers  were  to  work 
together,  sweeping  their 
section  of  the  field  longi- 
tudinally instead  of  trans- 
versely. It  was  a  bold  ex- 
periment, but  if  they  could 
demonstrate  that  the  danger 
was  no  greater  than  in  the 
other  form  of  sweeping 
(this  largely  depended  on 
their  ability  to  keep  be- 
tween the  invisible  lines  of 
mines),  then  there  might 
yet  be  a  possibility  of  finishing  the  task 
before  winter. 

Admiral  Strauss  spent  several  days  on 
one  of  these  sweepers  in  order  personally 
to  judge  the  relative  merits  of  the  two 
methods. 

A  SUBMARINE  WRECK  CAUGHT  IN  THE 

SWEEP-WIRE 

An  interesting  indication  of  the  success 
of  the  barrage  was  encountered  while 
sweeping  in  the  central  portion  of  this 
group.  The  Heron  and  Sanderling,  while 
crossing  the  lines  of  mines,  were  suddenly 
brought  almost  to  a  standstill ;  then  their 


A  MINE  WITH  ITS  ANCHOR,  WHICH  FOULED  THE  SWEEP 
AND  WAS   HAULED  ON  BOARD 

This  extremely  dangerous  practice  was  automatically  discon- 
tinued after  the  Bobolink's  disaster  (see  page  117). 


sweep-wire  snapped.  A  few  minutes  later 
a  huge  patch  of  oil  rose  to  the  surface 
and  spread  out  astern  of  them.  The 
sweep  had  fouled  the  wreck  of  a  subma- 
rine which  had  been  sunk  in  the  barrage. 
Curiously,  the  mining  squadron,  when 
passing  close  to  this  same  spot  a  few  days 
after  they  had  laid  the  field,  sighted  the 
dead  body  of  a  German  sailor  floating  in 
the  water. 

From  the  records  of  the  Admiralty  the 
wreck  was  presumed  to  be  the  U.  B.  127. 

The  sweeping  progressed  slowly.  The 
weather,  although  it  was  now  June,  was 
almost  as  violent  as  it  had  been  during 


120 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


w 


0 

§  £ 


o 


rt 


O  ^  to 

tt  .C  l- 

k/l  •*->!> 

M  Q, 

Pi  en  U 

<;  <u  <u 

§  .s  ^ 

^H  ,-.  C/3 


S  S-S 

fa  *O.S 

0  u  ^ 

w  .5^ 

£  — "3 


o 
< 
w 

d" 

<2 

s 
w 
« 


S  u.a 

>  i-  5) 

in   S   O 


fa 
O 

Q 

s 

w 

M 
to 

W 
W 
H 


"^  £  S 

sl'-s 


<;  (j        vi 

w  'E-S-rt 

PH  -C    tn 

w  «a  S 

S  £bo.S 

M  H.S  E 

O  ^l+H 

H  J2   O 


the  winter  months.  Not  until  27 
days  after  the  operation  had  be- 
gun was  the  group  finally  com- 
pleted. Some  improvement  had 
been  made.  No  ships  had  been 
seriously  damaged,  although 
many  minor  accidents  had  hap- 
pened. 

There  was  some  consolation 
that  our  rate  of  sweeping  was 
slightly  better  than  that  of  the 
two  British  detachments  engaged 
in  clearing  their  portions  of  the 
barrage ;  but  it  was  far  from 
satisfactory;  the  rate  had  to  be 
tripled  if  we  were  to  finish  in 
1919! 

THE  CHIEF  CAUSES   FOR  SLOW 
PROGRESS 

The  principal  losses  of  time 
were  due  to  the  frequency  that 
sweeps  parted,  with  the  conse- 
quent delay  in  repairing  them, 
and  to  the  difficulty  in  navigat- 
ing with  sufficient  accuracy  to 
insure  that  every  square  foot 
of  the  field  had  been  covered. 
This  latter  difficulty  necessitated 
sweeping  the  same  area  over  and 
over  again  to  make  sure  no  mines 
were  left. 

The  first  cause  offered  little 
room  for  improvement;  with 
practice,  the  sweeper  crews  be- 
came more  dexterous  in  mending 
sweeps  and  repassing  them,  but 
the  explosions  which  parted  the 
wires  could  not  be  avoided. 

The  second  cause  of  loss  of 
time  presented  many  possibilities 
for  improvement :  First,  by  plac- 
ing all  the  vessels  in  formation, 
so  that  all  the  ground  could  be 
definitely  covered ;  then  have 
them  steam  longitudinally  down 
the  field.  The  experiment  made 
by  the  three  pairs  of  sweepers 
on  the  previous  operation  showed 
that  this  was  practical ;  they  had 
suffered  no  greater  losses  than 
the  other  sweepers,  and,  although 
their  rate  of  sweeping  was  no 
faster  than  the  others,  it  was 
plainly  due  to  the  difficulty  of 
telling  where  they  were. 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


121 


The  second  possibility  for  im- 
provement lay  in  defining  accu- 
rately each  row  of  mines  with 
suitable  buoys  before  the  sweep- 
ers were  sent  out.  Some  doubt 
existed  if  such  a  thing  were  pos- 
sible, for  it  had  appeared  in 
previous  sweeping  that  the  mines 
exploded  or  rose  to  the  surface 
in  such  apparent  disorder  that 
to  place  marker  buoys  in  exact 
positions  relative  to  the  individ- 
ual rows  of  mines  was  almost 
out  of  the  question.  But  we  at 
least  could  try. 

The  Admiral  directed  that  a 
Buoy-laying  Squadron  should  be 
fitted  out  at  once,  in  order  to 
have  the  new  fields  marked  by 
the  time  the  overhaul  and  refit 
of  the  sweepers  was  completed. 

THE   BUOY-LAYING  SQUADRON 
BEGINS    WORK 

Since  the  Buoy-laying  Squad- 
ron automatically  took  over  the 
duties  which  the  trawlers  had,  in 
a  lesser  way,  been  performing,  it 
was  decided  to  fit  out  ten  of  these 
vessels  for  sweeping  (they  had 
been  built  expressly  for  that  pur- 
pose by  the  Admiralty),  using 
them  astern  of  the  regular  sweep- 
ers to  catch  any  mines  which 
might  have  escaped  the  initial 
sweep.  This  would  give  a  large, 
compact  formation,  with  suffi- 
cient breadth  to  cover  the  entire 
width  of  the  group. 

In  order  to  reduce  as  much  as 
possible  the  loss  of  time  due  to 
parted  sweeps,  three  pairs  of 
sweepers  were  to  steam  in  col- 
umn along  each  row  of  mines ; 
then,  when  the  sweep  of  the  lead- 
ing pair  was  broken,  they  should 
drop  out  of  formation,  repass, 
and  take  position  as  the  last  pair. 
In  this  manner  it  was  hoped  that 
the  sweepers  as  a  unit  might 
sweep  continuously  the  full 
length  of  the  field,  keeping  at 
least  one  pair  in  action  on  each 
line  of  mines,  so  as  not  to  lose 
track  of  its  position. 

Five  days  after  the  ships  re- 


c- 
cr 


^. 

-I    CU 

O 

3  £ 


— •  -i 
o  p^ 

^3 

en    <T> 

n   3 


I-,  a 

" 


i.  O 
•o 

3  S 

o  •-? 


122 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A  COUNTERMINE   (SEE  PAGE  112) 

When  least  expected,  the  sea,  with  a  mighty  roar,  would  oftentimes  belch  up  a  pillar  of 
white,  shattered  water.  The  cause  of  countermining  could  never  be  determined.  Occurring 
always  when  least  expected,  this  was  a  constant  source  of  danger  to  the  vessels  in  the  field. 


turned  to  port  they  were  under  way  again 
for  the  mine  field.  Not  much  rest  after 
27  days  at  sea,  where  Sundays  and  holi- 
days were  omitted  from  the  calendars. 

The  buoying  of  the  little  Group  12  A 
had  been  successfully  completed,  and 
seven  hours-  and  forty  minutes  after  the 
sweepers  began  not  a  single  mine  re- 
mained. 

It  seemed  incredible,  impossible,  that 
this  could  be  true !  Ordinarily  it  would 
have  taken  us  five  times  that  long. 


Here  indeed  was  real  cause  for  jubila- 
tion. The  enthusiasm  of  the  force  was 
unbounded,  and  for  the  first  time  it  be- 
came possible  to  foresee  the  end  of  our 
task. 

AN    IMPRESSIVE   SIGHT 

By  this  time  the  buoying  of  the  large 
Group  ii  was  far  enough  advanced  for 
the  sweeping  to  begin  immediately. 

On  they  came,  24  sweepers,  10  trawl- 
ers, and  an  equal  number  of  the  little 
sub-chasers. 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


123 


EXPLOSION    OF   A   DEEP-LEVEL    MINE 

Due  to  the  tremendous  pressure  of  the  water  on  top  of  the  mines  which  were  planted  at 
the  lowest  level,  the  force  of  the  explosion  was  not  sufficient  to  throw  the  water  high  into 
the  air,  as  is  done  by  the  upper-level  mines.  The  shock  of  the  explosion  was  felt  immedi- 
ately. The  ''slick"  did  not  appear  until  approximately  thirty  seconds  later. 


It  was  an  impressive  sight  to  see  that 
armada,  formed  for  sweeping,  standing 
up  the  mine  field,  the  air  reverberating 
with  the  continuous  roar  of  the  explod- 
ing mines,  and  simultaneously  the  glis- 
tening pillars  of  white  water  springing 
up  behind  the  sweepers,  poising  for  an 
instant,  and  then  disappearing. 

Still  farther  astern  the  fainter  plop- 
plop  of  the  rifles  and  machine-guns  could 
be  heard,  as  the  chasers  filled  the  floating 
mines  with  holes. 

A    SHORT-LIVED   TRIUMPH 

The  triumph  of  the  day  was  contagious. 
No  casualties  had  occurred  to  mar  the 
inauguration  of  this  new  method  of 
sweeping,  and  it  began  to  look  as  if  the 
solution  of  our  difficulties  had  been  ac- 
complished. 

But  the  morrow  held  in  store  a  flood 
of  catastrophes  of  every  kind — the  worst 
day  we  should  have  to  face  during  the 
entire  operations. 

The  first  victim  was  the  Curlew,  which 
was  crippled  by  the  explosion  of  a  mine 
fouled  in  her  kite  and  was  forced  to  re- 


turn to  Kirkwall  for  repairs.  A  few 
minutes  later  three  mines  were  counter- 
mined beneath  the  Patapsco;  but  fortu- 
nately the  damage  was  not  serious. 

The  Penguin  followed,  with  numerous 
minor  damages  from  a  mine  foul  of  her 
kite,  and  the  same  thing  befell  the  Wil- 
liam Darnold  almost  at  the  same  time. 
Both  ships  were  able  to  make  temporary 
repairs  on  the  field  and  continued  opera- 
tions. 

The  Lapwing  was  next.  She  was 
seriously  countermined  and  had  to  return 
to  port. 

Sub-chaser  46  exploded  a  mine  while 
sinking  it,  and  was  injured  so  badly  she 
could  not  remain  at  sea. 

A   BATTLE   WITH   THE  ELEMENTS 

As  if  such  havoc  were  not  sufficient 
for  a  single  day,  six  upper-level  mines 
were  countermined  beneath  or  close 
aboard  the  Pelican.  When  the  mass  of 
water  had  subsided  and  the  vessel  could 
again  be  seen,  she  was  sinking.  Then 
began  one  of  the  most  remarkable  strug- 


124 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 

r 


SAVING  THE      PELICAN 

Seventeen  minutes  after  the  hull  of  the  Pelican  had  been  shattered  by  a  series  of  suc- 
cessive countermines,  the  Auk  on  one  side  and  the  Eider  on  the  other  had  made  fast  and, 
with  their  wrecking  hoses  spanning  the  intervals  between  them,  were  pumping  to  their  maxi- 
mum capacity  to  keep  the  vessel,  whose  high  bow  was  then  but  two  feet  above  the  water, 
afloat  until  they  could  reach  port. 


gles  of  will  power  against  the  elements 
ever  recorded. 

Seventeen  minutes  after  the  explosions, 
Captain  Bulmer,  who  had  gone  out  to 
direct  personally  the  sweeping  operation, 
had  placed  his  flagship,  the  Auk,  along- 
side the  Pelican,  and  her  powerful  wreck- 
ing pumps  were  throbbing  to  their  full 
capacity  to  keep  the  riddled  ship  afloat. 
A  few  moments  later  the  Eider  had  made 
fast  on  the  other  side,  and  her  pumps 
were  doing  likewise.  The  Teal  then 
passed  her  towline  to  the  Pelican,  and 
the  four  vessels,  lashed  together,  headed 
slowly  for  port. 

At  that  time  the  weather  was  good, 
and  the  Auk  and  Eider  were  able  to  keep 
the  Pelican  fairly  well  afloat ;  but  when 
they  were  still  50  miles  from  land  a  head 
sea  began  to  rise  and  the  situation  grew 
rapidly  worse. 

As  the  vessels  were  tossed  about  by 
the  sea,  the  pump-lines  parted,  and  be- 
fore they  could  be  repaired  the  water 


had  gained  until  the  Pelican's  bow  was 
practically  submerged,  while  her  stern 
projected  high  above  the  water.  To  add 
to  the  difficulties,  nightfall  had  overtaken 
them. 

The  Pelican  sank  lower  and  lower ;  her 
forward  fire-room  bulkhead,  which  alone 
kept  her  afloat,  was  buckled  and  distorted 
by  the  pressure  of  the  water  on  the  for- 
ward side.  As  the  water  crept  higher 
and  higher,  the  bulkhead  was  expected  to 
burst  at  any  moment.  The  crews  on  the 
Auk  and  Eider  worked  desperately  to 
get  the  pumps  started  again. 

Since  the  vessel  was  in  danger  of  sink- 
ing at  any  moment,  it  was  unwise  to  keep 
unnecessary  men  aboard  ;  so  Captain  Bul- 
mer asked  for  twelve  volunteers  to  re- 
main to  do  the  necessary  work. 

Every  man  stepped  forward ! 

The  twelve  strongest  were  chosen  and 
the  rest  had  to  be  ordered  off  their  ship 
against  their  will.  It  was  a  sight  that 
dimmed  the  eyes,  to  see  these  twelve  men, 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


125 


.      J 


THE  EXPLOSION  OF  AN  UPPER-LEVEL  MINE  ASTERN  OF  THE    PATAPSCO 

The  darker  central  portion  of  the  upheaval  which  rises  after  the  first  white  spouts  of  water 
break  the  surface  is  discolored  by  the  gases  of  the  TNT. 


when  nothing-  further  could  be  done, 
grouped  together  on  the  stern,  high  out 
of  water,  singing  old-fashioned  melodies 
throughout  the  night. 

Then  at  last,  after  nineteen  hours  of 
struggling,  this  cortege  of  ships  suc- 
ceeded in  reaching  the  sheltered  waters 
of  Tresness  Bay  with  the  Pelican  still 
afloat.  The  dogged  determination  and 
skillful  seamanship  of  Captain  Bulmer 
alone  had  saved  her. 

Such  holes  as  could  be  stopped  were 
plugged,  and  the  following  day  the  ships 
proceeded  to  Scapa  Flow,  where  the  Peli- 
can was  docked  and  sufficiently  patched 
to  permit  her  being  towed  to  Newcastle- 
on-Tyne,  where  extensive  repairs  were 
undertaken. 

The  morning  following  the  Pelican  ac- 
cident a  curious  mishap  befell  the  Fla- 
mingo. After  the  day's  sweeping  was 
completed  the  vessels  used  to  anchor  near 
the  mine  fields  in  order  that  all  hands 
might  get  as  much  rest  as  was  possible  in 
the  few  short  hours  of  darkness.  The 
deep  water  and  the  soft  bottom  of  the 


open  sea  do  not,  however,  make  an  ideal 
harbor,  and  on  this  occasion  the  Flamingo 
found  herself  at  daybreak  several  miles 
south  of  the  spot  where  she  had  anchored 
the  night  before.  While  weighing  her 
anchor,  which  was  secured  to  the  end  of 
her  sweep-wire,  her  stern  was  virtually 
lifted  from  the  water  by  the  shock  of  an 
exploding  mine.  She  had  dragged  during 
the  night  until  she  was  in  another  group 
of  mines.  The  damage  done  by  the  ex- 
plosion necessitated  docking  before  she 
could  resume  her  operations. 

AN   OFFICER   AND   SIX    MEN    SINK    WITH 

THE  "BULKELEY" 

On  the  1 2th  of  July,  two  days  after  the 
Flamingo  was  damaged,  our  most  serious 
accident  occurred.  Again  it  was  due  to 
a  mine  fouling  a  kite.  Before  the  trawler 
Richard  Bulkcley  could  take  any  steps  to 
remedy  the  situation,  the  mine  exploded 
and  her  hull  collapsed  under  the  terrific 
concussion. 

Within  seven  minutes  the  vessel  had 
gone  down.  The  other  vessels  in  the 


126 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


•B 


THE   FEW   DAYS   IN    PORT   BETWEEN    THE    SWEEPING   OPERATIONS    WERE    EQUALLY   AS 

BUSY   AS   THE   DAYS   AT    SEA 

Besides  fueling,  watering,  and  filling  up  again  with  stores,  the  sweeping  gear  had  to  be 
overhauled  and  repaired,  the  boilers  cleaned,  and  as  many  of  the  leaks  stopped  as  was  possi- 
ble without  docking  the  ship. 


vicinity  had  cut  their  sweeps,  rushed  to 
her  assistance,  and  succeeded  in  rescuing 
all  except  one  officer  and  six  men. 

AN   INSPIRING  ACT  Of  HEROISM 

A  moment  or  two  before  the  Bulkcley 
had  disappeared  from  sight,  one  of  those 
inspiring  deeds  occurred  which  live  for- 
ever in  our  memories  and  glorify  the 
noblest  traditions  of  the  service.  A  man, 
dazed  by  the  shock  of  the  explosion, 
struggled  to  the  deck.  Seeing  that  he  had 
no  life-belt,  Commander  Frank  R.  King, 
U.  S.  N.,  took  off  his  own,  and,  quickly 
buckling  it  about  the  man,  helped  him  to 
get  clear  of  the  ship  before  she  took  her 
final  plunge.  A  moment  later  the  Bulke- 
ley  had  disappeared,  carrying  down  with 
her,  in  the  vortex  of  swirling  water,  this 
gallant  officer,  who  gave  his  life  that  an- 
other might  live.  (To  perpetuate  his 
memory,  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  a 
few  months  later,  named  a  new  destroyer 
in  honor  of  Commander  King.) 


The  remainder  of  the  operation  was 
completed  without  further  serious  acci- 
dent. 

From  a  standpoint  of  time,  the  results 
had  been  splendid;  our  rate  of  sweeping 
had  actually  been  tripled.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  casualties  had  been  enormous — 
one  ship  sunk,  one  permanently  disabled, 
three  damaged  so  badly  that  docking  was 
necessary,  three  forced  to  return  to  port 
for  repairs,  while  three  had  been  able  to 
complete  repairs  on  the  mine  field. 

A  careful  review  of  the  accidents,  how- 
ever, showed  that  the  majority  had  been 
due  to  causes  independent  of  the  method 
of  sweeping,  and  the  rapidity  with  which 
they  had  occurred  had  been  proportional 
to  the  number  of  mines  destroyed  per 
day;  so,  evidently  the  ultimate  losses 
would  be  equal,  and  the  preference  lay 
decidedly  with  the  more  rapid  method. 

One  thing,  however,  was  apparent ;  it 
was  not  safe  to  sweep  with  trawlers.  Al- 
though the  British  had  successfully  used 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


127 


A  FLOTILLA  OF  SUB-CHASERS  AT  REST 

When  these  small  but  active  war  craft  were  in  port  they  tied  up  alongside  the  repair 
ships  in  order  to  facilitate  repairs,  replenish  their  stores,  and  to  give  their  crews  as  much 
relaxation  as  possible. 


them  for  years,  their  structural  strength 
was  far  too  light  to  withstand  the  ex- 
plosions of  the  American-made  mines. 
Arrangements  were  therefore  made  to 
return  thirteen  of  these  vessels  to  the 
Admiralty,  six  being  retained  for  trans- 
porting gear  and  supplies  from  Inver- 
ness to  Kirkwall  and  for  the  delivery  of 
sweeping  material  to  the  vessels  on  the 
mine  field. 

The  new  sweepers  which  the  Admiral 
had  requested  in  May  now  began  to  ar- 
rive, fortunately  just  in  time  to  replace 
the  vacancies  caused  by  turning  back  the 
trawlers  and  the  absence  of  the  ships 
which  had  been  crippled  by  explosions. 
Eight  had  reached  Kirkwall  within  the 
week,  so  that  now  the  total  force  con- 
sisted of  32  sweepers,  24.  sub-chasers,  and 
6  trawlers,  besides  the  two  repair  ships. 

SWEEPERS  SET  NEW  RECORDS 

When  all  the  vessels  were  in  port  the 
little  harbor  of  Kirkwall  bristled  with 
activities,  resembling  more  the  busy  har- 


bor of  New  York  than  that  isolated  little 
village  bordering  on  the  Frigid  Zone. 

After  five  days  in  port  the  sweepers 
headed  once  more  for  the  mine  fields. 
The  two  groups  designated  to  be  cleared 
were  finished  in  such  record-breaking 
time  that  the  sweepers  asked  permission 
to  try  to  do  two  more  before  going  back 
to  port. 

The  Buoy-laying  Squadron  was  rushed 
out  to  mark  the  new  fields,  but  were  no 
longer  able  to  keep  ahead  of  the  sweep- 
ers, and  another  pair  of  vessels  had  to 
be  added  to  their  force. 

At  the  end  of  sixteen  days  Groups  3, 
5,  6,  and  7  were  all  swept.  The  casualties 
had  been  remarkably  light.  Fifty-five  per 
cent  of  the  barrage  was  now  cleared,  and 
although  it  was  the  middle  of  August, 
with  the  best  part  of  the  summer  gone 
and  the  days  rapidly  growing  shorter, 
every  officer  and  man  was  determined 
he  would  not  give  up  until  the  last  mine 
in  the  North  Sea  had  been  destroyed. 

Of  the  remaining  six  groups,  five  were 


128 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


CLEARING   THE    MINES   BORDERING   THE    NORWEGIAN    COAST   THE    SWEEPERS 
PUT   INTO   STAVANGER 

This  is  a  bustling  little  town,  made  prosperous  by  the  war.     The  American  mine-sweepers 
came  here  to  obtain  fresh  water  and  redistribute  their  sweep-gear. 


at  the  extreme  eastern  side  of  the  bar- 
rage. The  other,  Group  8,  began  just 
off  the  entrance  to  Kirkwall,  but  could 
not  be  undertaken  until  the  British  had 
removed  their  line  of  mines,  laid  closely 
parallel  to  ours ;  for  theirs,  which  were 
only  six  feet  below  the  surface,  were 
more  dangerous  to  us  than  ours  to  them, 
and  consequently  should  be  undertaken 
first. 

Four  days  sufficed  this  time  for  repairs 
and  overhaul  in  port.  To  a  man  aboard 
a  sweeper  it  seemed  as  if  he  lived  con- 
tinuously at  sea ;  and  for  such  small 
ships,  too,  it  was  indeed  an  enviable  en- 
durance record  they  were  making. 

Even  the  routine  affairs  of  administra- 
tion, which  almost  invariably  take  place 
in  port,  had  to  be  conducted  on  the  mine 
field.  An  interesting  example  of  this 
occurred  when  the  annual  examination 
of  enlisted  men  for  promotion  to  war- 
rant officers  fell  due. 

A  storm  was  raging  at  the  time,  mak- 
ing it  impossible  to  sweep  and  equally 


impossible  to  transfer  the  candidates 
from  their  various  vessels  in  order  that 
they  might  appear  before  the  examining 
board  on  the  flagship ;  so  that  most  valu- 
able invention,  the  radio-telephone,  was 
resorted  to,  and  by  this  means  each  candi- 
date was  simultaneously  asked  the  suc- 
cessive questions  of  the  examination 
while  he  sat  at  a  desk  on  his  own  ship. 

A   SHORTAGE  OF    KITES  THREATENS   THE 
WORK 

Aside  from  the  delays  caused  by  the 
gales,  which  now  came  on  in  greater  vio- 
lence and  frequency,  the  sweeping  pro- 
gressed without  interruption  or  serious 
casualty.  The  speed  at  which  we  now 
were  working,  however,  introduced  a  fac- 
tor which  threatened  daily  to  delay  us. 
Sweep-wire  and  kites — essential  imple- 
ments— were  being  used  up  faster  than 
we  could  obtain  them.  Besides  the  steady 
shipments  from  the  United  States,  British 
manufacturers  were  producing  at  their 
maximum  capacity.  We  had  already 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


129 


BY  SETTING  THE  STAYSAILS,  IT  FREQUENTLY  WAS   POSSIBLE  TO  ADD  A  KNOT  OR  TWO 
TO  THE  SPEED  MADE  GOOD  IN  EVEN  THE  WORST  OF   WEATHER 


drained  the  Admiralty  of  all  that  they 
could  spare,  and  still  the  supply  was  in- 
sufficient. 

The  two  repair  ships,  Black  Hawk  and 
Panther,  therefore,  had  to  lay  aside  the 
construction  and  repair  work  for  the 
sweepers  and  chasers  and  devote  their 
energy  to  the  manufacture  of  kites,  to 
enable  the  sweepers  to  continue  operat- 
ing. 

Throughout  the  entire  sweeping  of  the 
barrage  we  never  had  sufficient  gear  at 
any  time  to  equip  fully  all  sweepers  for 
their  contemplated  stay  at  sea,  and  so  it 
frequently  was  necessary  after  the  day's 
work  was  over  for  one  vessel,  whose  ex- 
penditures had  been  comparatively  light, 


to  go  alongside  one  less  fortunate  and 
divide  the  supply  of  kites  and  sweep-wire 
that  remained. 

A  TASK  FOR  IRON   CONSTITUTIONS 

Buoys,  too,  for  marking  the  new  fields 
were  equally  in  demand,  and,  in  order 
not  to  lose  any  of  the  valuable  hours  of 
daylight  which  could  be  used  for  locating 
the  positions  of  the  markers,  it  frequently 
was  necessary  for  the  Buoy-laying  Squad- 
ron to  spend  the  entire  night  in  going 
from  one  sweeper  to  another  to  gather 
up  the  buoys  which  had  been  weighed 
after  the  sweeping  of  a  group  had  been 
completed. 

Think  of  the  physical  endurance  this 


130 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


LIFE  ON   BOARD  THE  SUB-CHASERS  WAS  CONCENTRATED   HARDSHIP 

With  the  ships  rolling  and  pitching  incessantly,  the  crews  lived  largely  on  cold  canned 
foods,  slept  in  wet  bunks,  in  unheated  compartments,  and  sank  mines  as  fast  as  the  sweepers 
cut  them  up.  Small  as  they  are,  the  sub-chasers  are  marvelous  sea  boats  and  were  able  to 
stay  out  in  weather  that  would  have  driven  far  larger  vessels  into  port. 


work  required !  The  sweeping  itself  was 
fatiguing  enough ;  it  was  an  all-hands' 
job.  But,  after  it  was  finished  for  the 
day,  to  spend  a  part,  sometimes  all,  of 
the  night  in  getting  ready  for  the  next 
day's  work  was  a  task  for  nothing  less 
than  iron  constitutions. 

Nothing  could  have  been  more  mag- 
nificent than  the  splendid  manner  in 
which  the  officers  and  men  stood  up 
under  the  terrific  strain.  With  never  a 
murmur,  never  a  complaint,  sometimes 
going  for  months  without  setting  foot  on 
shore,  these  officers  and  men  toiled  on 
day  after  day. 

A  comparison  of  the  British  mine- 
sweepers with  our  own  is  interesting. 
Their  crews  consisted  entirely  of  volun- 
teers and  were  given  nearly  double  pay, 
as  well  as  a  large  bonus  for  each  mine 
that  they  destroyed.  We  had  no  volun- 


teers ;  it  was  the  work  of  the  Navy  and 
we  took  it  as  such.  We  received  no  extra 
compensation  nor  any  bonus  for  the 
mines  that  we  destroyed. 

On  the  1 3th  of  September,  32  days 
after  leaving  Kirk  wall,  the  fleet  returned 
to  port.  Five  and  a  half  out  of  the  six 
remaining  groups  had  been  completed. 
The  British  sweepers  had  not  yet  com- 
pleted clearing  their  single  line  of  mines 
to  the  southward  of  Group  8,  and  there- 
fore only  the  northern  half  of  our  group 
could  be  cleared  at  that  time.  The  Brit- 
ish were  expected  to  finish  any  day,  after 
which  we  would  be  free  to  sweep  the 
remainder  of  our  group.  When  that  was 
done  Admiral  Strauss  desired  to  make  a 
general  test  sweep  of  a  large  portion  of 
the  barrage  to  prove  definitely  that  our 
work  had  been  thoroughly  done. 

It  was  now  the  critical  season  of  the 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


131 


THE   LAST   TWO    WEEKS    OF    MINE-SWEEPING   WERE   ACCOMPLISHED    UNDER   ALMOST 

SUPERHUMAN  DIFFICULTIES 

Storm  followed  storm  with  steadily  increasing  frequency  and  violence,  until  it  seemed 
impossible  that  ships  could  actually  be  operating.  The  foremast  of  a  sweeper  can  be  seen 
in  the  center  of  the  picture,  while  in  the  upper  left-hand  corner,  perching  on  the  crest  of  the 
wave,  is  the  silhouette  of  a  tiny  sub-chaser. 


year.  A  careful  analysis  of  the  meteoro- 
logical records  covering  years  of  obser- 
vation showed  that  in  all  probability  the 
equinoctial  storms  could  be  expected 
within  the  next  few  days,  and  after  they 
had  broken  the  winter  weather  would  set 
in  with  such  fury  that  further  operations 
would  be  practically  impossible. 

THE  SWEEPERS  ENCOUNTER  A  NORTH   SEA 
STORM 

Every  minute  must  be  saved.  As  soon 
as  the  ships  had  anchored  the  Admiral 
made  a  signal,  asking  how  many  could 
go  out  again  at  the  end  of  three  days. 
After  32  days  at  sea,  it  was  asking  a 
lot — more  than  could  be  expected,  even 
of  battleships — but  in  less  than  half  an 
hour  23  of  the  sweepers  reported  that 
they  would  be  ready!  Actually,  28  of 
them  managed  to  sail  at  the  end  of  the 
third  day. 

Group  8  was  finished  in  two  days,  but 
before  the  test  sweep  could  be  started  the 


equinoctial  storms  bore  down  upon  us 
with  the  violence  of  a  hurricane.  For 
three  days  the  storm  continued.  The 
sweepers  had  sought  shelter  in  the  lee  of 
Sanday  Island,  where  the  anchor  chains 
of  many  snapped  as  if  they  had  been 
made  of  cordage.  In  Kirkwall  two  of 
the  ships  were  blown  ashore  and  rescued 
only  with  the  greatest  difficulty.  A  large 
British  transport,  the  S.  S.  Vcdic,  was 
driven  on  a  reef  a  few  miles  north  of 
where  the  sweepers  lay  and  four  of  them 
were  sent  to  her  assistance. 

DAYS    OF    MISERY 

The  following  days  were  days  of  mis- 
ery for  the  sweepers.  Storm  followed 
storm  with  such  rapidity  that  the  seas 
seemed  ever  to  climb  higher  under  the  in- 
termittent acceleration  of  the  succeeding 
gales. 

As  long  as  it  was  possible  to  run  be- 
fore the  seas,  those  sturdy  little  vessels 
would  manage  by  one  means  or  another 


132 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


EVEN  IN  THE  ROUGHEST  WEATHER  IT  CONSTANTLY  WAS  NECESSARY  FOR  THE  SHIPS 
TO    GO    ALONGSIDE    EACH    OTHER    AT    SEA    TO    TRANSFER 
SWEEP-GEAR  OR  BUOY   MATERIAL 

All  hands  were  required  to  wear  life-preservers,  on  account  of  the  danger  of  being  washed 

overboard  by  a  mine  explosion. 


to  rig  out  their  sweeps.  It  seemed  incred- 
ible that  they  could  actually  be  working, 
as  they  perched  for  a  moment  on  the  crest 
of  a  wave,  then  disappeared  almost  from 
sight,  as  they  slid  into  the  hollows  of  the 
seas,  pitching  and  rolling  sometimes  as 
much  as  fifty  degrees  each  side  of  the 
vertical. 

Still  the  work  continued.  The  nights 
were  even  worse  than  the  days,  for  then 
it  was  necessary  to  lie  to,  trying,  some- 
times vainly,  to  keep  a  tiny  marker  buoy 
in  sight  by  playing  a  flickering  search- 
light on  it,  as  the  ship  lurched  to  and 
fro,  for  it  was  imperative  we  should  know 
our  position  in  the  morning. 

THE   DAY    OF   DAYS 

But  at  last  our  efforts  were  rewarded. 
That  day  of  days  came — the  day  which 
had  at  first  seemed  almost  beyond  attain- 
ment. And  what  a  sight  it  was !  The 
Patuxent  had  planted  the  last  buoy,  mark- 


ing the  goal  of  our  ambition;  and  as  the 
sweepers,  pair  by  pair,  steamed  past  it 
and  slipped  sweep  for  the  last  time,  the 
exultation  of  the  victorious  conquest  of 
an  invisible  enemy  burst  forth  in  whole- 
hearted cheers  from  every  officer  and 
man. 

Whistles  and  sirens,  too,  were  opened 
wide,  while  a  wireless  operator  with  a 
humorous  turn  coupled  a  phonograph  to 
the  radio-telephone  and  regaled  the  fleet 
with  the  welcome  strains  of  "Home, 
Sweet  Home !" 

During  the  last  two  weeks  864  square 
miles  of  the  barrage  had  been  reswept  to 
make  absolutely  certain  that  the  work  had 
been  thoroughly  done.  Where  approxi- 
mately 35,000  mines  had  been  anchored  a 
few  months  prior,  not  a  single  one  could 
now  be  found,  except  in  one  small  pocket 
which  had  been  skipped  and  was  marked 
by  buoys  to  enable  it  to  be  cleared  on  this 
final  operation. 


REMOVAL  OF  THE  NORTH  SEA  MINE  BARRAGE 


133 


The  test  sweep  was  conclusive  that  the 
work  had  been  thorough.  The  sagacious 
judgment  of  the  Admiral  in  driving  the 
force  to  the  limit  of  physical  endurance, 
coupled  with  the  unparalleled  loyalty  of 
the  officers  and  men,  had  enabled  that 
gigantic  task  to  be  completed  just  as  the 
violent  winter  storms  were  making  fur- 


ther operations  throughout  the  North  Sea 
impossible. 

The  mighty  wall  of  mines  which  had 
confined  the  enemy's  submarines  and 
barred  the  commerce  of  the  seas  for  bet- 
ter than  a  year  had  been  destroyed,  and 
the  Xavy's  obligation  to  humanity,  to  the 
freedom  of  the  seas,  had  been  fulfilled. 


Photograph  by  Kenneth  D.  Smith 

A  MEMBER  OF  THE  DARTMOUTH  OUTING  CLUB  SOARING  ON  SKIS  :  HANOVER, 

NEW  HAMPSHIRE 

For  an  account  of  this  thrilling  winter  sport,  fostered  by  the  famous  New  England 
College,  alma  mater  of  Daniel  Webster,  Rufus  Choate,  George  Ticknor,  George  P.  Marsh, 
Thaddeus  Stevens,  and  "Chief  Justice  Salmon  P.  Chase,  see  article  on  page  151. 


Photograph  by  Kenneth  D.  Smith 

SKIING  IN  FRANCONIA  NOTCH,  NEW  HAMPSHIRE; 

Three  student  members  of  the  Dartmouth  Outing  Club  starting  for  a  long  excursion  over  the 

frozen  trail. 


I.-U 


Photograph  by  Kenneth  D.  Smith 

A  LONE  SKI  RUNNER  ON  A  WINDING  TRAIL 

The  coming  of  winter  does  not  drive  the  college  man  indoors.  Rather  it  gives  him  a  chance 
to  exchange  his  football  letter  for  the  white  badge  of  the  Dartmouth  Outing  Club,  which  means  long 
hikes  to  lovely  scenes  and  long  swift  sweeps  on  skis  down  open  fields  of  snow. 


Photograph  by  Kenneth  D.  Smith 

ICICLE  FORMATION  IN  THE  FLUME:     NEW  HAMPSHIRE 

At  this  spot  in  the  Franconia  Mountains,  a  small  stream  flows  between  precipitous  rocky  walls, 
and  the  cold  winds  create  wonderful  ice  formations  from  the  water  which  filters  down  into  this  shadowy 
rift  from  the  sunny  slopes  above. 


II 


Photograph  by  R.  R.  Sallows 

THAWING  OUT  THE  OLD  PUMP 

To  the  philosophic  country-dweller,  thawing  out  the  pump  whose  throat  has  suffered  from  a  night 
of  exposure  is  as  much  a  part  of  the  day's  work  as  "  breaking  out  the  roads  "  or  blanketing  the  family 
Dobbin. 


Ill 


IV 


ffi      ^     r- 

?    O  2 

w  M  s 

DC   £-£ 

r  ,     "     • 

rt    O 

ei  •-  « 

W    «  o 

h  £  £ 
z<g 


,      •*"  ? 

^.^ 
s  'N  i 


w  _~ 

DC    rt  — 


s    s 

o  °. 


"  -  o 

§  I  fi 

c-a  = 

4»    *- 

3  o  S 

I—  I    t>  ,«J 

I.I 


VI 


VII 


vin 


IX 


XI 


XII 


Photograph  from  Detroit  News 


DETROIT'S  WEDDING-CAKE  ICE  FOUNTAIN 

In  Washington  Boulevard  at  Michigan  Avenue,  Jack  Frost  and  the  Detroit  City  Water  Works 
collaborate  in  the  erection  of  this  towering  crystal  confection,  the  beauty  of  which  ii  as  unstudied  as  if 
it  were  some  natural  geyser  transfixed  by  the  breath  of  Boreas  in  some  remote  wilderness  instead  of  in  a 
city  park. 

XIII 


Photograph  hy  Ernest  Fox 

NIAGARA  FALLS  IN  ITS  WINTER  ARMOR 

Impressive  as  Niagara  is  when  its  rush  of  waters  appals  the  beholder  and  clouds  of  spray  rise  from 
the  chaos,  in  the  midst  of  which  a  cockle-shell  boat  impudently  noses  the  flood,  it  does  not  surpass  the 
view  in  winter  when  the  Frost  King  has  spanned  the  river  with  heaving  masses  of  ice  and  concealed 
behind  alabaster  columns  the  mighty  torrent  as  it  thunders  toward  the  sea. 

XIV 


Photograph  by  A.  J. 

SPERRY  CAMP  IN  GLACIER  NATIONAL  PARK 

What  is  more  beautiful  than  a  distant  mountain  peak  poised  majestically  on  a  "  throne  of  rocks, 
in  a  robe  of  clouds,  with  a  diadem  of  snow"  ?  In  winter,  when  the  mass  of  driven  white  stretches  un- 
broken from  the  lofty  summit  to  the  timber  line,  there  is  a  grandeur  that  no  other  mood  of  the  moun- 
tain conveys. 

XV 


Photograph  by  A.  B.  Wilse 

A  FROSTY  MORNING  ON  THE  OPEN  ROAD 

What  Spanish  moss  is  to  the  trees  of  the  far  South,  the  frosty  touch  of  winter  is  to  the  roadside 
trees  of  the  colder  North.  Shiny  trails  which  bright  steel  runners  make  and  hard  pressed  lumps  of 
snow,  thrown  from  the  flying  feet  of  man's  best  friend,  mark  the  journey  past  such  lovely  scenes  to 
warmth  and  comfort  by  the  blazing  fire  within  the  home. 

XVI 


SKIING   OVER   THE    NEW    HAMPSHIRE    HILLS 


A  Thrilling  and    Picturesque   Sport  Which  Has  a  Thou- 
sand Devotees  in  the  Dartmouth  Outing  Club 

BY  FRED  H.  HARRIS 


CLIMATE  and  geography  mold  the 
sports  of  colleges  as  well  as  of 
nations. 

The  fact  that  Dartmouth  College  is 
situated  in  the  sequestered  town  of  Han- 
over, New  Hampshire,  among  the  foot- 
hills of  the  White  Mountains,  where  the 
hand  of  winter  lies  heavy  on  the  land  dur- 
ing a  large  part  of  the  scholastic  year,  is 
responsible  for  the  organization  of  an 
athletic  association  unique  in  the  annals 
of  student  life  in  America. 

Unlike  football,  baseball,  hockey,  and 
basket-ball  teams,  each  of  which  in  its 
ultimate  development  enlists  the  active 
efforts  at  play  of  a  limited  number  of 
athletes,  the  Dartmouth  Outing  Club  is 
composed  of  more  than  a  thousand  mem- 
bers— nearly  two-thirds  of  the  entire  stu- 
dent body. 

The  long  months  of  cold  and  the  deep 
snows  that  serve  to  isolate  this  college 
community  have,  through  the  Outing 
Club,  been  converted  into  an  asset  rather 
than  a  liability,  and  today  Dartmouth  is 
a  pioneer  institution  in  the  movement  to 
enlist  the  entire  student  body  in  healthful 
sport,  instead  of  offering  the  colleg? 
"letter"  only  to  those  whose  physical 
prowess  is  proved. 

In  the  Outing  Club  all  who  love  the 
wide  spaces,  all  who  delight  in  the  still- 
ness of  the  winter  woods,  all  who  feel  the 
lure  of  the  frozen  trail,  are  welcomed  as 
of  the  elect. 

THE  CLUB'S   EARLY   EXCURSIONS 

Beginning  modestly,  with  sixty  mem- 
bers a  few  years  ago,  the  Club  in  its  in- 
cipiency  confined  its  excursions  to  Satur- 
day afternoon  jaunts  on  skis  and  snow- 
shoes.  Toward  the  end  of  the  afternoon 
a  halt  would  be  called  and  coffee  made 
over  a  crackling  fire,  under  the  shelter  of 
snow-laden  trees.  The  trips  grew  in  fre- 
quency and  the  parties  grew  in  number. 
By  the  end  of  the  first  season  scores  of 


students  had  become  interested  in  the  ex- 
cursions, and,  as  Thoreau  said  of  his 
Concord,  the  members  "had  traveled  a 
great  deal  in  the  vicinity  of  Hanover." 

Today  the  Saturday  afternoon  trips  of 
old  have  expanded  into  week-end  jour- 
neys ;  the  radius  of  the  excursions  has  in- 
creased from  a  few  miles  to  tens  of  miles, 
and  instead  of  confining  their  explora- 
tions to  the  foothills  along  the  banks  of 
the  frozen  Connecticut,  the  enthusiasts 
now  make  Mount  Washington,  the  high- 
est peak  of  the  North  Atlantic  States, 
their  furthest  objective.  The  camp-fire 
of  crackling  twigs  under  the  trees  has 
been  superseded  by  the  cheerful  glow  of 
logs  in  the  open  fireplaces  of  comfortable 
cabins,  which  shelter  those  who  wish  to 
extend  their  outing  overnight. 

BUILDING  A   CHAIN   Of  CABINS 

The  first  of  the  chain  of  cabins  for  the 
week-end  devotees  of  the  Outing  Club 
was  established  on  the  site  of  an  old  lum- 
ber camp  at  the  base  of  Moose  Mountain, 
seven  miles  from  the  college.  Built 
through  the  efforts  of  a  dozen  club  mem- 
bers who  elected  to  spend  their  Easter 
vacation  as  carpenters,  and  through  the 
material  assistance  of  a  Boston  alumnus, 
Franklin  P.  Shumway,  its  immediate 
popularity  was  so  pronounced  that  no 
propaganda  was  necessary  to  insure  the 
enthusiastic  support  of  the  student  body 
for  the  movement  subsequently  inaugu- 
rated by  another  alumnus,  the  Rev.  J.  E. 
Johnson,  of  Philadelphia. 

Mr.  Johnson  has  raised  an  endowment 
fund  of  $40,000  for  the  construction  and 
maintenance  of  these  combination  rest- 
cabins  and  rustic  club-houses  which  ex- 
tend, at  intervals  of  a  day's  trip  apart, 
from  the  college  campus  to  the  slopes  of 
the  White  Mountains. 

Close  beside  Moose  Mountain  Cabin 
flows  a  brook  which  has  been  dammed  to 
form  a  deep  pool,  and  the  fact  that  this 


151 


Photograph  by  Fred  H.  Harris 
COMING   THROUGH    WOODS    WITHOUT    CAPS  OR   SHIRTS 

Not  only  has  the  Outing  Club  improved  the  physical  well-being  of  Dartmouth's  student 
body,  but  faculty  statistics  show  that  scholarship  has  profited  by  the  week-end  excursions 
of  skiing  parties. 


Photograph  by  Kenneth  D.  Smith 

SHOOTING  THE  SNOW    CHUTES  ON   A   SHOVEL 
A  novel  way  of  traversing  the  skiing  course  to  the  landing  stage  of  the  big  jump  at  Hanover. 


•  v  ,>*'"- 

Photograph  by  Fred  II.  Harris 

READY  FOR  THE  WINTER  ASCENT  OF  THE  TAUJvST   PEAK   IN   THE   NORTH 

ATLANTIC  STATES 

Until  the  feat  was  actually  accomplished  by  Dartmouth  students,  a  ski  climb  to  the  summit 
of  Mount  Washington  was  considered  impossible. 


Photograph  by  Kenneth  D.  Smith 


'THE  BEST  DRINK  ON  EARTH" 


After  skiing  for  fifteen  or  twenty  miles  without  drinking,  one  appreciates  water.     Drinking 
out  of  Profile  Lake,  in  Franconia  Notch,  White  Mountains. 


153 


WHEN  THE  HOLLOWS  OF  THE  WOOD  ARE  COVERED  WITH  WINTER'S  CARPET 


Photographs  by  Fred  H.  Harris 

THE  OLD  SWIMMIN'-HOLE  IN  A  NEW  MOOD 

Here  is  a  test  of  bodily  vigor  which  few  city  dwellers  would  care  to  undergo.  Near  the 
Moose  Mount  Cabin  of  the  Dartmouth  Outing  Club  the  members  have  dammed  a  small  brook 
to  make  this  winter  open-air  bath.  It  is  usually  necessary  to  break  a  sheet  of  ice  before  the 
bather  can  take  his  plunge. 

154 


Photograph  by  Kenneth  D.  Smith 

MEMBERS  OF  THE  DARTMOUTH  OUTING  CLUB  ON  TOP  OF  MOUNT  LAFAYETTE:  ONE  OF 
THE  ANNUAL  WINTER  PILGRIMAGES  OF  THE  TRAIL-FOLLOWERS 


Photographs  by  Fred  H.  Harris 
SLEEPING  ON   THE   FLOOR  OF  ONE  OF  THE   CABINS 

Gathered  about  the  roaring  logs  of  an  open  fireplace,  these  Dartmonth  Outing  Club  enthusi- 
asts do  not  even  demand  the  comfort  of  bunks. 


•55 


156 


157 


158 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


open-air  bath,  available  only  after  the 
thick  crust  of  ice  is  broken,  is  in  use 
throughout  the  severest  winter  weather 
needs  no  commentary  to  prove  the  hardi- 
hood which  the  Outing  Club  engenders  in 
some  of  its  members. 

THE  M PANDERINGS  OF  THE  TRAIL, 

An  Outing  Club  trail  from  Hanover  to 
the  White  Mountains  is  a  skiway  leading 
through  grandeurs  of  winter  scenery 
wholly  unknown  to  those  who  nestle  be- 
side steam  radiators  and  gaze  out  upon  a 
world  blanketed  in  white,  or  who  gain 
their  sole  idea  of  a  snowclad  landscape 
through  the  windows  of  automobile  or 
swift-flying  train. 

Sometimes  the  trail,  in  companionable 
fashion,  follows  some  meandering  back- 
country  road;  then  it  dips  off  suddenly 
into  the  forest  to  seek  solitude  in  the  sol- 
emnity of  Nature's  cathedral  trees.  It 
descends  into  deep  ravines,  it  mounts  bil- 
lowing slopes  of  white ;  sometimes  it 
skirts  the  edge  of  a  logging  camp  deso- 
late in  its  evidences  of  former  habitation. 
Now  it  runs  straight  over  hedge  and 
copse,  now  it  sinuously  mounts  a  gleam- 
ing summit  from  whose  eminence  the 
winter  world  unfolds  in  all  its  splendor. 

Twenty-three  miles  beyond  Moose 
Mountain  Cabin  stands  the  Cube  Mount 
Station,  tucked  away  in  a  grove  of  white 
birches,  with  the  evergreen  slopes  of  the 
mountain  rising  as  a  background  for  the 
picture.  To  the  west  the  noble  panorama 
of  the  Green  Mountains  unfolds  along 
the  Vermont  skyline. 

Sheltered  by  a  cluster  of  whispering 
pines  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Armington 
Pond,  a  third  cabin  is  built  in  the  shadow 
of  Piermont  Mountain,  which  rises  ab- 
ruptly on  the  opposite  shore.  .  A  short 
walk  from  the  cabin  is  the  famous  Lake 
Tarleton  Club,  and  some  distance  further 
along  the  trail  which  winds  through  Web- 
ster Slide  is  the  Great  Bear  Cabin,  deriv- 
ing its  name  from  the  fact  that  students 
who  were  prospecting  for  the  site  found 
the  tracks  of  a  black  bear  in  the  neighbor- 
hood. 

A  FIVE-MILE  SUDE 

Over  the  shoulder  of  Mount  Moosilauke 
goes  the  traveler  after  he  leaves  Great 


Bear  Cabin,  and  from  this  eminence  the 
ski  sportsman  has  one  of  the  most  de- 
lightful experiences  of  his  excursion,  as 
he  slides  almost  without  effort  for  a  dis- 
tance of  five  miles  to  the  picturesque 
hamlet  of  Wildwood. 

One  of  the  most  popular  camps  of  the 
Dartmouth  Club  is  located  in  the  famous 
Agassiz  Basin,  ever  to  be  associated  with 
the  great  naturalist's  elaboration  of  his 
theory  of  glaciers.  Here  is  the  Lost 
River  District,  little  known  to  the  average 
White  Mountain  tourist  of  the  summer 
season,  but  one  of  the  most  interesting 
regions  of  the  New  England  States. 

Lost  River  is  important  for  what  it  has 
beqn  rather  than  for  what  it  is.  In  the 
distant  past  great  torrents  of  water  from 
a  melting  glacier  flowed  here,  and  once 
an  earthquake  shattered  the  mountain- 
side, hurling  huge  boulders  into  the  bed 
of  the  rnrer,  practically  burying  the 
stream.  Immense  "potholes"  were  carved 
in  the  rocks  by  the  action  of  the  water, 
enabling  the  student  of  geology  to  read 
aright  the  sermbns  which  that  mystic, 
Nature,  has  written  in  the  stones. 

Near  the  point  where  the  river  disap- 
pears for  its  journey  of  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  underground  is  the  cosy  club-house 
of  the  Society  for  the  Preservation  of 
New  Hampshire  Forests. 

THE  PAGEANT  OF  THE   PRESIDENTIAL, 
RANGE 

After  passing  North  Woodstock,  which 
lies  beyond  Agassiz  Basin,  the  Outing 
clubman  comes  to  Profile  Notch,  with  its 
famous  "Old  Man  of  the  Mountains." 
Then  for  a  swift  slide  down  Three-mile 
Hill  to  Franconia,  north  to  Littleton,  to 
Manns  Hill,  and  finally  to  Skyline  Farm, 
where  ends  the  trail.  Here  the  whole 
pageant  of  the  Presidential  Range  of 
mountains  is  spread  before  the  view  of 
the  winter  visitor — a  matchless  picture 
of  serrated  summits  and  tree-clad  slopes 
wrapped  in  an  Arctic  mantle  of  iridescent 
beauty. 

But  hiking  is  not  the  be-all  and  the  end- 
all  of  the  Dartmouth  Outing  Club.  There 
is  the  spectacular  Winter  Carnival,  staged 
for  the  delight  of  the  friends  of  the  stu- 
dents as  well  as  for  their  own  pleasure. 

During  this  "Mardi  Gras  of  the  North" 


SKIING  OVER  THE  NEW  HAMPSHIRE  HILLS 


159 


Photograph  by  Kenneth  D.  Smith 
MARIAN  FAIRFIELD,  OF   HANOVER,  AT  THE  MOMENT  OF  LANDING  FROM  A   SKI  JUMP 

This  young  miss  has  just  gone  over  the  "big  jump"  of  the  Dartmouth  College  skiing  course — 
a  feat  which  many  experienced  athletes  have  refused  to  attempt. 


there  is  a  succession  of  spirited  races — 
ski  and  snowshoe  sprints,  cross-country 
ski  races,  testing  the  stamina  of  the  con- 
testants as  do  few  other  college  sports, 
and  obstacle  races. 

The  crowning  event  of  the  carnival, 
however,  is  the  ski-jumping  contest, 
which  is  to  the  occasion  what  the  chariot 
race  of  the  Olympic  games  was  to  the 
ancients.  Thousands  of  spectators  can 
be  accommodated  on  the  slopes  surround- 


ing    Dartmouth's     great     ski-jumping 
course. 

THE  SKI-JUMPING  COURSE 

The  approach  of  the  ski-jump  is  down 
a  steep  300- foot  pathway  cut  through  a 
pine  forest.  At  the  top  is  a  wooden 
trestle,  which  enables  the  contestant  to 
acquire  a  tremendous  initial  momentum 
for  his  rush  down  the  course  to  the 
"jump"  itself,, which  is  a  level  platform 


160 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


fifty  feet  long,  with  a  "take-off"  eight 
feet  above  the  slope. 

The  steep  slopes  of  the  hill  have  been 
so  terraced  that  the  spectators  are  en- 
abled to  get  a  close  view  of  the  jumper 
from  the  moment  he  begins  his  spectac- 
ular slide. 

Poised  150  feet  above  the  heads  of  the 
onlookers,  the  contestant  hesitates  for  a 
moment,  breathes  deeply,  and  then  waits 
with  every  muscle  taut  and  every  nerve 
atingle  for  the  signal.  It  is  given.  In- 
stantly he  tips  over  the  brink  of  the 
trestle,  at  the  same  time  assuming  the 
crouching  position  which  offers  the  least 
possible  wind  resistance  to  his  flight. 

As  he  sweeps  down  the  glassy  incline 
he  keeps  his  body  in  perfect  balance,  his 
skis  together  and  parallel.  As  he  gains 
impetus  he  resembles  a  human  missile 
shot  from  some  gigantic  catapult. 

WHAT   WILL   HAPPEN    WHEN    HE   HITS? 

Out  upon  the  jumping  platform  he 
slides  with  lightning  speed,  and  at  the 
critical  moment,  with  all  the  strength  of 
his  lithe  body  concentrated  in  his  knees, 
he  springs.  Like  a  soaring  bird,  he 
launches  upward  and  out  into  space.  For 
a  moment  he  seems  to  pause  in  midair, 
then  quickly  describing  an  arc,  down, 
down,  down,  he  swoops  with  the  speed  of 
thought. 

What  will  happen  when  he  hits?  This 
is  the  harrowing  question  which  comes 
to  the  mind  of  every  spectator  who  is 
watching  the  thrilling  sport  for  the  first 
time.  But  he  does  not  hit;  he  seems 
merely  to  meet  the  snow  track  at  the  bot- 
tom of  the  jump.  And  that  is  exactly 
what  does  happen;  for,  as  the  jumper 
rushes  through  space,  he  is  describing  a 
curve  of  thirty  degrees,  and  the  track  is 
so  arranged  that  at  the  point  where  he 
alights  the  slope  also  inclines  at  an  angle 
of  thirty  degrees,  and  the  moment  of  con- 
tact is  thus  robbed  of  all  its  shock. 

The  jumper,  provided  he  alights  with 
his  skis  together  and  at  the  correct  angle, 
simply  glides  on,  at  terrific  speed,  until, 
with  a  perfectly  executed  telemark  swing, 
he  brings  himself  to  a  halt  in  a  whirl  of 
snow. 

These  contests  do  not  take  place  among 
the  students  of  Dartmouth  only.  McGill 
College,  of  Montreal,  Canada,  frequently 


SKIING  OVER  THE  NEW  HAMPSHIRE  HILLS 


161 


sends  a  team  of  jumpers  to  the  carnival, 
when  the  struggle  for  supremacy  assumes 
an  intercollegiate  and  an  international 
flavor. 

EXECUTING  A  SOMERSAULT  ON  SKIS 

Every  jump  brings  a  thrill  to  spectator 
as  well  as  to  participant,  but  the  supreme 
moment  of  the  carnival  conies  when  a 
master  of  the  skis  executes  some  such 
spectacular  antic  in  the  air  as  a  forward 
somersault. 

As  the  stellar  performer  prepares  for 
the  jump,  a  hush  sweeps  over  the  spec- 
tators, for  every  one  knows  that  unless 
his  timing  is  accurate  to  the  fraction  of 
a  second  and  his  spring  from  the  plat- 
form is  perfect,  contusions  and  broken 
bones  will  be  his  reward. 

Down  he  rushes  to  the  platform.  A 
sudden  contraction  of  all  the  muscles  of 
the  body,  a  magnificent  leap  into  the  air, 
a  somersault  completed  at  the  instant  of 
landing — all  in  the  time  of  a  held  breath ! 
There  is  wild  applause  from  the  relieved 
spectators,  as  they  realize  that  the  sensa- 
tional "stunt"  is  successfully  accom- 
plished. 

In  many  respects  ski  jumping  is  an 
even  more  exhilarating  sport  than  flying. 
As  one  shoots  out  and  down  through  the 
keen,  bracing  air  with  no  windshield  to 
protect  him,  the  sensation  is  beyond  de- 
scription. Unlike  the  aviator,  the  ski 
jumper  has  no  ailerons,  no  rudder,  no 
"flippers"  to  aid  him.  The  whole  success 
of  the  venture  depends  solely  upon  the 
human  machine,  upon  the  proper  co- 
ordination of  the  muscles  and  upon  the 
ability  of  the  jumper  to  judge  with  abso- 
lute accuracy  the  precise  moment  for  the 
spring. 

SKIING   UP   AND  DOWN    MT.    WASHINGTON 

When  the  snows  begin  to  melt  around 
Hanover  in  the  spring  the  Outing  Club 
gives  its  final  winter  party — a  three  days' 
trip  into  the  White  Mountains.  From 
headquarters  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Wash- 
ington, the  sportsmen  climb  the  moun- 
tain, plunge  into  Tuckerman's  Ravine, 
and  see  aspects  of  the  outdoors  which 
are  never  revealed  to  summer  visitors. 
The  snows  have  begun  to  disappear  in 
the  southern  portion  of  the  State,  but 
drifts  to  a  depth  of  100  feet  in  the  ravines 
are  still  to  be  found  here. 


Photograph  by  Kenneth  D.  Smith 

FRONT  VIEW  OF  A  SKI  JUMPER  IN  FLIGHT 

Not  even  aviation  can  provide  more  thrilling 
sport  than  that  afforded  the  expert  on  skis. 


©  K.  G.  Dewey 


SOMERSAULTING  THROUGH    SPACE   ON    SKIS 


The  first  of  a  remarkable  series  of  photographs  illustrating  one  of  the  most  thrilling  ex- 
hibitions of  the  mid-winter  carnival  at  Hanover,  New  Hampshire. 


THE    SOMERSAULT    HALF    COMPLETED 


©  K.  O.  Dewey 


This  spectacular  test  of  skill  is  accomplished  in  a  few  seconds,  but  it  provides  the  thousands 
of  spectators  a  topic  of  conversation  for  months. 


162 


THE  THIRD  EVOLUTION  OF  THE  SOMERSAULT 


One  of  America's  foremost  adepts  in  the  performance  of  this  "stunt  de  luxe"  is  a  Dartmouth 

sophomore,  John  Carelton. 


©  E.  G.  Dewey 


HE  WILL  BE  HEAD-UP  WHEN  HIS  SKIS  TOUCH  THE  SLOPE 


The  ability  to  judge  the  exact  moment  for  the  leap  into  the  air  while  traveling  at  the 
rate  cf  forty  miles  an  hour  is  an  essential  factor  in  the  successful  accomplishment  of 
this  feat.  The  knees  act  as  shock-absorbers. 


16? 


164 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Dr.  Iceland  Griggs 


ALT,  OFI-  TOGETHER 


A  ski  threesome  lakes  the  air  for  the  downward  drop  at  the  Dartmouth  "Mardi  Gras  of 

the  North." 


On  several  occasions  members  of  tbe 
Club  have  succeeded  in  climbing  on  skis 
to  the  summit  of  Mount  Washington,  a 
feat  which,  until  accomplished  by  these 
Dartmouth  students,  was  deemed  impos- 
sible. 

The  difficulty  of  the  ascent  is  not  to  l:e 
discounted  by  its  accomplishment,  how- 
ever ;  and  the  descent,  especially  down 
the  icy,  wind-driven  slopes  above  the  tree 
line,  is  an  even  more  hazardous  test  of 
skill. 

Usually  the  ski  men  rope  themselves 
together  like  the  sealers  of  Alpine  crags ; 
but,  once  over  the  dangerous  part  of  the 
course,  the  .stalwart  mountaineers  find 
rare  ddight^  in  the  long  glide  down  the 
carriage  road  from  Half- way  House. 

The  start  for  this  last  fascinating  stage 
of  the  trip  is  usually  made  in  the  late 
afternoon,  when  the  light  is  fading  and 
the  snow  particles  come  hissing  down 
from  the  heights,  bringing  with  them  a 
penetrating  cold. 


Now  there  is  no  inclination  on  the  part 
of  the  travelers  to  tarry.  With  a  vigor- 
ous push  of  the  ski  poles,  the  rush 
begins. 

On  the  steep  slope  the  speed  is  quickly 
accelerated  to  forty  miles  an  hour,  as  the 
skis  sing  and  whistle  over  the  snow.  On 
through  the  woods,  at  ever-quickening 
pace,  the  hikers  go,  sometimes  forced 
from  the  path  by  the  rapidity  with  which 
they  take  the  curves  in  the  road.  Not 
infrequently  there  is  a  spill  in  the  snow, 
as  the  moon  casts  deceptive  shadows 
along  the  way. 

Now  and  again  the  incline  flattens  out 
almost  to  a  plane  and  the  pace  slackens 
instantly,  but  in  another  hundred  yards 
the  traveler  is  again  speeding  before  his 
shadow. 

It  is  a  wonderful  course,  21,120  feet 
in  length,  with  a  drop  of  2,000  feet,  and 
a  member  of  the  Dartmouth  Outing 
Club  has  set  a  record  of  twelve  and  a 
half  minutes  for  the  journey! 


WINTER    RAMBLES    IN  THOREAU'S   COUNTRY 


BY  HERBERT  W. 

AUTHOR  OF  "THROUGH  THE  YEAR  WITH  THOREAU" 

With  Illustrations  from  Photographs  by  the  Author 
"I  have  traveled  a  great  deal  in  Concord." — THOREAU. 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGA- 
ZINE being  pre-eminently  a  maga- 
zine of  travel,  it  is  not  inappro- 
priate to  call  the  attention  of  its  readers 
to  the  journeyings  of  one  of  the  most 
original,  observant,  and  wholly  entertain- 
ing travelers  whom  the  continent  of 
America  has  produced.  To  be  sure,  his 
travels  did  not  cover  a  very  wide  field, 
geographically :  they  consisted  chiefly  of 
daily  walks  afield  or  boating  trips  on 
the  river  to  various  points  in  his  imme- 
diate neighborhood ;  yet  they  resulted  in 
giving  to  his  name  a  higher  place  in  the 
temple  of  fame  than  that  of  many  an- 
other who  has  roamed  the  seven  seas  and 
encompassed  the  ends  of  the  earth. 

Henry  David  Thoreau  was  born  in 
Concord,  Massachusetts,  a  little  more 
than  a  century  ago,  and,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  a  few  brief  and  unimportant  ex- 
cursions away  from  home,  his  entire  life 
of  forty-five  years  was  spent  within  the 
confines  of  his  native  town. 

So  far,  however,  from  lamenting  this 
as  a  misfortune,  he  actually  gloried  in  the 
supposed  limitation.  "It  takes  a  man  of 
genius,"  he  declared,  "to  travel  in  his  own 
country,  in  his  native  village;  to  make 
any  progress  between  his  door  and  his 
gate.  If  a  man  is  rich  and  strong  any- 
where," he  confided  to  his  journal,  "it 
must  be  on  his  native  soil.  Here  I  have 
been  these  forty  years,  learning  the  lan- 
guage of  these  fields  that  I  may  the  better 
express  myself. 

PREFERRED   HIS  OWN  VILLAGE  TO  THE 
PROUDEST    PARIS 

"If  I  should  travel  to  the  prairies,  I 
should  much  less  understand  them,  and 
my  past  life  would  serve  me  but  ill  to  de- 
scribe them.  Many  a  weed  here  stands 
for  more  of  life  to  me  than  the  big  trees 
of  California  would  if  I  should  go  there." 

Somebody  once  suggested  to  him  a  trip 


to  Paris.  But  why  should  he  go  to  Paris  ? 
"It  would  be  a  wretched  bargain  to  ac- 
cept the  proudest  Paris  in  exchange  for 
my  native  village.  At  best,  Paris  could 
only  be  a  school  in  which  to  learn  to  live 
here,  a  stepping-stone  to  Concord,  a 
school  in  which  to  fit  for  this  university." 

"THE  ONLY  TRAVEL  THAT  is  GOOD" 

And  so  he  records  his  solemn  convic- 
tion: "If  these  fields  and  streams  and 
woods,  the  phenomena  of  nature  here, 
and  the  simple  occupations  of  the  inhab- 
itants should  cease  to  interest  and  inspire 
me,  no  culture  or  wealth  would  atone  for 
the  loss." 

"My  feet  forever  stand 
On  Concord  fields, 
And  I  must  live  the  life 
Which  their  soil  yields." 

Now,  all  this,  of  course,  is  at  a  wide 
remove  from  commonly  accepted  ideas, 
and  many  a  Cook's  tourist  will  smile 
superciliously  on  reading  this  pronuncia- 
mento  of  a  confirmed  stay-at-home.  Yet 
Thoreau  never  meant  to  disparage  for- 
eign travel,  as  such.  Indeed,  from  his 
own  account  it  may  fairly  be  assumed 
that  his  familiarity  with  the  best  books 
of  travel  far  exceeded  that  of  most  peo- 
ple of  his  time,  and  certainly  few  people 
of  any  time  have  possessed,  both  by  na- 
ture and  training,  a  keener  appreciation 
of  the  advantages  which  travel  brings. 

He  was  simply  trying  to  enforce,  in 
somewhat  vigorous  fashion,  the  truth  that 
to  a  man  with  receptive  mind  and  studi- 
ous purpose  there  is  to  be  found  in  his 
immediate  environment  a  richness  of  ex- 
perience and  a  depth  of  satisfaction  which 
cannot"  be  had  in  diffuse  wanderings, 
however  extended.  "Only  that  travel  is 
good,"  he  claimed,  "which  reveals  to  me 
the  value  of  home  and  enables  me  to  en- 
joy it  better." 


165 


w 

tn 

t> 

o 

W 


o  s 


Jjjs 

*uo  rt  "^ 


c  -= . 


o  o 


U      —  -<->  <u 


'iC        _j 


|SJ2 

o  isJo      S 

J3    C    I-    rt 
t_,T   «   <u 


166 


C.'- 


C.  °    £> 

£•      fee 


o  rt  -w 
>  o  u 

*•  «+-i     U 


—  ."m 
•~ 


167 


FANTASTIC  SNOW-DRIFTS 

Tn  the  ice  of  open  stone  walls,  the  wind,  blowing  through  the  chinks,  carves  the  snow  into 
many  novel  and  picturesque  forms.     "This  is  the  architecture  of  the  snow." 


168 


WINTER  RAMBLES  IX  THOREAU'S  COUNTRY 


169 


Thoreau  found  such  endless  charm  in 
the  mystery  and  beauty  of  Concord  fields 
and  woods,  so  many  fascinating  problems 
requiring  solution,  such  infinite  variety  in 
flower  and  bird  and  butterfly,  such  fresh 
delight  in  watching  the  progress  of  the 
seasons,  as  well  as  so  much  food  for 
thought  and  inspiration  in  the  human  life 
around  him,  that  he  had  no  time  for  for- 
eign travel.  And  for  this  he  is  sincerely 
grateful. 

"I  cannot  but  regard  it,"  he  says,  "as  a 
kindness  in  those  who  have  the  steering 
of  me  that,  by  the  want  of  pecuniary 
wealth.  I  have  been  nailed  down  to  this 
my  native  region  so  long  and  steadily,  and 
made  to  study  and  love  this  spot  of  earth 
more  and  more.  What  would  signify  in 
comparison  a  thin  and  diffused  love  and 
knowledge  of  the  whole  earth  instead,  got 
by  wandering?" 

And  there  was  a  providence  in  this  for 
others  besides  Thoreau.  With  his  rare 
powers  of  observation,  his  innate  sym- 
pathy with  Nature,  his  keen  sensitiveness 
to  beauty  wherever  found,  and  his  won- 
derful gift  of  verbal  description,  he  has 
given  us  an  unsurpassed  picture  of  New 
England  outdoor  life  which  is  destined 
to  afford  enjoyment  and  inspiration  to 
thousands  of  people  through  all  the  years 
to  come.  It  goes  without  saying  that  he 
never  could  have  drawn  this  picture  had 
he  given  much  of  his  time  to  travel 
abroad. 

Louisa  Alcott,  in  her  beautiful  poem 
on  "Thoreau's  Flute,"  put  the  matter 
concisely : 

"Above  man's  aims  his  nature  rose. 
The  wisdom  of  a  just  content 
Made  one  small  spot  a  continent. 
And  tuned  to   poetry  life's  prose." 

FOLLOWING  THOREAU'S  FOOTPATHS 

It  has  been  the  writer's  esteemed  privi- 
lege during  the  past  fifteen  years  and 
more  to  make  many  rambling  trips  to 
Concord,  lured  thither  by  Thoreau's  vivid 
descriptions  of  Nature's  beauty  in  his 
home  surroundings.  Without  purposely 
attempting  to  repeat  Thoreau's  "travels," 
there  has  been  found  a  peculiar  pleasure 
in  seeking  out  his  favorite  haunts,  identi- 
fying places  with  which  he  was  closely 
associated  and  which  he  named  after  a 
fashion  of  his  own,  and  at  the  same  time 


securing  photographs  of  a  great  number 
of  the  actual  scenes  and  phenomena  in 
which  he  delighted. 

These  trips  have  been  undertaken  in  all 
seasons  of  the  year,  coinciding  so  far  as 
possible  with  Thoreau's  own  records  and 
duplicating  to  a  large  degree  many  of  his 
most  enjoyable  experiences.  Especially 
has  the  winter  season,  which  to  many 
people  is  so  burdensome  and  even  repel- 
lant,  proved  wonderfully  fruitful  in  sub- 
jects of  interest  and  beauty. 

DAYS   OF   NEW   OPPORTUNITY 

Thoreau  was  an  enthusiast  over  the 
New  England  winter.  He  hailed  its  ad- 
vent, noted  every  step  of  its  progress, 
and  found  much  of  interest  even  in  its 
lingering  departure.  At  the  close  of  the 
long,  cold  winter  of  1855-56,  with  its 
record  of  ninety-nine  consecutive  days 
of  sleighing  in  Concord — a  period,  one 
would  think,  long  enough  to  upset  the 
complacency  of  a  man  like  Thoreau — he 
wrote,  under  date  of  April  10:  "I  look 
with  more  than  respect,  if  not  with  regret, 
on  its  last  dissolving  traces." 

There  was  something  in  winter's  bare- 
ness and  ruggedness,  its  simplicity  and 
severity,  its  imperative  challenge  and  its 
unexplored  grandeur,  which  appealed 
irresistibly  to  his  stalwart  soul.  And 
even  stronger  was  the  appeal  to  his  es- 
thetic sense.  He  never  ceased  to  adore 
the  spotless  purity  of  the  snow.  Every 
snowstorm  was  a  fresh  revelation  to  him 
of  Nature's  inexhaustible  beauty. 

Days  of  intense  cold  were  days  of  new 
opportunity  to  him.  He  was  abroad  in 
all  kinds  of  weather,  in  all  degrees  of 
frost.  The  ice  of  the  ponds  and  river  he 
was  diligent  in  exploring,  both  superfi- 
cially and  in  its  interior  structure,  and  he 
was  rewarded  with  exquisite  displays  of 
crystallization  which  very  few  people  are 
ever  privileged  to  see.  Indeed,  so  ex- 
tended and  minute  were  his  studies  of 
winter's  varying  aspects  that  he  could  say 
on  one  occasion,  as  Emerson  pleasantly 
relates,  when  returning  a  copy  of  Kane's 
"Arctic  Explorations"  which  had  been 
loaned  to  him,  that  "most  of  the  phe- 
nomena noted  might  be  observed  in  Con- 
cord !" 

The  winter  climate  of  New  England 
has  been  much  reviled  on  account  of  its 


s- 


<    2  b 


0 
w 

^  o 
•^  m 

"§.= 

o  "5 
j;  c" 


C    O 

a  -" 


u    o> 
o  •  — 

11 


170 


172 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


being  so  capricious.  Sleet,  slush,  snow, 
hail,  rain,  freezing,  thawing,  blizzards, 
and  sunshine  make  up  a  program  which 
certainly  does  not  lack  in  point  of  variety. 
Yet  to  this  very  fact  is  due  much  of  the 
beauty  of  the  New  England  winter. 
Were  the  cold  uniform,  did  the  snow 
which  falls  in  December  remain  until 
April — conditions  which  obtain  in  certain 
other  parts  of  the  continent — the  winter 
would  lose  a  good  part  of  its  charm. 

The  winters  in  Concord  today  are  just 
as  changeful  as  in  Thoreau's  time,  and 
one  finds  the  same  succession  of  varied 
phenomena  which  compelled  his  wonder 
and  admiration. 

WONDER   IN   THE   WEAVING   OF   THE   SNOW 
BLANKET 

First  of  all,  of  course,  there  is  the  snow 
"blanket"  enwrapping  the  earth,  which  to 
Thoreau  was  so  suggestive  both  of  utility 
and  beauty — "a  pure  garment,  as  of  white 
watered  satin,  over  all  the  fields."  There 
is  wonderful  fascination  in  the  weaving 
of  this  blanket.  The  falling  snow — what 
an  incredible  spectacle  to  one  who  has 
never  seen  it !  And  how  the  mystery  and 
witchery  of  it  persist  even  after  one  has 
seen  it  a  thousand  times ! 

To  go  abroad  in  Concord  fields  and 
woods  during  a  snow  storm  is  a  memora- 
ble experience,  especially  if  the  snow  is 
a  little  damp  and  clings  to  the  trees  and 
bushes  in  masses.  Thoreau  devotes  many 
pages  of  enthusiastic  description  to  a 
"lodging  snow" : 

"The  woods  were  incredibly  fair,  white 
as  alabaster.  Indeed,  the  young  pines 
reminded  you  of  the  purest  statuary,  and 
the  full-grown  ones  towering  around  af- 
fected you  as  if  you  stood  in  a  titanic 
sculptor's  studio,  so  purely  and  delicately 
white,  transmitting  the  light.  .  .  . 

"Imagine  the  innumerable  twigs  and 
boughs  of  the  forest  crossing  each  other 
at  every  conceivable  angle  on  every  side, 
from  the  ground  to  thirty  feet  in  height, 
with  each  its  zigzag  wall  of  snow  four  or 
five  inches  high,  so  innumerable  at  differ- 
ent distances  one  behind  another  that 
they  completely  close  up  the  view,  like  a 
loose-woven  downy  screen." 

And  then,  after  the  snow  has  fallen  and 
the  sun  shines  once  more,  the  wind  takes 


up  the  snow  and  whirls  it  into  drifts, 
burying  the  fences  and  choking  the  high- 
ways. In  the  lee  of  open  stone  walls 
these  drifts  become  curiously  fantastic, 
the  snow  being  carved  by  the  wind,  which 
whistles  through  the  chinks  in  the  wall 
into  many  novel  and  picturesque  forms. 
"It  builds  up  a  fantastic  wall  behind  the 
first  —  a  snowy  sierra.  Astonishingly 
sharp  and  thin  overhanging  eaves  it 
builds,  even  this  dry  snow,  where  it  has 
the  least  suggestion  from  a  wall  or 
bank — less  than  a  mason  ever  springs  his 
brick  from.  This  is  the  architecture  of 
the  snow." 

With  the  coming  of  the  sun,  too,  there 
appear  those  exquisite  blue  shadows  on 
the  snow.  Given  the  right  conditions  of 
atmosphere  and  temperature,  these  shad- 
ows are  captivating  to  every  one  who 
possesses  the  least  sense  of  color  values. 
What  makes  them  so  blue — "celestial 
blue"  ?  "I  think  I  never  saw,"  says 
Thoreau,  "a  more  Elysian  blue  than  my 
shadow.  I  am  turned  into  a  tall  blue 
Persian  from  my  cap  to  my  boots,  such 
as  no  mortal  can  produce,  with  an  ame- 
thystine hatchet  in  my  hand.  I  am  in 
raptures  at  my  own  shadow.  What  if 
the  substance  were  of  as  ethereal  a  na- 
ture ?" 

READING    THE   SECRETS   OF   THE    WILD 

In  his  tramps  afield  after  every  fresh 
snowfall  Thoreau  took  keen  delight  in 
reading  the  story  of  the  wild  life  of  the 
woods  found  in  the  tracks  of  fox  and 
otter,  squirrel  and  rabbit,  crow  and  par- 
tridge, mouse  and  mink.  The  snow,  he 
declared,  is  the  great  revealer,  and  he 
learned  many  secrets  of  the  wild  in  these 
footprint  studies. 

Of  all  the  denizens  of  the  woods,  how- 
ever, Reynard  held  for  him  the  greatest 
interest,  and  more  than  once  he  would 
spend  a  large  portion  of  the  day  follow- 
ing the  tracks  of  a  fox  and  unraveling 
the  record  of  its  wanderings.  Concord 
is  so  far  from  being  wholly  urbanized  in 
these  days  that  the  wood-folk  still  linger 
within  its  precincts,  and  judging  from 
the  snowy  tale  of  their  gambols  and  jour- 
neyings  they  are  scarcely  less  numerous 
than  in  Thoreau's  time. 

But  Thoreau  held  that  we  may  find  in 


ir- 


,,  y.-: 

K 

~~*>- .  ;fojw 


- 


-'/."/, 


/v 

•     • 

•\  :&•'•' 


AFTER    AN    ICE-STORM  :    MASSACHUSETTS 

"Seen  at  the  right  angle,  each  ice-encrusted  stubble  shines  like  a  prism  with  some  color  of 
the  rainbow.     What  a  crash  of  jewels  as  you  walk!" 


173 


I   •       •*& 

%fWl^li 

~.'*»>'  .  - :W.\^>f  is£    ;T^;»   .- • ^I'C^liL 


^•- ''    ^:  /*  A^-:; :  "•  *  ^  v4 

T^-V    ^.v."     tVA-    '      -.I'-'Je? 


*7/*asar"'  'x^r-K-^Lv:: 


PINE    FOLIAGE    AFTER    AN    ICE-STORM 

"The  pines  are  as  white  as  a  counterpane,  with  raised  embroidery  and  white  tassels  and 
fringes.  Each  fascicle  of  leaves  or  needles  is  held  apart  by  an  icy  club  surmounted  by  a 
little  snowy  or  icy  ball." 


1/4 


the  snow  the  footprint  of  a  life  superior 
to  anything  of  which  zoology  takes  cog- 
nizance. "Why  do  the  vast  plains  give 
us  pleasure,"  he  asks,  "the  twilight  of  the 
bent  and  half-buried  woods?  Is  not  all 
there  consonant  with  virtue,  justice, 
purity,  courage,  magnanimity?  Are  we 
not  cheered  by  the  sight?  And  does  not 
all  this  amount  to  the  track  of  a  higher 
life  than  the  otter's,  a  life  which  has  not 
gone  by  and  left  a  footprint  merely,  but 
is  there  with  its  beauty,  its  music,  its  per- 
fume, its  sweetness,  to  exhilarate  and 
recreate  us? 

"Did  this  great  snow,  come  to  reveal 
the  track  merely  of  some  timorous  hare, 
or  of  the  Great  Hare  whose  track  no 
hunter  has  seen?" 

A   SPECTACLE  OF   ENCHANTMENT 

Apart  from  the  phenomena  of  the 
snow,  there  occurs  at  rare  intervals  dur- 
ing the  winter  what  Thoreau  speaks  of 
as  a  "frozen  mist,"  when  the  trees  and  all 
other  outdoor  objects  are  covered  in  the 
early  morning  with  a  delicate  hoar  frost. 
This,  of  course,  soon  melts  under  the  rays 
of  the  sun ;  but  while  it  lingers  the  spec- 
tacle is  one  of  enchantment. 

"No  snow  has  fallen,  but,  as  it  were, 
the  vapor  has  been  caught  by  the  trees 
like  a  cobweb.  The  trees  are  bright, 
hoary  forms,  the  ghosts  of  trees.  Closely 
examined  or  at  a  distance,  it  is  just  like 
the  sheaf-like  forms  of  vegetation  and 
the  diverging  crystals  on  the  window- 
panes.  You  look  up  and  behold  the 
hugest  pine,  as  tall  as  a  steeple,  all  frosted 
over.  Nature  has  now  gone  into  her 
winter  palace." 

Akin  to  this  phenomenon  are  the  crys- 
tallized "rosettes,"  as  Thoreau  calls  them, 
which  are  found  sprinkling  the  surface 
of  the  ice  after  a  night  of  severe  cold. 
"They  look  like  a  loose  web  of  small 
white  feathers  springing  from  a  tuft  of 
down,  as  if  a  feather  bed  had  been  shaken 
over  the  ice.  They  are,  on  a  close  exami- 
nation, surprisingly  perfect  leaves,  like 
ferns." 

Frequently  accompanying  these  feath- 
ery crystals,  which  are  "so  thin  and  frag- 
ile that  they  melt  under  your  breath  while 
looking  closely  at  them,"  there  is  another 
form  of  needle-shaped  crystals  in  bun- 


POISON-DOGWOOD    BERRIES:    MASSA- 
CHUSETTS 

Thoreau  has  numerous  references  in  his 
winter  notes  to  the  novelty  and  beauty  of  the 
fruit  of  the  poison-dogwood,  which  hangs  in 
clustered  panicles  from  the  leafless  stems  of 
the  shrub. 


1 75 


- 


FOX  TRACKS   IN  THE  SNOW  I    MASSACHUSETTS 

Thoreau  took  keen  delight  in  reading  the  story  of  wild  life  in  the  woods  as  shown  by 
the  tracks  in  the  snow,  especially  those  of  the  fox.  The  foreground  of  the  picture  shows 
where  the  fox  was  digging  for  mice. 


176 


dies,  or  "as  if  oats 
had  been  spilled,  like 
fibers  of  asbestos 
rolled."  Both  forms, 
he  thinks,  result 
from  vapor  congeal- 
ing as  it  finds  its  way 
through  interstices  in 
the  ice,  and  both  are 
uniquely  beautiful. 

THE    ICE-STORM 

Rarest  and  most 
beautiful  of  all,  how- 
ever, are  the  phe- 
nomena attendant 
upon  an  "ice-storm" — 
something  which  does 
not  occur  every  win- 
ter. In  fact,  it  was 
only  after  several 
years  of  patient  wait- 
ing that  the  writer 
was  able  to  secure 
photographs  illustrat- 
ing this  striking  event. 

The  necessary  con- 
ditions are :  a  gently 
falling  rain,  a  stratum 
of  air  next  the  earth 
with  temperature  be- 
low the  freezing  point, 
and  this  overlaid  with 
warmer  strata  from 
which  the  rain  pro- 
ceeds. Thus  the  rain 
freezes  as  fast  as  it 
falls,  and  there  is 
gradually  built  up 
around  every  object 
a  coating  of  ice.  Then, 
when  the  sun  comes 
world  is  turned  into  a  veritable  crystal 
palace. 

"All  objects,  even  the  apple  trees  and 
the  rails,  are  to  the  eye  polished  silver. 
It  is  a  perfect  land  of  fairy. 

"Seen  at  the  right  angle,  each  ice-en- 
crusted stubble  shines  like  a  prism  with 
some  color  of  the  rainbow — intense  blue, 
or  violet,  and  red. 

"What  a  crash  of  jewels,  as  you  walk! 

"The  fine  spray  of  a  myriad  of  bushes 
on  the  edge  of  the  bank  sparkles  like 
silver. 

"The  drooping  birches  along  the  edges 
of  the  woods  are  the  most  feathery, 


./ 


"Did  this  great 
timorous  hare,  or 
seen?" 

out,    the    whole 


TRACKS    OF    A    HARE 

snow  come  to  reveal  the  track  merely  of  some 
of  the  Great  Hare,  whose  track  no  hunter  has 


fairy-like  ostrich  plumes  of  the  trees. 
The  pines  are  as  white  as  a  counterpane, 
with  raised  embroidery  and  white  tassels 
and  fringes.  Each  fascicle  of  leaves  or 
needles  is  held  apart  by  an  icy  club  sur- 
mounted by  a  little  snowy  or  icy  ball. 
Finer  than  the  Saxon  arch  is  this  path 
running  under  the  pines,  roofed,  not  with 
crossing  boughs,  but  drooping  ice-cov- 
ered twigs  in  irregular  confusion. 

"God  exhibits  himself  to  the  walker  in 
a  frosted  bush  today,  as  much  as  in  a 
burning  one  to  Moses  of  old." 

Thus,  for  page  after  page,  Thoreau  at- 
tempts to  convey  some  idea  of  the  beauty 
of  this  icy  wonderland.  But  no  words 


A  FROSTY  MORNING:  MASSACHUSETTS 

Occasionally  during  the  winter  there  occurs  what  Thoreau  speaks  of  as  a  "frozen  mist," 
when  the  trees  and  all  other  outdoor  objects  are  covered  in  the  early  morning  with  a  deli- 
cate hoar-frost. 


THE  SNOW  RECORD 

From  left  to  right:  I.  Tracks  of  a  pheasant  retreating  hastily.  2.  The  same  pheasant 
approaching  cautiously  from  cover.  3.  Tracks  of  a  rabbit,  also  probably  alarmed.  4.  Tracks 
of  a  partridge.  Tracks  of  a  fox  coursing  along  the  edge  of  the  swamp  are  also  discernible. 


and  no  photograph  can  do  more  than 
merely  hint  at  the  reality.  Whoever  has 
once  witnessed  the  phenomenon  of  a  New 
England  ice-storm  can  never  forget  its 
ravishing  beauty. 

THE    ORGAN-PIPES    OF    ICE 

Another  icy  spectacle  which  Thoreau 
always  took  pains  to  observe  on  its  an- 
nual recurrence  was  the  formation  of 
icicle  "organ-pipes"  on  the  face  of  a  cer- 
tain cliff  in  Concord,  and  one  can  find  the 
same  process  in  operation,  under  suitable 
conditions,  in  exactly  the  same  spot  today. 
The  water  from  melting  snow  trickles 
down  over  the  perpendicular  rock- face, 
and  "its  constant  drip  at  night  builds 
great  organ-pipes  of  a  ringed  structure, 
which  run  together,  buttressing  the  rock. 

"Behind  these  perpendicular  pipes,  or 
congregated  pillars,  or  colonnades  run 
together  are  formed  the  prettiest  little 
aisles  or  triangular  alcoves  with  lichen- 
clad  sides.  The  shadow  of  the  water 
flowing  or  pulsating  behind  this  trans- 
parent icy  crust  or  these  stalactites  in  the 
sun  imparts  a  semblance  of  life  to  the 
whole." 


This  suggestion  of  life,  by  the  way, 
was  always  a  most  welcome  feature  of 
Thoreau's  winter  walks.  Any  reminder 
of  the  past  summer,  such  as  a  bird's  nest 
with  its  "snowy  egg,"  or  the  persistent 
panicles  of  poison  -  dogwood  berries, 
"beautiful  as  Satan,"  or  the  scarlet  fruit 
of  the  black  alder,  gave  him  keen 
pleasure. 

Likewise  the  least  promise  of  the  com- 
ing spring,  like  the  opening  of  the  river 
channel,  or  the  breaking  up  of  the  ice  in 
the  ponds,  or  a  distant  bluebird's  warble. 
Even  so  simple  a  thing  as  a  running 
brook  called  forth  his  enthusiasm.  "Per- 
haps what  most  moves  us  in  winter,"  he 
wrote,  "is  some  reminiscence  of  far-off 
summer.  How  we  leap  by  the  side  of  the 
open  brooks !  What  beauty  in  the  run- 
ning brooks  !  What  life  !  What  society  ! 
The  cold  is  merely  superficial ;  it  is  sum- 
mer still  at  the  core,  far,  far  within." 

INTERPRETING    THE    "GRAND    OLD    POEM 

WINTER"  EVERYWHERE 

Thoreau  made  all  his  observations  of 
winter  phenomena  in  Concord,  but  it  by 
no  means  follows  that  one  need  make  a 


180 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A  BIRD'S  NEST  WITH  ITS  "SNOWY  EGG" 

During  his  winter  walks  Thoreau  always 
took  keen  delight  in  discovering  any  reminder 
of  the  past  summer,  even  if  it  was  only  a 
deserted  bird's  nest  filled  with  snow. 

journey  to  Concord  to  witness  and  enjoy 
the  same  phenomena.  All  through  the 
northern  portion  of  the  United  States,  ex- 
cept upon  the  Pacific  coast,  there  is  an- 
nually staged  upon  the  platform  of  winter 
the  same  drama  of  wonder  and  beauty 
which  so  aroused  his  admiration. 

Indeed,  in  certain  sections  there  some- 
times occur  spectacular  effects  of  which 
Thoreau  never  witnessed  anything  more 
than  the  merest  suggestion,  such  as  the 
brilliant  "sun-dogs,"  "inverted  rainbows," 
and  kindred  atmospheric  phenomena 
which  frequently  accompany  days  of  in- 
tense cold  in  Minnesota  and  North  Da- 
kota. Also,  in  connection  with  many  of 
the  higher  waterfalls  of  the  northern 
States,  there  are  superb  displays  of  frost 
magic,  such  as  that  which  annually  draws 
a  throng  of  visitors  to  Niagara,  far  tran- 
scending in  magnitude  and  beauty  any- 
thing which  Thoreau  ever  saw  on  his 
winter  visits  to  the  tiny  waterfalls  of 
Concord. 

But  the  ordinary  aspects  of  winter,  so 
familiar  to  all  who  dwell  in  regions  peri- 


odically visited  by  the  Ice  King,  Thoreau 
has  made  the  subject  of  graphic  descrip- 
tion. The  snow  crystals  falling  upon  his 
coat  sleeve,  the  icy  fretwork  on  the  pud- 
dle by  the  roadside,  the  "booming"  of  the 
pond  on  cold  evenings,  the  snow-encased 
pump,  the  farmer  piloting  his  ox-sled 
through  the  drifts,  the  lisping  of  chick- 
adees among  the  snow-laden  hemlocks, 
the  fisherman  with  his  string  of  pickerel 
caught  through  the  ice,  the  close-wrapped 
buds  of  trees  and  shrubs,  the  humming 
of  the  telegraph  "harp,"  the  snow-bunt- 
ings and  tree-sparrows — "true  spirits  of 
the  snowstorm,"  the  red  alder  catkins 
"switching  in  the  face  of  winter  and 
bragging  for  all  creation,"  the  woodchop- 
per  and  his  noonday  lunch,  the  scream  of 
the  blue-jay — "a  sort  of  wintry  trumpet," 
the  snow-fleas  in  the  wheel-ruts,  the 
frost-tracery  on  the  window  pane — all 
these  and  many  other  incidents  and  phe- 
nomena of  the  winter  are  faithfully  and 
lovingly  recorded. 

Trivial  matters  ?  Yes,  and  yet  they  are 
so  charmingly  treated  in  Thoreau's  inter- 
pretation of  "that  grand  old  poem  called 
winter"  that  we  forget  their  trivial  and 
commonplace  character  and  are  made  to 
see  how  much  they  contribute  toward  the 
beauty  and  the  harmony  of  the  whole. 

NEW  PICTURES  PAINTED  AT  EACH   SUNSET 

There  is  one  very  common  phenome- 
non of  the  winter  time — a  daily  occur- 
rence, in  fact — which  Thoreau  dwells 
upon  with  marked  frequency  and  always 
in  a  mood  of  special  exaltation.  To  him, 
in  all  seasons  of  the  year,  the  holiest 
hour  of  the  day  was  the  hour  of  the  set- 
ting sun,  and  in  the  winter  season  its  ap- 
peal was  most  potent. 

Under  date  of  January  7,  1852,  he 
wrote :  "I  go  forth  each  afternoon  and 
look  into  the  west  a  quarter  of  an  hour 
before  sunset,  with  fresh  curiosity,  to  see 
what  new  picture  will  be  painted  there, 
what  new  panorama  exhibited,  what  new 
dissolving  views.  Can  Washington  Street 
or  Broadway  show  anything  as  good  ? 
Every  day  a  new  picture  is  painted  and 
framed,  held  up  for  half  an  hour,  in  such 
lights  as  the  Great  Artist  chooses,  and 
then  withdrawn,  and  the  curtain  falls." 


WHERE   THE   WORLD    GETS    ITS   OIL 


But  Where  Will  Our  Children  Get  It  When  American 
•  Wells  Cease  to  Flow? 

BY  GEORGE  OTIS  SMITH 


DIRECTOR   UNITED    STATES    GEOLOGICAL    SURVEY 


IN  THE  course  of  the  centuries  the 
raw-material 'issue  changes.  In  the 
long-bow  epoch  of  England's  mili- 
tary strength  the  conservationist  feared 
a  depletion  of  the  yew  wood  which  might 
give  the  Teuton,  backed  up  by  his  larger 
forests,  an  obvious  advantage  in  light 
ordnance.  Later,  when  Great  Britain's 
naval  power  depended  upon  her  wooden 
ships  of  war,  the  anxious  naval  chief 
foresaw  a  possible  shortage  of  the  oak 
which  made  the  walls  that  stood  between 
England  and  her  enemies. 

The  yew  and  the  oak  are  no  longer  es- 
sential to  national  defense,  for  steel  has 
proved  the  substitute  in  both  arms  and 
armor  plate.  Yet  today  those  who  plan 
for  the  future  prosperity  of  their  nation 
realize  the  extent  to  which  other  raw  ma- 
terials are  essential  to  the  general  well- 
being,  and  for  some  of  these  we  can  see 
no  adequate  substitutes. 

Foremost  among  these  most  useful  and 
least  abundant,  if  not,  indeed,  irreplace- 
able, commodities  stands  mineral  oil,  or 
petroleum,  and  not  only  the  conservative 
Briton,  but  the  most  optimistic  American, 
may  well  ask  himself.  Where  will  my 
children  and  children's  children  get  the 
oil  that  they  may  need  in  ever-increasing 
amounts  ? 

THE  WORLD'S  GREATEST  OIL  PRODUCER 
AND  CONSUMER 

The  leadership  of  the  United  States  as 
an  oil  producer  and  consumer  is  spectac- 
ular enough  to  satisfy  our  American  love 
of  doing  things  on  a  big  scale.  For  sixty 
years,  except  in  1898  to  1901,  when  Rus- 
sia reached  the  peak  of  its  past  petroleum 
production,  the  United  States  has  led  the 
rest  of  the  world  with  its  steadily  increas- 
ing flow  of  oil. 

But  while  we  have  contributed  far 
more  than  half  (61  per  cent)  of  the  oil 


that  the  world  has  used  in  all  these  years, 
we  have  already  reached  the  point  where 
we  are  consuming  more  oil  than  we  pro- 
duce. Is  this  position  of  the  world's 
greatest  user  of  petroleum  as  safe  as  it  is 
spectacular  ? 

The  story  of  the  petroleum  industry  in 
the  United  States  extends  back  only  sixty 
years.  On  August  28,  1859,  oil  was  struck 
in  the  Drake  well,  near  Titusville,  in 
northwestern  Pennsylvania,  and  when 
the  pumping  began  the  oil  flowed  in  a  tiny 
stream  of  40,  and  later  only  15,  barrels  a 
day ;  but  since  that  day  of  small  things 
the  tide  of  oil  has  mounted  higher  and 
higher:  5  million  barrels  were  produced 
in  1870,  26  million  in  1880,  45  million  in 
1890,  63  million  in  1900,  209  million  in 
1910,  and  356  million  barrels  in  1918, 
with  the  output  last  year  perhaps  20,  or 
even  30,  million  barrels  in  excess  of  that 
record.  The  crest  of  this  flood  of  oil 
must  surely  soon  be  reached. 

A   NIAGARA  OP  OIL 

We  are  the  world's  greatest  consumers 
of  petroleum ;  but,  impressive  as  are  the 
1918  figures  of  consumption  —  413,- 
077,113  barrels — no  mind  can  easily 
grasp  the  idea  of  that  quantity.  Truly  it 
is  a  flood  of  oil ;  for,  if  spread  over  the 
60  square  miles  of  the  District  of  Colum- 
bia, these  413  million  barrels  would  cover 
the  area  to  a  depth  of  nearly  a  foot  and 
a  half. 

Or  perhaps  the  eye  can  better  visualize 
the  torrent  of  oil  that  flows  each  year 
from  the  203,400  wells,  is  pumped 
through  the  long  pipe  lines,  and  is 
brought  up  from  Mexico  in  huge  tankers, 
if  we  figure  that  a  year's  supply  of  oil 
equals  the  flow7  of  the  waters  from  the 
Great  Lakes  and  their  vast  drainage 
basin  over  Niagara  Falls  for  three  hours 
and  four  minutes ;  or,  in  terms  of  the 


181 


182 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  from  Dr.  D.  T.  Day 

THE  SITU  OF  AMERICA'S  PIONEER  OIL  wEu, 

A  new  chapter  in  industrial  history  began  sixty  years  ago  with  the  flow  of  petroleum 
from  this  6o.-foot  bore-hole  on  Oil  Creek,  Pennsylvania.  Edwin  L,.  Drake  did  not  strike  it 
rich,  receiving  only  an  annuity  from  the  Keystone  State  and  a  monument  from  the  industry 
he  founded. 


smaller  stream  flowing  past  the  Nation's 
Capital,  if  the  Potomac  at  Great  Falls 
were  a  river  of  crude  oil,  the  nation's  an- 
nual requirements  could  be  met  only  with 
the  flow  at  the  summer  rate  for  nearly 
four  days  and  a  half. 

So  it  is  that  while  in  1918  our  "home 
fires"  in  power  plant,  blast  furnace,  loco- 
motive, and  residence  consumed  a  moun- 
tain of  coal  a  mile  and  a  third  in  diameter 


and  nearly  2.000  feet  high,  we  also  used 
a  river  of  oil. 

Credit  is  often  due  to  the  silent  partner 
in  a  business,  and  the  marvelous  growth 
of  our  oil  industry  owes  much  to  its  own 
transportation  system,  unseen  and  un- 
known by  most  citizens,  yet  far  more 
efficient  than  the  railroad  lines  of  which 
we  are  so  proud. 

Beginning  with  four  miles  of  iron  pipe 


WHERE  THE  WORLD  GETS  ITS  OIL 


183 


'ARKANSAS./       "  V  \  X 


kv>?±. A 


A   SKKTCII    MAP   SHOWING   THE   ELABORATE  OH,  PIPE-LINE  SYSTEM    WHICH   FORMS  A 
NETWORK  BENEATH  THE  SURFACE  OF  THE  EASTERN  HALF  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 

There  are  enough  oil  pipe  lines  in  the  United  States  to  girdle  the  earth  at  the  equator  and 

have  5,coo  miles  to  spare. 


laid  down  in  western  Pennsylvania  at  the 
close  of  the  Civil  War,  this  system  now 
embraces  a  huge  network  of  buried  pipes 
from  four  to  eight  inches  in  diameter, 
trunk  lines  and  laterals,  aggregating 
nearly  30,000  miles  (see  map  above). 

A  VAST    NETWORK  OF   OIL   PIPE   LINES 

Along  these  hidden  transportation  lines 
there  are  pumping  stations  every  40  miles 
or  so,  but  the  daily  circulation  of  oil  in 
these  long  arteries  is  appreciated  only  by 


the  oil  operators  who  sell  their  product 
at  one  end  and  the  refiners  or  shippers 
who  receive  it  at  the  other  end. 

Another  measure  of  this  pipe-line  sys- 
tem is  given  in  the  fact  that  it  would 
take  approximately  two  days'  flow  from 
the  200,000  wells  of  the  country  simply 
to  fill  these  pipes. 

Petroleum's  rank  among  the  minerals  is 
won  not  by  attractive  appearance,  but  by 
sheer  usefulness.  Few  of  us  fully  appre- 
ciate how  essential  this  mineral  oil  is  in 


Photograph  from  U.  S.  Geological  Survey 
OIL   WELLS    IN   VENTURA    COUNTY,    CALIFORNIA 

The  topography  and  the  locality  suggest  "nothing  venture,  nothing  have,"  which  is  one  of  the 

rules  in  hunting  oil. 


184 


Photograph  from  U.  S.  Geological  Survey 

NUMBER   FOUR   WELL   AT   JOY   FARM,   OHIO,   DRILLED   IN    1864   AND   STILL 

PRODUCING  OIL 


the  world  economy  or  realize  all  the 
changes  that  have  come  about  in  its  use 
within  a  decade  or  two. 

OIL  NO  LONGER  OUR  LIGHT  BY  NIGHT,  BUT 
PREMIER  POWER  SOURCE 

When  most  of  us  were  in  school,  "oil" 
meant  kerosene,  and  gasoline  or  benzine 
was  something  to  be  bought  in  a  bottle  at 
the  drug-store  or  the  paint  shop.  In 
those  earlier  days  the  oil  refiner  put  as 
much  gasoline  in  his  kerosene  product  as 
the  traffic  would  allow ;  today  the  auto- 
mobilist  complains  that  his  gasoline  con- 
tains too  much  kerosene.  The  refiner 
simply  robs  his  less  marketable  kerosene 
of  the  more  inflammable  content;  so 
that,  as  has  been  suggested,  if  Widow 
O'Leary's  cow  again  kicked  over  the 
lamp,  in  all  probability  the  spilt  oil  would 
not  set  Chicago  or  any  other  city  on  fire. 

In  those  earlier  days,  too,  fuel  oil 
played  no  part  in  industry.  Then,  petro- 
leum's future  mission  seemed  to  be  to 
light  up  the  dark  corners  of  the  world — 
to  be  the  handmaiden  of  Minerva ;  today, 
oil  has  become  the  premier  motive  power, 
not  only  on  land  and  sea,  but  even  in  the 


heavens  above  and  the  depths  below — 
truly  the  best  servant  of  Mars  and  Mer- 
cury. 

Marshal  Foch  is  quoted  as  saying  that 
"a  drop  of  gasoline  was  worth  in  war  a 
drop  of  blood,"  and  M.  Berenger,  the 
French  Commissioner-General  of  Petro- 
leum, expressed  the  same  idea  when  he 
called  attention  to  the  fact  that  victory  on 
the  battlefields  of  Belgium,  France,  and 
Italy  "could  not  have  been  gained  with- 
out that  other  blood  of  the  earth  which 
is  called  oil." 

"And  if  petroleum  has  been  the  life 
blood  of  the  war,  it  will  be  still  more  the 
life-blood  of  peace."  The  strategy  of 
peace  should,  however,  lead  us  so  to  plan 
for  wise  use  of  this  precious  fluid  that 
Mother  Earth  will  not  too  soon  be  "bled 
white." 

MORE  THAN  300  PRODUCTS  oF 

PETROLEUM 

The  number  and  variety  of  uses  of  pe- 
troleum and  its  products  are  continually 
increasing,  but  even  more  striking  is  our 
increased  dependence  upon  a  few  of  the 
products  of  the  oil  refinery,  notably  gaso- 


185 


1.86 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


line,  kerosene,  the  many  types  of 
lubricating  oils,  and  fuel  oil. 

There  are  said  to  be  300  or 
more  products  of  petroleum,  each 
with  its  own  use.  Some  of  these 
products  serve  merely  our  con- 
venience, such  as  the  artificial 
"vanilla"  flavoring  or  the  cover 
of  paraffine  on  the  jar  of  jelly  or 
marmalade;  others  were  found 
during  the  war  period  to  be  ab- 
solutely essential  to  industry  on 
a  large  scale — for  example,  the 
heavy  oil  used  in  tempering  steel 
plates. 

One  picture  of  the  demand  for 
the  principal  petroleum  products 
can  be  seen  in  a  recent  statement 
of  United  States  Army  peace- 
time requirements,  which  in- 
cluded 74  million  gallons  of  fuel 
oil,  1 1  million  gallons  of  gasoline, 
two  million  gallons  each  of  lubri- 
cating oil  and  grease,  and  one 
million  gallons  of  kerosene.  Not 
only  will  the  size  of  this  single 
order  open  some  eyes,  but  its 
make-up  is  significant  and  dis- 
concerting. 

Taking  the  figures  of  the  Bu- 
reau of  Mines  on  refinery  pro- 
duction last  year,  we  find  that 
the  output  of  gasoline  was  not 
quite  double  that  of  kerosene, 
and  the  output  of  lubricants  was 
less  than  half  that  of  kerosene, 
and  here  the  army  wants  eleven 
times  as  much  gasoline  as  kero- 
sene, and  twice  as  much  lubri- 
cating oil.  The  discord  between 
demand  and  supply  in  this  one 
order  is  even  worse  for  fuel  oil, 
of  which  the  output  last  year 
was  about  five  times  that  of  kero- 
sene; and  yet  the  army  wants 
74  times  as  much. 

LUBRICANTS  ARS  THE  BAROMETER 

OF    BUSINESS 

Too  broad  an  inference  from 
any  one  set  of  figures  is  unwise, 
but  other  statistics  point  in  the 
same  direction:  Fuel  oil  is  used 
on  357  vessels  of  our  navy,  and 
the  Shipping  Board  has  an- 


WHERE  THE  WORLD  GETS  ITS  OIL 


187 


From  "World  Atlas  of  Commercial  Geology,"  U.  S.  Geological  Survey 

MAP   SHOWING   PRODUCTION   OF  PETROLEUM    IN  THE   UNITED  STATES   IN    IQlS,   AND 
THE  OUTLINES  OE  THE  PETROLEUM   AREAS 

Each  black  dot  represents  one  per  cent  of  the  total  production  of  petroleum  in  the  United 
States.  The  dotted  lines  surround  oil-producing  areas.  Where  the  production  is  less  than 
one  per  cent,  the  area  is  indicated  by  the  cross. 


nounced  that  there  will  soon  be  1,731 
oil-burning  vessels  of  the  merchant  ma- 
rine under  the  American  flag ;  gasoline  is 
now  sold  at  every  cross-roads,  and  we 
know  that  the  use  of  this  fuel  in  auto- 
motive engines  has  more  than  quadrupled 
during  the  present  decade  ;  and  the  coun- 
try's demand  for  lubricating  oil,  which 
is  an  essential  in  every  phase  of  modern 
civilization,  increases  so  rapidly  that  we 
must  agree  with  the  Bureau  of  Mines  in 
the  belief  that  the  current  consumption 
of  lubricants  is  an  excellent  barometer 
of  business  and  industrial  conditions. 

SIX   MILLION   PLEASURE   CARS   IN  THE 
UNITED   STATES 

Inventive  genius  and  economic  neces- 
sity may  from  time  to  time  change  the 
relative  demands  for  this  or  that  petro- 
leum derivative,  but  the  sum  total  of 
these  demands  must  increase  as  the  num- 
ber of  swiftly  turning  wheels  in  the 
world  increases. 

It  is  when  we  think  of  the  marvelous 
growth  of  the  automotive  industry  that 


we  realize  a  future  demand  for  lubri- 
cation that  staggers  even  the  prophetic 
statistician.  With  more  than  six  million 
pleasure  automobiles  operated  in  the 
United  States  alone,  we  have  an  annual 
consumption  estimated,  by  the  officials  of 
the  foremost  company  manufacturing 
high-grade  lubricants,  at  120  million  gal- 
lons of  lubricating  oil,  where  twenty 
years  ago  the  demand  for  this  purpose 
was  practically  nothing. 

Moreover,  today  a  fleet  of  half  a  mil- 
lion motor  trucks  travel  up  and  down 
our  city  streets  and  State  roads,  deliver- 
ing every  kind  of  commodity  from  eggs 
to  pianos,  and  these  powerful  motors 
furnish  a  market  for  37*^  million  gal- 
lons of  lubricating  oil.  But  while  we 
may  expect  the  demand  for  oil  by  auto- 
mobiles to  continue  to  increase  rapidly 
and  the  requirement  by  trucks  may  possi- 
bly double  within  a  few  years — indeed,  a 
tire  company  estimates  that  even  now  a 
million  trucks  are  in  service — who  can 
even  guess  at  the  number  of  tractors  that 
may  be  operating  on  our  farms  within 


• 


Photograph  from  Hope  Natural  Gas  Company 
THE  DEEPEST  HOLE  IN  THE  WORLD 

America  leads  in  courage  and  skill  in  exploring  the  earth's  crust  in  the  search  for  oil 
and  gas.  The  Lake  No.  I  well  in  West  Virginia  had  reached  a  depth  of  7,589  feet,  or  240 
feet  deeper  than  the  deepest  well  in  Europe,  when  the  steel  cable  parted  nearly  three-fourths 
of  a  mile  below  the  surface.  This  is  the  second  world  record  established  by  the  Hope 
Natural  Gas  Company,  the  Goff  well  being  7,386  feet  deep,  but  neither  of  these  West  Vir- 
ginia wells  has  yielded  anything  but  facts  for  the  geologist. 


the  next  five  years  ?  Already  the  number 
of  tractors  in  operation  is  estimated  as  a 
third  of  a  million,  and  they  consume 
about  35  million  gallons  of  lubricating 
oil. 

We  have,  then,  a  total  of  fully  200 
million  gallons  of  lubricating  oil  already 
required  to  keep  the  automotive  equip- 
ment of  our  country  running  smoothly, 
and  we  must  not  shut  our  eyes  to  the 
fact  that  millions  and  millions  of  gallons 
more  will  be  needed  each  year. 

HOW    OIL   SAVES    POWER 

The  steady  growth  of  industrial 
America  is  observed  by  all,  but  we  need 


the  help  of  census  statistics  to  realize  the 
rate  of  that  growth.  The  power  used  in 
our  manufacturing  has  about  doubled  in 
the  past  sixteen  years ;  the  kilowatt-hours 
turned  out  by  our  public-utility  stations 
have  increased  eight  or  nine  fold  in  that 
same  period.  Indeed,  the  single  State  of 
New  York  will  use  far  more  electric 
power  this  year  than  the  whole  country 
did  in  1902. 

And  so  the  demand  for  lubricants  be- 
comes stronger  on  the  road,  on  the  farm, 
and  in  the  mill.  Still,  while  we  think  of 
this  rapid  development  of  power  as  using 
increased  amounts  of  oil,  it  is  equally 
true  that  oil  saves  power;  so  that  if  ma- 


190 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  from  D.  A.  McDannald,  Orange,  Calif. 
THE    WONDER- WORKERS 
Drillers  whose  skill  taps  the  oil-sands  half  a  mile  or  more  beneath  the  surface. 


chinery  multiplies  man-power,  lubricat- 
ing oil  is  a  good  and  faithful  servant  that 
deserves  more  than  a  passing  thought. 

With  all  these  demands  for  fuel  and 
lubricants,  who  can  venture  an  estimate 
of  our  needs  even  ten  years  hence? 
Whence  will  the  petroleum  come  to  meet 
these  needs?  That  river  of  oil  repre- 
senting our  1918  consumption  drew  from 
the  ground  more  than  one-twentieth  of 
the  quantity  estimated  by  the  United 
States  Geological  Survey  geologists  as 
the  content  of  our  unrecovered  under- 
ground reserve,  and  it  also  took  nearly 
one-fifth  of  the  oil  stored  above  ground. 

The  estimate  of  about  6]/2  billion  bar- 
rels as  now  available  is  far  less  impressive 
when  we  realize  how  fast  we  are  using 
it  up  and  that  while  we  have  burned 
and  wasted  less  than  i  per  cent  of  the 
coal  resources  of  the  United  States  in 


the  last  100  years  we  have  apparently- 
used  up  40  per  cent  of  our  available  oil 
supply  in  only  60  years. 

This  is  why  the  hunt  for  oil  has  become 
world-wide  and  suggests  a  compelling 
reason  for  Americans  to  lead  in  that 
hunt. 

A   HUNTER  WHOSE  WEAPON    IS  THE  DRILL 

The  geologist  has  lately  come  into  his 
own. as  a  money-saver  in  the  employ  of 
oil  companies.  Today  not  less  than  750 
geologists  are  in  the  employ  of  corpora- 
tions, large  and  small,  selecting  the  most 
promising  fields  for  oil  exploration  and 
sites  for  new  oil  wells.  Where  it  costs 
from  $8  to  $20  a  foot  to  drill  a  well  and 
the  oil  sands  are  3,000  to  4,500  feet  be- 
neath the  surface,  as  in  California;  or 
450  to  3,600  feet,  as  in  Oklahoma;  or 
possibly  as  much  as  3,600  feet,  as  in  the 


WHERE  THE  WORLD  GETS  ITS  OIL 


191 


THE;  LAKEVIEW    GUSHER 


Photograph  from  Mining  Review,  Los  Angeles 
OF  CALIFORNIA 


In  its  day  a  record-breaker,  but  not  comparable  to  the  Mexican  "gushers."     The  spectators 
on  the  sand-bag  embankment  later  discovered  their  linen  to  be  spotted  with  oil-mist. 


new  Ranger  field  in  Texas,  the  expense 
attending  the  drilling  of  a  single  well  is 
something  to  be  considered  in  the  econ- 
omy of  the  business,  especially  when,  as 
the  Bureau  of  Mines  states,  oil  wells,  like 
everything  else,  cost  about  twice  as  much 
as  they  did  before  the  war. 

The  geologist  simply  applies  his  science 
to  the  problem  of  making  as  many  wells 
as  possible  successful  and  of  preventing 
drilling  where  oil  cannot  be  found.  Every 
"dry  hole"  is,  in  the  last  analysis,  a  tax 
on  the  consumer,  that  patient  Atlas  of 
the  world's  ever-mounting  load  of  high 
costs. 

A  recent  study  of  the  results  of  ex- 
tensive geologic  examinations  on  the 
Osage  Indian  lands  shows  conclusively 
that  in  this  region,  which  rather  favors 
the  Government  geologist  in  his  effort  to 
locate  oil,  his  geology  was  right  87  per 
cent  of  the  time,  when  tested  by  the  drill. 
Business  can  ask  of  science  no  better 
percentage  of  success  than  that,  and  the 


money  and  labor  and  supplies  that  can 
thus  be  saved  to  the  nation  constitute  no 
small  item. 

A  BIG  LEAK — THE  STOCK  PROMOTION  GAME 

One  of  the  leaks  in  the  nation's  task 
of  finding  oil  is  nearer  home  to  many  of 
us.  The  stock-promotion  game  attracts 
too  many  dollars  to  no  useful  purpose. 

It  has  been  stated  that  two  years  ago 
these  much-advertised  oil  companies, 
with  more  assets  on  paper  than  on  the 
ground  or  under  the  ground,  were  to  be 
credited  with  a  very  small  fraction  of 
i  per  cent  of  the  oil  yield  of  Oklahoma ; 
indeed,  the  issue  of  stock  certificates 
reached  the  point  where  for  every  $555 
of  ill-advised  investment  only  one  dollar's 
worth  of  oil  was  produced.  Thus  does 
the  combination  of  unscrupulous  stock- 
peddler  and  ignorant  investor  undo  much 
that  the  conscientious  oil-producer  is 
striving  to  accomplish  in  getting  the 
most  oil  out  of  the  ground  at  lowest  cost. 


192 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  from  Bureau  ot  Mines 


TANK     FARM 


Where  one  of  the  group  of  huge  storage  tanks  has.  been  set  on  fire  by  lightning.     In  our 
automobiles  we  also  use  the  electric  spark  for  ignition,  but  to  better  purpose. 


Conservation  touches  petroleum  at 
many  points.  There  is  need  for  a  coun- 
try-wide thrift  campaign  looking  to  the 
saving  of  this  essential  resource.  Man- 
power and  oil  ought  to  be  conserved  at 
all  stages  of  production  and  consumption 
by  better  methods  in  the  discovery,  drill- 
ing, recovery,  transportation,  refining, 
and  use  of  petroleum  and  its  products. 

The  price  of  crude  oil  has  just  reached 
a  new  level,  and  eventually  this  must  in- 
fluence the  price  of  the  refinery  products, 
a  fact  that  ought  to  give  impetus  to  thrift 
among  users  of  every  petroleum  product. 

THE    WASTE    BEGINS 


Unwarranted  optimism,  which  seems 
indigenous  in  most  parts  of  the  United 
States,  has  led  both  the  oil  industry  and 
the  public  to  waste  this  best  of  fuels. 
The  program  of  wastage  begins  below 
the  ground  with  only  partial  recovery, 
goes  on  above  the  ground  with  leakage 
and  evaporation,  and  continues  all  along 


the  line  to  the  indiscriminate  burning  of 
fuel  oil  under  boilers  with  regard  for 
convenience  rather  than  for  efficiency,  or 
to  the  even  less  defensible  use  of  pe- 
troleum for  oiling  our  roads. 

In  oil-field  operation,  in  refinery  prac- 
tice, and  in  the  use  of  oil  everywhere,  too 
often  the  dollar  test  of  economy  is  the 
only  one  applied.  The  situation,  how- 
ever, is  critical  enough  to  demand  an- 
other rule — that  of  taking  thought  of  the 
morrow  and  of  weighing  the  questions 
of  ultimate  supply  and  demand. 

But.  with  those  early  forest  conserva- 
tionists of  old  England  in  mind,  the  ques- 
tion may  be  asked,  Are  there  no  practical 
substitutes  or  other  adequate  sources? 
The  obvious  answer  is  in  terms  of  pres- 
ent prices ;  the  real  answer  is  in  terms 
of  cost  in  man-power. 

THE  ADVANTAGES  Of  OIL,  OVER  COAL 

Whether  on  land  or  sea,  fuel  oil  is 
preferred  to  coal  because  it  requires  less 


WHERE  THE  WORLD  GETS  ITS  OIL 


193 


©  Underwood  &  Underwood 


WORKING    NEAR    THE    FIRING-LINE 


The  lineman  repairing  wires  close  to  the  huge  oil  tank,  which  the  firemen  are  trying  to 
keep  below  the  explosion  temperature.  This  $2,000,000  fire  on  Long  Island  caused  the  greatest 
call  for  fire  apparatus  that  New  York  City  has  ever  known. 


bunker  space  and  fewer  firemen;  and, 
back  of  that,  in  the  man-power  required 
in  its  mining,  preparation,  and  transpor- 
tation, the  advantage  on  the  side  of  oil  is 
even  greater.  So,  too,  the  substitute  for 
gasoline  in  internal-combustion  engines, 
whether  alcohol  or  benzol,  means  higher 
cost  and  larger  expenditure  of  labor  in 
its  production.  Moreover,  for  alcohol 
agricultural  land  would  be  required,  and 
for  benzol  in  the  quantities  needed  a  far 
greater  coal  consumption  than  is  now 
necessary. 

Again,  while  we  fortunately  have  our 
great  reserve  of  oil   shales  as  an   inde- 


pendent source  at  some  future  date,  we 
do  well  to  consider  the  practical  contin- 
gency suggested  by  Mr.  Requa,  that  to 
develop  this  source  on  a  scale  comparable 
in  output  with  our  present  oil  supply 
"would  require  an  industrial  organization 
greater  than  our  entire  coal  mining  or- 
ganization." Plainly,  our  country  can  not 
afford  to  support  another  such  army  of 
workers  until  we  reach  another  stage  in 
our  industrial  development. 

The  question  of  safeguarding  Amer- 
ica's oil  supply  has  been  prominently  be- 
fore the  American  people  for  more  than 
ten  years.  In  September,  1909,  President 


Photograph  from  Bureau  of  Mines 

AN  OIIv  TANK  SET  ON  FIRE  BY  LIGHTNING 
A  pillar  of  smoke  by  day  that  represents  a  total  loss  to  the  world  that  needs  oil. 


194 


Taft  ordered  that  all  pub- 
lic lands  believed  to  contain 
petroleum  should  be  re- 
served from  disposition  un- 
til a  law  could  be  passed 
that  might  assure  an  ade- 
quate supply  of  fuel  oil  and 
lubricating  oil  for  our  navy 
and  in  some  degree  check 
the  wasteful  overproduc- 
tion in  the  rich  oil  fields  of 
California.  Such  a  law  is 
now  under  consideration  by 
the  conference  committee 
of  the  two  Houses  of  Con- 
gress. 

WHERE  WE   SHALL   GET  OUR 
OIL  IN   FUTURE 

Ten  years  is  a  long 
period  for  these  "tempor- 
ary" withdrawals  to  run 
pending  the  enactment  of 
suitable  legislation,  and  in 
that  time  the  country's  need 
of  oil,  as  measured  by  its 
consumption,  has  doubled. 
If  in  1909  our  Chief  Ex- 
ecutive had  reason  to  plan 
the  safe  and  sane  disposal 
of  the  petroleum  still  in 
public  ownership,  in  1920 
we  surely  need  to  look  even 
further  and  see  if  possible 
where  our  children  will  get 
the  oil  they  will  require  in 
increased  amount. 

On  the  accompanying 
map  of  the  world  (see 
page  200) ,  are  indicated  the 
regions  from  which,  ac- 
cording to  present  information,  the  oil 
supplies  of  the  future  are  to  be  drawn. 

The  diagrammatic  representation  of  the 
relative  abundance  of  the  oil  resources  in 
the  ground  in  different  countries  is  at 
best  highly  speculative.  Most  of  the  other 
countries  outside  of  Europe  have  not 
been  covered  so  thoroughly  by  geologic 
examinations  as  the  United  States.  In 
fact,  some  of  the  oldest  and  most  highly 
civilized  countries  have  not  been  studied 
by  geologists  specially  trained  in  the  geol- 
ogy of  oil  and  gas,  as  is  shown  by  the  fact 
that  it  remained  for  an  American  expert 
to  bring  to  the  attention  of  the  British 
the  probabilities  of  the  occurrence  of  oil 
fields  in  old  England  itself. 


Photograph  from  M.  L>  Alexander 

ENGINEERING  EXPERTS  BRINGING  UNDER  CONTROL  A 
"WILD  WELL"  IN  LOUISIANA 


A  glance  at  the  map  shows  that  outside 
of  the  United  States  the  great  oil  supplies 
of  the  future,  so  far  as  now  known,  are 
centralized  mainly  in  the  Near  East,  in 
South  America,  and  in  Mexico.  Accord- 
ing to  reports,  there  may  be  great  reserves 
of  oil  in  Africa,  and  it  is  also  possible 
that  eventually  considerable  supplies  may 
be  discovered  in  the  Far  East. 

In  general,  the  regions  developed  first 
and  drawn  on  most  heavily  are,  of  course, 
likely  to  be  soonest  exhausted.  There- 
fore it  is  practically  certain  that,  as  the 
oil  resources  of  the  United  States  and 
Rumania  diminish  and  the  reserves  of 
Mexico  also  yield  under  the  pressure  of 
rapidly  increasing  exploitation,  the  world 


Photograph  from  Mexican  Petroleum  Co. 
THE   WORLD'S  GREATEST  OIL   WELL 

A  well  in  Mexico  named  Cerro  Azul  No.  4  shot  a  column  of  oil  higher  than  our  Wash- 
ington Monument  and  drenched  the  country  with  a  rain  of  oil  for  two  miles  around.  Engi- 
neer measurements  showed  the  column  to  be  600  feet  high  and  the  flow  to  have  been  more 
than  a  million  barrels  in  the  week  before  man  harnessed  this  great  force. 


196 


will  have  to  look  for  its 
oil  supplies  to  those  re- 
gions where  inaccessi- 
bilities and  lack  of  de- 
mand, due  to  the  social 
and  industrial  backward- 
ness of  the  peoples,  have 
hitherto  retarded  ex- 
ploration and  production. 

HOW    MEXICO'S    OIL    HAS 
BEEN  EXPLOITED 

The  rapidity  with 
which  a  region  of  rela- 
tively recent  develop- 
ment may  be  exploited 
is  illustrated  in  Mexico, 
whose  petroleum  output 
has  risen  since  1910  until 
it  is  second  only  to  the 
United  States,  having 
doubled  in  the  last  five 
years.  Mexico  has  been 
a  land  of  oil-gushers  and 
big  wells,  and  with  less 
than  300  producing  wells 
the  potential  daily  pro- 
duction has  been  esti- 
mated as  about  one  and 
a  half  million  barrels, 
but  the  actual  output  is 
not  much  more  than  10 
per  cent  of  that. 

The  increases  in  pro- 
duction in  the  United 
States  and  Mexico  for 
the  year  1918,  as  com- 
pared with  1917,  are  re- 
spectively twenty  mil- 
lion and  eight  million 
barrels.  This  shows  how 
large  a  responsibility  for 
the  world's  oil  supply 
Mexico  is  already  assuming. 

What  is  to  happen  when,  following  the 
United  States,  Mexico  must  reduce  her 
output  with  the  progressive  exhaustion 
of  her  oil  resources,  and  what  are  to  be 
the  competitive  conditions  in  the  United 
States  when  the  other  great  nations  of 
the  world,  whose  use  of  petroleum  is  now 
relatively  insignificant,  awaken  to  the 
realization  of  the  unique  and  almost 
priceless  advantages  of  this  great  natural 
resource  ? 

The  United  States,  though  the  largest 
producer  and  consumer  of  oil,  has  given 


Photograph  from  Mexican  Petroleum  Co. 
THE  CERRO  AZUL  NO.  4  IN  FULL  FORCE 

The  great  volume  of  gas  and  oil  completely  wrecked  the  der- 
rick, and  in  the  first  blast  of  gas  threw  the  2-ton  drill-bit  high  in 
the  air,  landing  125  feet  from  the  well  and  within  three  yards  of 
a  "movie"  photographer.  Photographing  a  wild  well  is  not  with- 
out discomfort  and  danger. 


too  little  heed  to  the  future ;  Great  Brit- 
ain, almost  the  smallest  producer,  has 
been  the  first  to  foresee  petroleum's 
"transcendental  importance  to  the  world's 
industrial  future,"  and,  following  up  vis- 
ion with  action,  has  been  the  most  active 
in  providing  for  that  future. 

BRITAIN'S  METHOD  OF  CONTROLLING  OIL 
SUPPLIES 

Sidney  Brooks's  phrase,  "commercial 
statesmanship,"  may  be  the  transatlantic 
term  for  "dollar  diplomacy,"  but  it  aptly 
describes  the  British  method  of  seeking 


197 


to   c 


198 


Photograph  from  Mexican  Petroleum  Co. 

THE  VICTORY  WON:  THE  WORLD'S  PREMIER  OIL  GUSHER  HARNESSED 

The  successful  issue  of  a  week's  campaign,  for  which  there  had  been  months  of  prepara- 
tion. The  valve  is  in  position  and  ready  to  close.  All  of  the  flow  now  passes  through  the 
pipe,  and  the  great  reservoir  of  oil,  1,752  feet  below  the  surface,  is  thus  connected  up  with 
the  8-inch  pipe  lines  running  down  to  Tampico,  where  tankers  load  to  supply  the  oil-hungry 
world  (see  other  photographs  of  the  Cerro  Azul  well  on  pages  196,  197,  and  198,  constituting 
a  pictorial  history  of  the  great  Mexican  gusher). 

199 


o   ~ 
w 

M      0s 


ENGLAND'S  DISCOVERY  WELL 


Photograph  from  Arthur  C.  Veatch 


Located  in  Derbyshire  by  an  American  geologist,  drilled  by  American  engineers  and 
skilled  workmen,  with  American  machinery  and  well  supplies,  this  all-American  well  struck 
oil  in  England  almost  exactly  60  years  after  Drake  discovered  oil  in  Pennsylvania. 


control  of  an  oil  supply  adequate  for  the 
nation's  needs.  John  D.  Northrop,  in  a 
review  of  the  political  and  commercial 
control  of  the  petroleum  resources  of  the 
world,  thus  sums  up  the  British  position : 

"The  strength  of  Great  Britain's  present 
position  in  the  world's  petroleum  affairs 
lies  in  a  strong  governmental  policy  in  the 
matter  and  in  the  wide  scope  of  British 
petroleum  investments,  embracing  practi- 
cally every  country  of  which  petroleum  is 
an  important  product  and  nearly  every 
country  of  which  it  is  a  product  of  poten- 
tial importance." 

Not  only  do  the  British  oil  companies 
rejoice  in  such  suggestive  names  as  "Brit- 
ish Controlled  Oilfields,"  but  at  the  stock- 
holders' meetings  the  policy  is  stated  in 
plain  language  as  providing  the  safeguard 
of  a  voting  trust  so  that  no  financial  con- 
trol "can  divert  even  a  single  barrel  of 
oil  from  national  or  imperial  require- 
ments." 

It  is  easy  to  see  that  Great  Britain's 
world-trade  policy  has  given  oil  this  "im- 
perial" recognition ;  and  when  we  picture 
the  return  of  the  American  flag  to  the 


seven  seas,  we  too  must  plan  for  an  oil 
supply  available  wherever  needed.  Any 
nation  which  today  aspires  to  a  large  part 
in  world  commerce  imposes  upon  itself 
an  oil  problem,  for  the  future  freedom  of 
both  the  sea  and  the  air  will  be  defined 
in  terms  of  oil  supply. 

AMERICAN  SHIPS  AND  THEIR  APPETITE 
FOR  OIL 

The  new  demand  of  our  shipping  pro- 
gram alone  involves  fuel  oil  in  quantities 
equivalent  to  nearly  one-half  of  the  pres- 
ent domestic  output,  and,  unless  tliere  is 
some  corresponding  decrease  in  other  de- 
mands, this  new  requirement  must  be  met 
with  an  increase  in  production  of  crude 
oil  of  nearly  200  million  barrels. 

The  United  States  shipping  program 
further  calls  for  a  chain  of  oil  stations  en- 
circling the  globe.  The  Shipping  Board 
has  already  announced  that  the  first  steps 
have  been  taken  to  establish  fuel  stations 
along  the  trade  lanes  as  well  as  at  the 
world's  cross-roads,  and  thus  to  assure 
unrestricted  operation  of  our  ships  in  the 
world's  trade. 


201 


202 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


But  economy  on  a  large  scale  will  mean 
that  not  only  must  the  oil  supply  be  put 
where  it  is  needed,  but  the  oil  must  come, 
if  possible,  from  near-by  sources.  Amer- 
ican tankers  encircling  the  world  with 
cargoes  of  Texas  cr  California  oil  appeal 
to  the  imagination,  but  involve  too  high 
a  transportation  cost;  better,  some  con- 
trol of  oil  supply  on  other  continents. 

America's  experience  on  the  world 
scale  has  been  gained  as  an  oil  merchant 
more  than  as  an  oil-producer.  The  illu- 
mination of  the  Orient  with  American 
kerosene  has  been  followed  by  the  lubri- 
cation of  the  whole  world  with  special 
oils  from  American  refineries ;  and  now 
we  hear  of  a  garage  in  Guatemala  7,000 
feet  above  the  sea,  or  another  in  far-off 
Australia  using  American  gasoline  and 
lubricants  exclusively. 

This  commercial  campaign  has  been  a 
worthy  one,  especially  in  its  far-seeing 
outlook ;  but  do  we  look  far  enough  ? 
We  have  been  draining  our  own  oil  pools 
in  part  to  supply  the  needs  of  the  rest  of 
the  world,  but  we  hive  made  little  effort 
to  render  the  rest  of  the  world  self-sup- 
porting in  oil  production.  Whether  such 
a  national  policy  is  to  be  characterized 
as  that  of  a  spendthrift  or  that  of  an 
altruist,  it  is  certainly  too  short-sighted. 

NEED   FOR  OIL,  PIONEERS 

The  facts  of  the  present  situation  call 
for  some  new  pioneering  by  the  United 
States.  This  appeal  to  American  brains 
and  American  dollars  is  made  for  the 
patriotic  purpose  of  providing  for  the 
future  well-being  of  our  own  country. 
Already  American  geologists  have  helped 
to  develop  the  oil  resources  of  every  con- 
tinent', the  latest  contribution  being  that 
of  A.  C.  Veatch,  who  as  chief  geologist 
for  Lord  Cowdray  located  the  discoverv 
well  at  Hardstoft,  Derbyshire,  England. 
This  pioneer  well  struck  oil  at  a  depth  of 
3,078  feet,  and  since  June  has  been  flow- 


ing at  the  rate  of  12  barrels  of  high-grade 
oil  a  day. 

Central  England  has  thus  been  shown 
to  be  of  importance  as  a  source  of  pe- 
troleum ;  and  it  is  gratifying  to  note  that 
American  geologists,  American  engineers 
and  drillers,  American  rigs,  and  Ameri- 
can oil-well  supplies  thus  all  "did  their 
bit"  for  Great  Britain  at  the  time  when 
the  submarine  menace  led  Lord  Cowdray 
to  place  his  petroleum  staff  at  the  dis- 
posal of  the  nation. 

This  pioneering  spirit  should  now  lead 
American  capital  and  American  engineer- 
ing to  seek  new  sources  of  petroleum 
supplies  in  foreign  fields  for  the  benefit 
of  the  America  of  tomorrow.  Nor  can 
this  be  done  without  popular  support,  in- 
spired by  general  appreciation  of  oil  as 
our  servant,  a  servant  that  works  24 
hours  a  day  and  7  days  a  week. 

The  "open-door"  policy  is  best  for 
America  and  the  world ;  encourage 
Amercan  capital  to  enter  foreign  fields 
and  protect  foreign  capital  wherever  in- 
vested in  our  country.  However,  the 
spirit  of  reciprocity  does  not  require  that 
the  United  States  shall  always  keep  its 
own  door  of  opportunity  open  to  the 
nationals  of  all  nations,  irrespective  of 
their  attitude  to  Americans  in  the  other 
parts  of  the  world. 

The  part  our  Government  should  take 
in  planning  to  meet  our  future  needs  is 
to  give  moral  support  to  every  effort  of 
American  business  to  expand  its  circle 
of  activity  in  oil  production,  so  that  it 
will  be  coextensive  with  the  new  field  of 
American  shipping. 

This  may  mean  world-wide  explora- 
tion, development,  and  producing  com- 
panies, financed  by  United  States  capital, 
guided  by  American  engineering,  and 
safeguarded  in  policy  because  protected 
by  the  United  States  Government. 

Thus  only  can  our  general  welfare  be 
promoted  and  the  future  supply  of  oil  be 
assured  for  the  United  States. 


INDEX  FOR  JULY-DECEMBER,  1919,  VOLUME  READY 
Index  for  Volume  XXXVI  (July-December,  1919)  will  be  mailed  to  members  upon  request 


VOL.  XXXVII,  No.  3         WASHINGTON 


MARCH,  1920 


T 


COPYRIGHT,  1920. 1 


MASSACHUSETTS-BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 

BY  WILLIAM  JOSEPH  SHOWALTER 


E XI PUT  in  area,  Brobdingnag  in 
industry;  forced  to  get  its  bread 
elsewhere,  but  helping  to  clothe  na- 
tions ;  longest  American,  except  Virginia, 
in  the  span  of  its  history,  yet  least  Amer- 
ican, except  Rhode  Island  and  the  Can- 
ada-bordering States  of  the  Mississippi 
Valley,  in  the  ancestral  stock  of  its  pres- 
ent inhabitants ;  losing  half  of  its  im- 
proved farm  lands  in  thirty  years,  while 
doubling  its  population — Massachusetts 
rewards  the  investigator  of  its  twentieth 
century  status  with  manv  contrasts  and 
not  a  few  paradoxes. 

Everybody  knows  that  the  Bay  State  is 
one  of  the  smallest  of  the  Commonwealths 
that  compose  the  United  States  of  Amer- 
ica, but  who  realizes  that  it  takes  as  many 
Massachusetts  to  make  a  United  States 
as  it  takes  days  to  make  a  leap  year  ?  Or 
who  appreciates  the  fact  that  in  area  there 
are  as  many  Bay  States  in  California  as 
there  are  holes  in  a  full  golf  course. 

A  GIANT   IN  AU,  SAVE  SIZE 

The  crow  needs  to  fly  only  135  miles  in 
going  from  Sheffield  to  Salisbury,  or  only 
180  miles  in  winging  its  way  from  Grey- 
lock's  summit  to  Chatham's  sands,  while 
the  distance  between  Lake  Monomonac, 
which  spans  the  New  Hampshire  bound- 
ary, and  Lake  Chaugogagogmanchaugag- 
ogchaubunagungamaug,  which  touches 
Connecticut,  is  only  a  little  longer  than 
the  name  of  the  latter. 

But  this  midget  in  domain  is  a  giant  in 
power.  Measured  by  the  products  of  its 


factories,  by  its  financial  contributions  to 
the  Federal  Government,  it  occupies  fifth 
place  in  the  sisterhood ;  measured  by  the 
money  it  annually  appropriates  for  its 
own  betterment,  it  attains  fourth  place 
from  the  top,  and  is  a  lively  disputant 
with  Illinois  for  third ;  measured  by  the 
debt  it  has  dared  to  incur  in  order  to  pro- 
mote the  welfare  of  its  people,  it  takes 
second  place,  despite  the  fact  that  there 
are  seven  States  that  surpass  it  in  wealth. 

This  year  Plymouth,  Massachusetts, 
plans  to  entertain  the  country  in  honor  of 
the  300  years  that  will  have  passed  since 
New  England  was  born.  There  are  citi- 
zens in  the  Bay  State  who  have  ten  gen- 
erations or  more  of  American  blood  in 
their  veins.  Yet  two-thirds  of  the  people 
of  the  Commonwealth  have  sprung  from 
parents  one  or  both  of  whom  were  born 
under  alien  flags. 

Where  Paul  Revere  lived  in  Revolu- 
tionary times  is  now  Little  Italy,  almost 
as  foreign  in  the  tongue  spoken  as  Naples 
or  Genoa.  With  only  a  third  of  the 
State's  population  born  of  parents  who 
first  saw  the  light  in  America,  how  small 
must  be  the  percentage  born  of  full 
colonial  lineage ! 

But  is  Massachusetts  less  American  for 
its  tremendous  foreign  stock?  Look  at 
the  recruiting  records  —  holding  sixth 
place  in  population,  but  fifth  in  voluntary 
enlistments  for  the  World  War.  Look 
at  the  Liberty  Loan  records — third  place 
in  the  first  and  second  loans  and  fourth 
place  in  the  other  three. 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  L,eon  H.  Abdalian 

THE  PIUv- COATING  ROOM  OF  A  MASSACHUSETTS  DRUG  COMPANY 
As  these  huge  containers  revolve  they  sugar-coat  pills  at  the  rate  of  12,000,000  in  24  hours. 


Eight  people  out  of  nine  in  Fall  River 
may  have  foreign  blood  in  their  veins,  but 
Fall  River  never  failed  to  go  over  the  top 
with  every  drive.  Seven  out  of  eight  of 
the  inhabitants  of  Lawrence,  where  the 
paper  for  THE  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE  is 
made  (see  also  pages  234-238),  may  have 
grandparents  born  under  alien  flags,  but 
in  the  Third  Liberty  Loan  drive  only  six 
of  the  major  cities  of  the  United  States 
showed  a  greater  proportion  of  sub- 
scribers. 

MANUFACTURES  THRIVE  AT  THE  EXPENSE 
OF   AGRICULTURE 

Manufacturing  thrives  in  Massachu- 
setts, but  it  does  so  at  the  expense  of  agri- 
culture. No  other  State  in  the  American 
Union  has  such  a  small  proportion  of  its 
people  engaged  in  the  oldest  of  civilized 
vocations.  Only  one  breadwinner  in  a 
score  finds  his  food  in  farming,  forestry, 
animal  husbandry,  and  fishing. 

What  pathos  there  is  in  the  thought 
that  more  than  half  of  the  ground  the 


Pilgrim  people  for  two  centuries  fought 
so  hard  to  wrest  from  forest  and  stone 
should  have  been  surrendered  to  weed 
and  brush  during  the  last  three  decades ! 

Motor  out  from  Boston  to  Lexington, 
and  thence  by  Bedford  to  Lowell.  Did 
ever  a  hardy  and  spirited  race  leave  a 
greater  monument  to  its  determination  in 
combating  inhospitable  Nature  than  the 
farmers  of  bygone  generations  left  in  the 
thousands  of  miles  of  stone  walls  one 
sees  in  this  part  of  Massachusetts? 

Not  only  did  they  have  to  clear  the 
ground  of  a  stumpage  that  yielded  little 
as  lumber  bv  way  of  compensation,  but 
also  of  a  vast  amount  of  loose  rock  that 
occurs  so  frequently  where  the  soil  is 
best. 

The  result  was  that  fences  were  built, 
not  with  reference  to  the  needs  of  height 
and  width  in  field  boundaries,  but  rather 
of  dimensions  sufficient  to  provide  a  stor- 
age place  for  the  vast  amount  of  rock  that 
had  to  be  removed  before  the  plow  and 
the  harrow  could  make  ready  the  soil  or 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


205 


Photograph  by  Leon  H.  Abdalian 
FILLING  TUBES   WITH   TOOTH   PASTE:    MASSACHUSETTS 

The  big  containers  are  full  of  paste.  Each  girl  can  fill  10,000  tubes  a  day.  Everywhere 
one  goes  in  the  Bay  State  labor-saving  machinery  is  in  evidence.  Yet  everywhere  the  more 
labor  is  saved  the  more  work  there  is  for  labor  to  do. 


the  corn  and  wheat  find  a  place  to  grow. 
Some  of  these  stone  fences  are  so  thick 
that  a  carriage  and  pair  could  drive  along 
the  tops. 

THE  FARMER'S  LOSING  BATTLE 

For  more  than  two  centuries  the  sturdy 
yeomen  of  Massachusetts  waged  an  ag- 
gressive battle  against  the  forests  to  ob- 
tain room  for  their  crops.  Then,  in  1850, 
came  a  stalemate,  and  for  thirty  years 


the  battle  line  between  the  field  and  the 
forest  showed  a  little  wavering,  but  no 
real  change. 

But  when  it  seemed  that  a  draw  was 
the  inevitable  end  of  the  struggle  a  new 
ally  appeared  on  the  side  of  the  forest. 
High  Wages  and  short  hours  for  labor  in 
urban  industries  began  to  cause  whole- 
sale desertion  from  the  forces  of  the 
farm. 

Then  the  line  wavered  and  broke;  in 


206 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


COTTON   AS   IT   COMES   INTO  THE   FACTORY 

When  cotton  reaches  the  factory  in  the  bale  the  fibers  are  kinky 
and  tangled,  like  a  bunch  of  snarled  hair.  One  pound  out  of 
every  four  of  the  bale's  weight  is  due  to  the  dirt,  sand,  and  other 
foreign  substances  in  it.  Massachusetts  annually  spins  a  million 
bales  like  the  one  shown  here. 


the  thirty  years,  1880-1910,  that  followed, 
the  forest  was  able  to  retake  from  the 
field  half  of  the  territory  the  hardy 
farmer  had  won,  and  has  left  the  State 
only  a  little  more  than  a  million  acres  of 
improved  land  where  formerly  it  had 
considerably  more  than  two  million. 

Nor  is  it  to  be  doubted  that  this  year's 
census  will  show  even  larger  losses  in 
improved  land.  One  has  only  to  motor 
through  the  better  farming  communities 
to  see  thousands  of  acres  that  have  been 
abandoned  recently,  and  to  find  "For 
Sale"  signs  along  every  highway;  for 
how  few  farmers  can  withstand  the  lure 
of  $40  a  week  for  himself,  $30  for  his 
wife,  and  $25  for  his  daughter,  with 
eight  hours  a  day  for  everybody ! 


This  tremendous 
slump  in  agriculture  has 
taken  place  in  spite  of 
the  fact  that,  acre  for 
acre,  the  value  of  Mas- 
sachusetts crops  is  prob- 
ably higher  than  that  of 
any  other  State  in  the 
American  Union.  Fur- 
thermore, it  is  in  spite 
of  the  fact  that  some  of 
the  most  fertile  farming 
land  in  America  is  to  be 
found  in  the  Bay  State 
adapted  for  the  growth 
of  specialties,  seeds,  on- 
ions, etc. 

The  Massachusetts 
Agricultural  College  is 
intelligently  striving  to 
offset  the  sweep  of  the 
tide  that  is  carrying  peo- 
ple from  the  farm  to  the 
factory.  The  task  is  a 
hard  one  and  the  odds 
against  its  accomplish- 
ment are  tremendous, 
but  much  good  is  being 
done. 

Massachusetts  was  one 
of  the  first  to  appreciate 
the  advantage  of  good 
roads  and  to  undertake 
a  State-wide  program  of 
highway  construction. 
Many  millions  of  dol- 
lars have  been  spent  in 
perfecting  a  system  of  trunk  lines.  The 
result  is  that  the  whole  State  is  a  paradise 
for  the  summer  motorist,  and  tens  of 
thousands  of  Americans  gather  in  this 
vacation  land,  which  can  suit  every  taste 
and  pocketbook. 

A  statistician  has  estimated  that  sum- 
mertime visitors  swell  the  population  by 
one-fourth.  That  is  probably  an  over- 
estimate, but  it  gives  some  idea  as  to  the 
influx  of  folk  on  vacation  bent. 

HISTORIC   ASSOCIATIONS   PRESERVED 

Just  as  Massachusetts  was  a  pioneer 
in  recognizing  the  advantage  of  good 
automobile  roads,  it  was  also  the  first 
State  to  appreciate  the  development  of 
its  historic  resources.  There  are  mark- 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


207 


THE    BALE-BREAKER    AT    WORK 

After  the  bale  of  cotton  has  been  opened,  the  workmen  feed  it  into  the  machine  shown 
here.  This  machine  loosens  the  mass  and  delivers  it  to  an  endless  belt  (shown  on  the  right), 
which  carries  it  to  the  feeders  (see  page  211). 


ers  from  mountain  to  sea,  telling  in  brief 
outline  the  history  of  hallowed  spots. 
Only  those  who  have  traveled  through 
the  State  can  appreciate  the  extent  of 
this  work  or  realize  how  much  it  adds  to 
a  pilgrim's  pleasure  and  stirs  anew  the 
Americanism  within  him. 

The  irreverent  outsider  may  be  dis- 
posed to  smile  at  the  fact  that  there  is 
not  an  elm  tree  under  which  George 
Washington  is  known  to  have  stood  that 
does  not  bear  a  distinguishing  legend. 
He  may  even  think  that  the  Bay  State 
overplays  its  history. 

MASSACHUSETTS  THE  PATRON  Of 
EDUCATION 

But  it  were  more  nearly  the  truth  to 
say  that  other  States  have  underplayed 
theirs,  and  that  every  American  would 
be  a  better  American  if  all  the  States 
followed  the  example  of  Massachusetts 
in  perpetuating  the  shrines  of  history  in 
a  way  that  would  permit  every  passerby 


to  read  and  reflect  upon  the  nation's 
glorious,  heritages. 

From  its  earliest  days  the  State  has  led 
the  nation  in  matters  educational.  Here 
the  first  colonial  grammar  school  was 
established,  the  first  college,  the  first  ele- 
mentary free  school,  the  first  academy, 
the  first  high  school,  and  the  first  normal 
school. 

Call  the  roll  of  the  higher  institutions 
of  learning — Harvard  and  Holyoke,  Am- 
herst  and  Williams,  Smith  and  Wellesley, 
Tufts  and  Massachusetts  Institute  of 
Technology,  Clark  and  Radcliffe,  Clarke 
Institute  of  Northampton,  and  many 
others — and  most  of  them  will  be  found 
to  have  been  pioneers  in  their  respective 
fields  and  to  stand  today  each  for  some 
special  ideal. 

But  Massachusetts  is  entirely  demo- 
cratic in  her  educational  activities.  The 
unfavored  many  have  as  much  right  to 
their  opportunity  for  training  as  the 
fortunate  few.  High  schools  of  excep- 


208 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE  INTERMEDIATE;  PICKER,  WHICH  CONTINUES  THE  WORK  OF  CLEANING 

RAW  COTTON 

From  the  bale-breaker  the  raw  cotton  goes  through  the  feeder  to  the  opener,  and  thence 
to  the  three  "pickers,"  which  still  further  loosen  it  and  release  each  fiber  from  the  grasp  of 
its  neighboring  fibers.  The  four  "laps"  (the  round  cotton  mass)  of  cotton  on  the  machine 
are  being  combined  into  one  lap  (see  picture  on  opposite  page). 


tional  merit  are  to  be  found  in  every 
community  and  technical  schools  in  the 
larger  industrial  centers. 

In  1913  a  law  was  enacted  requiring 
every  town  without  a  high  school  of  its 
own  to  pay  tuition  in  other  towns  for  its 
high-school  pupils,  and  to  pay  their  trans- 
portation back  and  forth,  up  to  $1.50  a 
week,  thus  guaranteeing  to  every  boy 
and  girl  in  the  Commonwealth  who  de- 
sires it  a  free  high-school  education.  In 
1918  another  law  was  enacted  granting 
State  aid  to  struggling  high  schools. 

As  in  so  many  other  directions  in  the 
educational  world,  Massachusetts  was  a 
pioneer  in  exchanging  the  little  red 
school-house  on  the  hill,  with  its  un- 
graded course  of  studies,  its  untrained 
teacher,  and  its  poor  facilities,  for  the 
consolidated  school,  with  its  fewer  and 
better  teachers,  its  carefully  planned 
courses  of  study,  etc.  It  did  so  on  the 
basis  that  four  good  teachers  in  one  con- 
solidated school  could  teach  twice  as 


many  children  twice  as  much  as  eight 
poor  teachers  in  eight  little  red  school- 
houses. 

Latterly  the  children  at  distant  points 
have  been  conveyed  to  and  from  school 
at  State  expense.  It  costs  half  a  million 
dollars  a  year  to  convey  to  school  those 
children  who  do  not  live  within  walking 
distance,  but  that  is  only  a  trifle  com- 
pared to  the  advantages  which  result 
from  educating  the  20,000  children  af- 
fected. Of  this  number  nearly  half  go 
by  trolley,  nearly  a  third  by  horse-drawn 
vehicles,  and  a  fifth  by  motor  busses. 
The  figures  indicate  that  it  costs  less  to 
take  the  children  to  school  in  motor  cars 
than  in  horse-drawn  vehicles. 

But  with  all  the  progress  which  Massa- 
chusetts has  made  educationally,  there 
are  still  600  teachers  in  the  State  with 
salaries  of  less  than  $550  a  year.  Ade- 
quate pay  for  teachers  is  recognized  as 
one  of  the  first  requirements  in  any  cam- 
paign for  an  improved  education  pro- 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


209 


gram,  and  the   Bay   State   is  moving  in 
that  direction. 

THE  HOME  OF  THE  CONVEYING   MACHINE 

Massachusetts  has  long  been  preemi- 
nent in  the  development  and  introduction 
of  labor-saving  devices,  but  in  no  field 
more  so  than  in  the  evolution  of  auto- 
matic conveying  machines. 

Go  into  a  chain  drug  store,  a  large  de- 
partment store,  or  a  big  business  office, 
and  the  pneumatic  tubes  and  cash-carriers 
installed  there  probably  came  from  Mas- 
sachusetts. Very  probably  your  sterilized 
milk  is  handled  in  the  dairy  on  Massa- 
chusetts-made gravity  conveyers. 

Indeed,  at  every  turn  one  comes  into 
contact  with  something  that  has  been  car- 
ried by  these  Massachusetts  step-savers — 
mail,  shoes,  hats,  watches,  money,  books, 
hotel  food. 

Mechanical  messengers  "made  in  Mas- 
sachusetts," which  are  as  fast  as  their 
human  prototypes  are  slow,  are  found  in 
every  State.  Some  of  them  seem  to  act 
with  even  more  intelligence  than  the  lead- 
shod  messenger  of  flesh.  In  one  type 
there  may  be  a  dozen  or  more  receiving 
stations  along  its  route,  but  it  unfailingly 
carries  its  burden  to  the  one  to  which  it 
is  directed  by  the  sender. 

In  a  big  bank  the  paying  tellers  cannot 
always  tell  the  status  of  certain  accounts 
when  checks  are  presented ;  but  down  be- 
neath the  counter  of  their  cages  they  have 
pneumatic  tubes.  Into  one  of  these  the 
teller  puts  the  check  in  question ;  it  is 
conveyed  to  the  bookkeeper,  who  scrib- 
bles his  initials  of  approval  upon  it,  and 
before  the  patron  at  the  window  has  time 
to  suspect  that  the  drawer's  account  is 
being  examined,  the  check  has  been  re- 
turned to  the  teller  and  payment  is  made. 

MASSACHUSETTS    ANNUALLY    MAKES    A 

SHOE  FOR  EVERY  FOOT   IN  THE 

UNITED   STATES 

Space  forbids  even  the  enumeration  of 
the  many  services,  performed  by  gravity, 
pneumatic  and  electric  belt  carriers,  but 
millions  of  hours  of  labor,  millions  of 
dollars'  worth  of  customers'  time  are 
saved  every  day  in  America  by  "made  in 
Massachusetts"  automatic  messengers 
and  merchandise  movers. 


A  COTTON   CARD  AT  WORK 

Here  the  big  rolls  of  "Inp"  are  fed  between 
two  cylinders  which  are  covered  with  leather 
or  cloth,  studded  with  tens  of  thousands  of 
tiny  spikes.  These  barely  miss  each  other,  but 
they  comb  out  the  fibers  of  cotton  until  they 
all  lie  parallel  to  one  another  (see  page  212). 

The  story  of  the  factories  of  the  Bay 
State  is  a  narrative  of  an  astonishing 
concentration  of  human  endeavor. 

In  quantity  no  less  than  in  value  do  the 
manufactures  of  Massachusetts  amaze. 
A  boot,  shoe,  or  slipper  for  every  human 
foot  in  the  United  States;  more  cotton 
goods  than  the  whole  world  produced 
when  John  Adams  was  President ;  enough 
hosiery  to  cover  40,000  miles  of  feet  and 
legs ;  sufficient  woolen  goods  to  put  a 
twenty-foot  bandage  around  the  waist  of 
Mother  Earth — these  are  some  of  the 
yardsticks  that  measure  the  annual  ac- 
tivities of  this  beehive  of  industry. 

Of  course,  when  one  thinks  of  Massa- 
chusetts industry,  the  manufacture  of  tex- 
tiles comes  immediately  to  mind. 

Think  of  twelve  million  flying  spindles 
converting  fiber  into  yarn  and  thread, 
each  of  them  dancing  around  its  own  axis 
at  rates  varying  from  5,000  to  10,000 


210 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE  DELIVERY  END  OF  A  CARDING-MACHINE 

Here  we  see  the  "lap"  spread  out  in  gossamer-like  thinness  over  the  card  cloth.  The 
filmy  sheet  is  then  gathered  into  the  "sliver" ;  the  sliver  is  the  white  streamer  clearly  pictured 
on  the  extreme  left.  The  second  stage  in  the  conversion  of  raw  cotton  into  plain  yarn  now 
begins. 


turns  a  minute.  Placed  end  to  end,  these 
dancing  dervishes  of  the  textile  industry 
would  reach  from  Montreal,  Canada,  to 
Memphis,  Tenn. 

EIGHT    MILES    OF    COTTON    CLOTH    MADE 
EVERY    MINUTE 

Then  there  are  the  looms,  a  quarter  of 
a  million  of  them.  Put  these  cloth-mak- 
ing1 machines  together,  end  to  end,  with 
no  aisles  between  them,  and  the  weaving 
shed  required  to  house  them  would  begin 
at  Boston,  Mass.,  and  end  at  Wilmington, 
Del.  Every  third  spindle  and  loom  in  the 
United  States  is  humming  away  in  the 
cities  and  towns  of  the  Bay  State. 

Of  the  textiles,  cotton  is  first,  some 
two  billion  yards  of  woven  goods  leaving 


the  cotton  looms  every  year.  That  means 
cloth  flowing  from  machines  at  the  rate 
of  nearly  eight  miles  a  minute !  It  is  suffi- 
cient piece  goods  to  make  a  woven  belt 
long  enough  to  hitch  the  moon  to  the 
earth  and  more  than  six  feet  wide!  Of 
sheetings,  shirtings,  and  muslins  Massa- 
chusetts produces  about  thirteen  yards 
for  every  person  in  the  United  States  ;  of 
fancy  woven  material,  nearly  four  yards ; 
of  napped  fabrics,  more  than  one  yard; 
of  velvets,  corduroys,  etc.,  nearly  a  yard. 

THE    STORY    OF   A    YARD    OF    CALICO 

A  piece  of  simple  calico  seems  a  mere 
trifle;  but  the  story  of  its  manufacture  is 
an  epic  of  genius.  Followed  from  the 
raw  cotton  in  the  bale  to  the  bolt  of  cloth 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


211 


DRAWING 


SLIVERS  IN  A  COTTON  MILL,  ONE  OF  THE  STEPS  PRELIMINARY 
TO   SPINNING 


When  the  sliver  comes  from  the  card,  as  shown  in  the  preceding  picture,  it  is  received 
into  one  of  the  cans  shown  here.  Six  of  these  slivers  pass  through  the  drawing  frame,  as 
explained  on  page  214,  and  are  combined  into  one,  as  long  as  the  combined  length  of  the  six, 
but  of  the  diameter  of  one  of  the  originals.  Each  sliver  passes  through  a  number  of  drawing- 
machines,  each  time  entering  as  six  and  coming  out  united  into  one,  and  correspondingly 
lengthened. 


in  the  warehouse,  it  leads  one  a  merry 
chase  up  and  down  countless  flights  of 
stairs  and  keeps  the  mind  busy  enumerat- 
ing the  processes  involved. 

Lawrence  has  one  of  the  largest  cotton 
mills  in  the  world  and,  connected  with  it, 
the  largest  print  works  in  existence.  Let 
us  there  follow  the  processes  of  convert- 
ing cotton  into  calico.  We  shall  appre- 
ciate the  clothes  we  wear  the  more  when 
the  journey's  end  is  reached. 

When  the  cotton  comes  to  the  miU  it  is 
in  the  familiar  bales  of  commerce,  500 
pounds  to  the  bale.  After  being  opened, 
the  cotton  is  fed  to  a  machine  known  as 
the  bale-breaker.  Here  the  matted  cotton 


is  loosened  and  torn  into  small  bunches, 
which  are  delivered  to  an  endless  belt  that 
carries  them  to  the  "feeder"  (see  page 
207). 

The  feeder  is  a  machine  containing  a 
series  of  pin-studded  slats  which  carry 
the  bunches  of  cotton  in  regular  quantity 
into  the  next  machine,  known  as  the 
"opener." 

The  opener  gives  the  cotton  a  warm 
reception — a  terrific  beating,  indeed.  It 
has  a  shaft  on  which  there  are  mounted 
two  rows  of  arms.  This  shaft  revolves 
at  from  i  ,200  to  1 ,800  times  a  minute,  so 
that  the  cotton  gets  from  forty  to  sixty 
slaps  a  second.  The  result  is  that  the 


212 


THK   NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


StUBBER      MACHINES  AT  WORK  IN   A  COTTON 

In  this  picture  we  see  the  slivers  being  drawn  out  of  the  cans  on  the  right.  As  they 
pass  through  the  slubber  they  are  given  a  twist  which  makes  each  fiber  take  hold  of  its 
neighbor,  and  here  they  begin  to  acquire  tensile  strength.  They  emerge  from  the  machine 
on  bobbins  as  "roving."  The  cotton  in  the  cans  is  "sliver,"  while  that  on  the  bobbins  in  the 
foreground  is  "roving"  (see  text,  page  215).. 


sand  and  other  foreign  matter  in  the 
cotton  lose  hold.  The  opener  then  con- 
tinues the  work  of  picking  the  cotton  to 
pieces.  When  the  task  is  completed  the 
staple  is  in  tiny  tufts.  These  are  caught 
up  by  air  suction,  the  dirt  being  left  be- 
hind, and  carried  to  the  fourth  machine, 
a  "breaker  picker." 

The  breaker  picker  gives  the  tiny  tufts 
another    beating,    to    remove    persistent 


dirt,  and  then  rolls  them  together  in  a 
great  downy  sheet  on  a  rod.  This  sheet 
is  known  as  "lap"  (see  page  208). 

Four  of  these  laps  are  fed  simultane- 
ously into  a  fifth  machine,  known  as  the 
"intermediate  picker."  Still  another 
beater  plies  its  flails  upon  the  cotton  as  it 
comes  in.  The  four  laps  that  go  into  this 
machine  come  out  as  one. 

In  turn,  four  of  these  laps  are  fed  into 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


THE  FINE  ROVING  FRAMES  IN  A  MASSACHUSETTS  COTTON 

Here  we  see  another  step  in  the  long  process  of  converting  cotton  first  into  "lap"  (pages 
212  and  213),  then  into  "roving"  (page  215),  and  then  into  yarn.  The  machines  in  this 
picture  give  the  roving  the  final  stretching  and  twisting  before  it  goes  to  the  spinning  frames, 
where  it  is  converted  into  yarn  (see  text,  page  216). 


the  sixth  machine,  known  as  the  "finisher 
picker."  It  beats  the  cotton  some  more, 
and  the  four  laps  come  out  a  further  puri- 
fied single  lap,  which  looks  like  cotton 
batting — sixteen  original  laps  condensed 
into  one  (see  page  209). 

After  all  these  several  and  sundry  beat- 
ings, one  might  think  that  no  dirt  would 
remain,  but  there  are  still  some  particles 
of  leaf,  seed  pods,  etc.,  clinging  fast. 
Moreover,  the  fibers,  which  in  ordinary 
cotton  are  about  an  inch  long,  are  more 
or  less  matted. 

So  a  seventh  machine,  known  as  the 
"card,"  is  assigned  the  task  of  removing 
the  remaining  impurities,  and  of  loosen- 
ing or  separating  the  fibers,  so  that  they 
can  be  drawn  parallel  with  each  other. 
The  card  has  two  big  drums,  each  cov- 
ered with  a  wire-studded  cloth  and  re- 
volving so  as  barely  to  miss  touching  one 


another.  There  are  some  72,000  of  these 
projecting  wires  to  every  square  foot  and 
no  fiber  has  a  chance  to  escape  its  comb- 
ing. 

PREPARING   TO    MAKE  THE   THREAD 

As  it  leaves  the  big  drums  the  loose 
cotton  is  beautiful  to  behold.  Perhaps 
forty  inches  wide,  it  is  as  thin  as  the  skift 
of  snow  that  falls  on  a  late  autumn  morn- 
ing. But  promptly  it  passes  through  a 
set  of  reducing  rolls  which  convert  it  into 
a  rope  about  an  inch  in  diameter,  known 
as  a  sliver.  This  is  coiled  in  a  large  can 
about  three  feet  high  and  a  foot  in  diam- 
eter (see  page  210). 

One  might  well  think  that,  with  such  a 
great  array  of  manhandling  as  this,  the 
cotton  would  be  ready  for  weaving;  but 
in  point  of  fact  the  process  of  reducing  it 
to  yarn  is  only  barely  begun. 


214 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A   COTTON-SPINNER    KEEPING    THE   THREADS    OF    ROVING    RUNNING    PROPERLY    FROM 

BOBBIN    TO    BOBBIN 

In  spinning,  the  roving  from  the  bobbin  on  top  of  the  frame  is  fed  through  a  little  trum- 
pet, and  then  through  drawing1  rolls  which  further  stretch  the  strand  and  make  it  smaller. 
After  this  it  goes  through  a  whirling  piece  of  steel  called  the  traveler,  which  winds  it  on 
another  bobbin  and  gives  it  another  twist.  In  the  process  of  converting  raw  cotton  to  thread, 
the  cotton  fibers  pass  through  six  to  twelve  twisting-machines,  depending  on  the  quality  of 
the  thread  to  be  produced. 


The  next  step  is  to  put  the  sliver 
through  the  drawing  frames.  Six  slivers 
as  they  come  from  the  card  are  combined 
into  one  in  the  first  frame,  which  consists 
of  a  series  of  rolls,  the  last  pair  of  which 
revolve  six  times  as  fast  as  the  first  pair, 
thus  making  the  sliver  that  comes  out  of 
the  frame  six  times  as  long,  but  of  the 


same  diameter,  as  the  ones  that  went  in. 
Six  of  these  latter  slivers,  in  their  turn, 
are  fed  into  the  second  drawing  frame 
and  transformed  into  one.  The  final 
frame  takes  six  of  these,  in  turn,  and 
transforms  them  into  one  (see  page  211). 
In  other  words,  just  as  the  final  lap  is 
composed  of  sixteen  original  laps,  so  the 


MASSACHUSETTS-BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


215 


A  DOFFER  GIRL  IN  A  LAWRENCE  COTTON   MILL 

This  young  lady  takes  the  bobbins  from  the  spinning  frame  as  they  become  full  of  yarn. 
Acres  and  acres  of  fast-flying  spindles  and  whirling  bobbins  are  found  in  Massachusetts. 
All  the  bobbins,  placed  end  to  end,  would  reach  from  Montreal,  Canada,  to  Memphis, 
Tennessee. 


final  sliver  is  made  up  of' 216  original 
slivers ;  but  it  has  gained  in  length  all  that 
has  been  lost  in  diameter. 

But  up  to  date  the  sliver  is  only  a  mass 
of  parallel  fibers  and  has  no  strength 
whatever.  The  succeeding  three  opera- 
tions are  intended  to  give  it  a  certain 
amount  of  twist,  so  that  the  fibers  will 
cling  together,  while  the  size  is  reduced. 

In  the  first  of  these  operations  final 


slivers  from  the  drawing  machine  are  fed 
into  a  machine  known  as  a  "slubber."  It 
takes  these  and  simultaneously  twists  and 
stretches  them  into  one  strand,  much 
longer,  but  with  a  diameter  reduced  to 
that  of  a  clothes-line ;  this  it  winds  on  a 
headless  -  spool  bobbin.  This  resulting 
material  is  called  "roving"  (see  p.  212). 
Two  strands  of  this  roving  from  the 
slubber  are  next  twisted  and  stretched 


210 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A   SPINNING-ROOM    IN   A  LAWRENCE  COTTON    MILL 

The  cross-threads, 'or  woof,  of  cotton  goods  are  not  twisted  as  much  as  the  lengthwise, 
or  warp,  threads.  The  function  of  spinning  is  to  twist  the  fibers  together  tight  enough  to 
give  the  yarn  or  thread  the  desired  strength.  If  a  thread  be  completely  untwisted,  it  will  be 
found  to  be  nothing  more  than  a  series  of  fibers  an  inch  or  an  inch  and  a  half  long. 


into  one,  which  is  wound  on  bobbins  of 
the  "intermediate  frames." 

Two  of 'these  intermediate  rovings  in 
their  turn  are  twisted  and  stretched  into 
a  final  roving,  which  has  about  the  diam- 
eter of  the  string  which  the  grocer  uses 
in  tying  packages. 

Sixteen  laps  to  a  sliver,  216  slivers  to  a 
roving,  8  rovings  to  a  strand  of  yarn — 
27,648  doublings  from  original  lap  to 
unspun  yarn ! 

The  bobbins  containing  the  final  roving 
are  now  set  up  on  the  creels  in  the  spin- 
ning frame.  A  strand  of  the  roving  goes 
through  a  trumpet  and  then  through  a  set 
of  three  rolls  running  at  different  speeds, 
which  still  further  stretch  it,  until  it  be- 
comes the  size  of  yarn  wanted.  Next  it 
passes  through  a  small  rounded  piece  of 
steel,  called  the  "traveler,"  which  runs  at 
a  very  high  speed — sometimes  fifty  miles 


an  hour — on  a  ring,  in  the  center  of 
which  is  the  fast  revolving  spindle.  From 
the  traveler  the  yarn  is  wound  on  the 
bobbin  on  the  spindle  and  gets  the  re- 
quired twist. 

If  the  yarn  is  intended  for  "woof,"  or 
across-the-goods  thread,  it  is  wound  on 
appropriate  bobbins  and  is  ready  for  the 
loom.  The  cotton  has  passed  through 
fourteen  machines  to  reach  the  woof 
stage — seven,  up  to  and  including  the 
carding  machine,  three  drawing  machines, 
three  roving  machines,  and  the  spinning 
frame. 

MAKING  THE;  WARP  THREAD 

But  if  it  is  to  become  "warp"  thread, 
that  which  runs  lengthwise  of  the  goods, 
the  yarn  has  yet  to  go  a  considerable 
journey. 

The  bobbins  of  warp  are  taken  from 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 

ii 


217 


©  Underwood  &  Underwood 


A   WARPING-MACHINE    IN   AN    UP-TO-DATE   TEXTILE   FACTORY 

Here  is  shown  the  process  of  assembling  the  warp  threads  on  the  "loom  beam"  ready 
for  weaving  cloth.  After  the  yarn  has  been  sufficiently  twisted  to  give  it  the  required  strength 
for  warp,  it  is  wound  on  spools.  The  contents  of  these  spools,  in  turn,  are  wound  upon  the 
large  rolls  seen  in  the  foreground,  some  400  threads  to  the  roll.  These  rolls  are  placed  in  the 
creel,  or  frame  shown  at  the  left  in  this  picture,  perhaps  six  at  a  time.  There  the  threads 
are  unwound  from  them,  and,  passing  through  a  "slasher,"  or  stretching  and  drying  machine, 
they  are  consolidated  on  one  great  roll  known  as  the  loom  beam.  The  loom  beam  may  be 
seen  on  the  right.  With  its  load  of  thread,  perhaps  2,400  individual  strands,  this- loom  beam 
is  put  into  the  loom  (see  next  page,  218),  and  each  thread  through  its  particular  '"eye"  in 
the  loom  harness,  and  then  the  conversion  of  thread  into  cloth — weaving — is  ready  to  begin 
(see  text,  page  220). 


218 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


American  Woolen  Mills 


A  GROUP  OF  LOOMS  IN  A  MASSACHUSETTS 


These  are  the  machines  that  receive  the  loom  beams  shown  in  the  preceding  picture  and 
convert  the  yarn  into  cloth,  weaving  the  warp  and  the  woof  together.  In  the  simplest  woven 
goods  the  shuttles  containing  the  woof  ply  back  and  forth  across  the  loom,  passing  under 
each  alternate  warp  thread  and  over  the  others.  In  the  fancy  weaves  the  warp  may  go 
through  half  a  dozen  or  more  harnesses,  instead  of  the  two  used  in  simple  weaves. 


the  spinning  frame  and  put  on  the 
"spooler."  Here  the  yarn  is  wound  upon 
large  spools  that  hold  about  a  mile  of 
thread.  For  tying  the  ends  together,  the 
girl  in  charge  of  the  spooler  has  a  novel 
knot-maker  that  fits  in  the  palm  of  her 
left  hand.  She  takes  the  two  ends,  places 
them  across  a  little  hook,  shuts  her  hand 
and  opens  it  again,  when,  presto!  the 
knot  is  neatly  tied  and  the  ends  cut  off ! 

After  the  warp  is  wound  on  the  spools, 
three  or  four  hundred  of  the  latter  are 


set  in  a  frame  known  as  the  "warper 
creel."  These  threads  are  all  tightly 
wound,  side  by  side,  on  a  big  reel,  known 
as  a  "warper  beam." 

To  make  an  average  piece  of  goods 
forty  inches  wide  requires  about  two  to 
three  thousand  warp  threads;  if  2,000, 
five  warper  beams,  each  containing  400 
threads,  are  put  into  a  machine  known 
as  the  "slasher."  Their  yarn  is  un- 
wound and  passed  through  a  box  of  hot 
starch  and  then  around  two  copper  cylin- 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


219 


SINGEING  CLOTH    PREPARATORY  TO  PRINTING 

Before  cloth  can  be  printed,  all  the  little  knots  and  threads  and  fuzz  must  be  eliminated. 
A  machine  working  on  the  principle  of  a  lawn-mower  first  passes  over  it  and  eliminates  all 
the  knots  and  threads.  Then  the  cloth  goes  through  a  singeing-machine,  passing  over  a  gas 
flame  at  a  speed  which  permits  all  the  fuzz  to  be  burned  off,  but  which  saves  the  cloth  from 
being  scorched. 


ders  filled  with  live  steam.  Thus  starched 
and  dried — a  process  serving  to  make  the 
yarn  less  apt  to  tangle  and  less  liable  to 
injury  by  the  friction  of  the  shuttle — it 
is  wound  around  the  "loom  beam." 

When  the  housewife  uses  her  sewing- 
machine  she  has  to  "thread"  it  first.  So, 
also,  in  weaving,  the  loom  must  be 
threaded  with  the  warp.  For  plain  weav- 


ing there  are  only  two  sets  of  "needles" 
to  be  threaded.  These  are  known  as 
harness,  and  consist  of  wires  or  twine 
cords,  each  with  an  "eye"  in  the  middle. 
Each  alternate  thread  goes  through  an 
"eye"  of  one  harness,  and  the  others 
through  the  corresponding  "eyes"  of  the 
other  harness. 

Fancy  weaves  require  more  harnesses 


220 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  .MAGAZINE 


A   CLOTH-PRINTING   MACHINE):    LAWRENCE,    MASSACHUSETTS 

To  see  white  cloth  entering  one  of  these  big  presses  and  coming  out  at  a  speed  of  thou- 
sands of  yards  an  hour,  with  a  dozen  different  colors,  every  one  in  perfect  register,  is  to 
realize  how  much  science  has  done  to  give  us  attractive  clothes. 


and  complicated  threading,  but  they  need 
not  be  described  here. 

HOW    THE   CLOTH    IS   WOVEN 

In  the  weaving  process  for  plain  cloth 
the  one  harness  goes  up  as  the  other  goes 
down,  so  that  the  shuttle  with  the  woof 
passes  under  every  other  thread  and  over 
the  alternate  ones.  Next  trip  through  it 
passes  over  the  ones  it  went  under  before 
and  under  those  it  passed  over. 


When  a  new  lot  of  identical  warp  is 
to  be  put  into  the  loom,  the  slow  process 
of  threading  the  harness  is  not  resorted 
to ;  rather  the  ends  of  the  old  are  knotted 
to  the  ends  of  the  new. 

To  tie  2,000  knots  is  no  mean  job.  It 
is  performed  by  a  little  machine  that  can 
tie  240  knots  a  minute — four  a  second. 
The  ends  of  the  threads  of  the  old  warp 
are  placed  alongside  those  of  the  new 
and  the  tying  mechanism  set  in  motion. 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


221 


A   BATTERY   OF   FORTY-EIGHT    PRINTING-MACHINES    AT    WORK:    LAWRENCE, 

MASSACHUSETTS 

One  Massachusetts  cotton  mill  produces  five  hundred  miles  of  cloth  a  day,  and  a  large 
percentage  of  this  passes  through  the  printing-machines  here  shown,  said  to  be  the  largest 
group  of  its  kind  in  the  world. 


It  rattles  off  the  knots  about  as  fast  as  a 
machine-gun  pumps  out  bullets.  If  it 
fails  to  get  both  ends  properly  in  its 
grasp,  it  makes  a  second  effort.  If  this 
be  not  successful,  it  tries  a  third,  a  fourth, 
and  even  a  fifth  time.  If  it  still  fails,  it 
stops  and  refuses  to  budge  until  the  at- 
tendant gives  it  the  missing  thread. 

With  24  miles  of  looms  and  62  miles 
of  whirling  spinning-frame  bobbins,  to 
say  nothing  of  pickers,  drawing  frames, 
rovers,  and  spoolers,  and  with  an  output 
of  five  hundred  miles  of  cloth  every 
working  day,  it  is  but  natural  that  the 
Pacific  Mills  of  Lawrence  should  require 
every  device  to  prevent  defective  work. 
If  a  drawing  frame  did  not  stop  as  soon 
as  a  break  in  the  sliver  occurred,  or  a 
warper  as  soon  as  a  thread  pulled  apart, 
or  a  loom  as  soon  as  a  thread  in  the  warp 
snapped,  there  would  be  defective  ma- 


terial at  every  stage  of  the  proceeding.  So 
every  strand  passes  through  its  own  little 
guide,  which  consists  of  a  tiny  lever.  The 
moment  the  thread  breaks  this  lever  is 
released,  and  by  its  own  weight  shuts 
off  the  power  and  stops  the  machine. 

Our  cloth  is  now  woven.  It  is  known 
as  "gray"  cloth  in  the  mills,  but  at  the 
dry-goods  stores  is  called  unbleached 
muslin.  After  careful  inspection  to  lo- 
cate imperfections,  it  is  sent  to  the  print 
works. 

REMOVING  THE  Fuzz  FROM  CLOTH 

Here  it  goes  through  another  long 
series  of  operations.  In  the  first  place, 
it  must  be  made  into  great  rolls,  like  the 
paper  for  a  newspaper  press,  so  the  ends 
of  many  pieces  are  sewed  together.  This 
makes  possible  the  handling  of  many 
yards  in  one  length.  Many  operations 


222 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


STRETCHING  CLOTH   IN  THE  TENTER  IN  A   MASSACHUSETTS  PRINT  WORKS 

After  the  cloth  has  been  printed,  it  is  thoroughly  dried,  and  then  filled  with  steam,  so  as 
to  make  the  colors  "fast,"  or,  paradoxically,  to  prevent  them  from  "running."  After  that  it 
is  washed  and  dried  again,  then  starched.  Following  the  starching,  it  is  put  into  the  tenter 
frames.  These  are  about  one  hundred  feet  long  and  have  an  endless  chain  on  each  side  and 
steam  pipes  underneath.  In  them  the  cloth  is  dried  and  stretched  to  a  uniform  width. 


are  continuous,  and  to  stop  often  means 
waste. 

As  the  cloth  comes  from  the  looms  it 
has  a  loose  fuzz  all  over  the  surface,  and 
if  the  operators  tried  to  print  on  it  in  that 
condition,  they  would  get  about  the  same 
result  that  is  secured  when  trying  to 
write  on  coarse,  rough  paper  with  a 
sharp-pointed  pen — the  lint  adhering  to 
the  pen  causes  the  ink  to  spread  and 
make  blotches.  To  overcome  this  the 
cloth  is  first  put  into  a  machine  called 
the  "cotton  shear."  This  acts  like  a  lawn- 
mower,  clipping  off  all  loose  threads  and 
knots  and  trimming  the  edges. 

But  still  the  lint  adheres,  and  it  must  be 
removed  before  the  cloth  is  in  condition 
for  printing.  Whoever  has  watched  a 
housewife  singeing  a  chicken  after  pick- 
ing it  can  understand  both  the  reason  for 
and  the  method  of  singeing  the  cloth.  It 
is  passed  around  rollers  and  through  a 


gas  flame  at  just  such  a  speed  that  will 
allow  the  flames  to  burn  off  all  the  lint, 
but  will  not  let  it  scorch  the  cloth. 

From  the  singeing  machine  the  cloth 
next  goes  to  the  bleaching  kettles — kiers, 
as  they  are  known  in  the  print  works. 
Here  it  is  boiled  for  about  twelve  hours 
in  a  solution  of  caustic  soda.  Then  it  is 
washed  and  soaked  for  several  hours  in 
bins  containing  dilute  acid,  which  takes 
out  iron  rust,  stains,  etc.  It  next  gets 
another  twelve  hours  of  boiling,  another 
washing,  and  another  trip  through  a  so- 
lution of  bleaching  powder.  After  that 
it  is  put  into  a  pit  and  allowed  to  steep 
for  several  hours. 

The  effect  is  similar  to  the  sun-bleach- 
ing on  the  grass  out  in  the  door  yards  of 
our  grandmothers.  It  becomes  pure  white 
instead  of  dirty  yellow,  and  more  readily 
absorbs  the  dye  when  it  goes  through  the 
printing  machine.  Once  more  it  is  washed 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


223 


CLOTH   BEING  DELIVERED  FROM    THE  TENTER  TREATMENT 

The  cloth  is  laid  out  in  neat  folds  by  the  swinging  arm  of  this  machine,  vibrating  back 
and  forth.  It  is  then  taken  to  the  presses,  where  it  passes  between  heavy  polished  steel  rollers 
and  receives  its  ironing  (see  text,  page  225). 


and  then  dried  by  being  drawn  over  cop- 
per drums  filled  with  hot  steam,  after 
which  it  is  wound  into  big  rolls  about  the 
diameter  of  a  large  bass  drum.  It  is  now 
ready  for  printing. 

Suppose  our  piece  of  calico  is  to  be 
printed  with  a  design  of  eight  colors. 
Eight  rollers  are  etched,  and  the  eight 
pots  of  dye,  or  "color,"  mixed,  the  mix- 
tures consisting  of  gums  from  Asia  and 
Africa,  starches  from  Iowa,  and  dye- 


stuffs  from  everywhere,  boiled  and  re- 
duced to  the  consistency  of  glue. 

The  printing-machine  is  a  large  iron 
frame  supporting  a  cylinder  four  or  five 
feet  wide.  Arranged  around  it  are  the 
copper  rollers,  each  ready  to  put  on  its 
color  as  the  cylinder  revolves,  bearing 
the  cloth  to  each  in  turn. 

Each  of  the  eight  rollers  runs  in  its 
own  particular  pan  of  color.  A  revolv- 
ing brush  spreads  the  color  on  the  rollers, 


224 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


FOLDING  FINISHED  PRINT  GOODS:  LAWRENCE,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Here  the  cloth  is  folded  in  layers  a  yard  long.    Forty  yards  make  a  bolt,  and  this  is  cut  off 
and  folded  by  hand.    It  is  then  ready  for  market. 


and  a  sharp  knife  scrapes  off  all  except 
that  which  is  left  in  the  little  groove 
etched  for  the  part  in  the  pattern.  As 
the  roller  comes  into  contact  with  the 
cloth  the  color  is  transferred  to  its  proper 
place. 

From  roller  to  roller  the  cloth  passes, 
until  it  has  received  its  full  assortment  of 
colors,  each  in  its  exact  place,  and  with 
the  base  coloi*  added  last. 

The  color  must  be  dried  in  the  cloth,  so 
it  is  passed  over  a  series  of  steam-filled 


drums,  then  put  into  iron  boxes  filled 
with  live  steam. 

But  even  now  your  handful  of  cotton 
has  not  become  your  yard  of  calico.  The 
cloth  must  be  washed  and  dried  and 
passed  through  boxes  of  hot  starch. 

It  is  put  into  a  tenter- frame  and 
stretched  and  dried.  This  frame  is  about 
a  hundred  feet  long,  underlaid  with 
steam-pipes.  On  each  side  is  an  endless 
chain  having  clips  which  grip  the  edges 
and  stretch  the  cloth  to  a  uniform  width. 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


225 


I 


Then  follows  the 
ironing  process.  To 
iron  four  or  five  mil- 
lion yards  of  cloth  a 
week  would  be  too 
much  of  a  task  for 
even  a  regiment  of 
laundresses ;  so  great 
presses  having  pol- 
ished steel  rollers  are 
employed.  They  put 
a  tremendous  amount 
of  mechanical  "elbow 
grease"  on  the  fab- 
ric, and  as  it  comes 
through  this  fi  n  a  1 
stage  it  is  ready  to 
make  its  bow  as  "fin- 
ished" calico. 

Finally,  it  is  me- 
chanically measured 
and  cut  into  forty- 
yard  lengths,  after 
which  it  is  folded  into 
the  shape  one  sees  it 
in  the  dry-goods 
stores. 

A  long  story,  this 
converting  cotton  into 
calico !  Forty  differ- 
ent machines  to  pass 
through,  for  a  kind  of 
cloth  that  before  the 
war  became  so  cheap 
as  to  lose  caste  as 
dress  goods. 

The  processes  of 
spinning  yarn  and 
weaving  goods  in  the 
wool  industry  are  not 
dissimilar  to  those 
employed  in  the  cot- 
ton mills,  though  the 
preparation  of  the  wool  is  different  in 
that  before  it  can  be  used  it  must  first  be 
scoured  to  get  the  grease  out  of  it. 

The  total  output  of  the  looms  of  Mas- 
sachusetts, in  pure  woolens,  amounts  to 
about  115,000,000  square  yards  a  year — 
enough  to  make  a  blanket  a  mile  wide  and 
thirty-seven  miles  long.  This  is  more 
than  a  third  of  all  the  woolens  made  in 
the  United  States.  In  addition,  the  State 
produces  almost  as  much  more  goods  that 
are  either  a  mixture  of  cotton  and  wool 
or  have  cotton  warp  and  wool  filling. 


DYEING  CLOTH   IN   A  LAWRENCE   if  ILL 

Goods  are  given  their  color  in  three  ways:  Some  goods  are  dyed 
in  the  yarn,  so  that  fancy  patterns  can  be  made  by  the  weaving 
process.  Others  are  dyed  in  the  piece;  these  are  solid  color  goods. 
Still  others  are  printed  by  processes  explained  elsewhere  in  this 
article  (see  text,  page  223). 


Silk  differs  from  cotton  and  wool  in  its 
preparation,  in  that  it  is  a  long  thread  and 
not  a  short  fiber.  In  the  article  entitled 
"The  Industrial  Titan  of  America,"  in 
the  May,  1919,  number  of  THE;  GEO- 
GRAPHIC, the  story  of  silk  up  to  the  weav- 
ing stage  was  told. 

MASSACHUSETTS  SILKS 

Holyoke,  Massachusetts,  is  the  home 
of  what  is  perhaps  the  purest  silk  goods 
made  in  America.  Though  the  prices  of 
raw  silk  have  risen  from  $4  to  $12  a 


226 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


CARDED  WOOL  IN  A  MASSACHUSETTS  WOOLEN  FACTORY 

There  are  two  objects  in  combing  wool:  first,  to  straighten  the  fibers  and  lay  them  parallel 
to  one  another,  and,  second,  to  eliminate  the  short  fibers.  The  long  fibers  are  used  in  the 
higher-grade  yarns. 


pound,  and  the  temptation  everywhere  is 
to  "load"  it  with  tin,  so  that  much  of  the 
silk  goods  one  buys  today  has  more  metal 
than  fiber  in  it,  and  consequently  "cuts" 
and  wilts  away  in  a  manner  very  disap- 
pointing to  the  wearer,  a  few  manufac- 
turers still  adhere  to  the  production  of 
"unweighted"  silks. 

Pure  silk  is  one  of  the  most  durable  of 
all  cloths.  One  may  judge  of  its  lasting 
qualities  from  the  experience  of  a  Massa- 


chusetts manufacturer  whose  silks  are 
known  everywhere.  A  half  century  ago 
his  little  mill,  nestling  close  to  the  eastern 
slope  of  the  Berkshire  Hills,  was  caught 
in  a  flood  that  carried  it  away.  To  this 
day  little  bobbins  of  the  silk  from  that 
mill  are  sometimes  upturned  by  the  plows 
of  the  farmers  in  the  valley  below.  The 
wood  of  the  bobbin  has  rotted  away,  but 
the  silk  fiber  remains  as  strong  as  the  day 
it  was  wound. 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


227 


Photograph  from  American  Woolen  Company 
A  WOOL-COMBING   MACHINE   IN   OPERATION 

Here  the  fibers  are  being  combed  out  and  placed  parallel,  ready  for  the  twisting  that 

converts  wool  into  yarn. 


Do  pure  silks  cost  much  in  these  days 
of  skyrocketing  prices?  With  the  raw 
silk  at  $12  a  pound  and  the  throwing, 
dyeing,  and  weaving  all  done  by  wage- 
earners  who  command  the  best  wages 
paid  in  the  entire  textile  industry,  it  could 
hardly  be  otherwise.  But  the  woman  who 
demands  the  silk  as  the  worm  spun  it 
never  knows  what  it  is  to  have  silk  "cut." 
She  can  distinguish  the  pure  from  the 
"loaded"  silk  by  the  simple  test  of  putting 
a  match  to  a  tiny  piece  of  it.  If  it  burns 
quickly  and  cleanly,  leaving  a  soft,  gray- 
ish-black ash,  it  is  pure  silk.  If  it  smoul- 
ders like  punk,  leaving  a  red,  gritty  ash, 
it  is  "loaded"  with  tin. 

ENOUGH  SHOES  TO  COVER  1,000  ACRES 

The  American  people  would  either  be  a 
very  poorly  shod  folk  or  else  would  have 


to  import  vast  quantities  of  footwear,  if 
it  were  not  for  Massachusetts.  Two  out 
of  every  five  Americans  one  meets  are 
shod  with  Bay  State  shoe  leather.  The 
men  of  the  nation  wear  more  shoes  than 
the  women,  and  the  factories  of  the  Pil- 
grim Commonwealth  produce  propor- 
tionately more  shoes  for  men.  If  all  the 
shoes  manufactured  in  the  Bay  State 
every  year  were  set  side  by  side  and  end 
to  end,  they  would  cover  nearly  a  thou- 
sand acres  of  ground. 

To  satisfy  the  demands  for  footwear, 
Massachusetts  has  to  make  heavy  drafts 
upon  the  animal  world.  The  shoe  manu- 
facturers of  the  State  usually  carry  in 
stock  the  skins  of  more  than  135,000 
kangaroos  and  wallabies  and  a  third  of  a 
million  high-grade  sheepskins.  Nearly 
3,000,000  goats  and  kids  go  to  the  slaugh- 


228 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


DRAWING      WOOL  IN  A  LAWRENCE  WOOLEN   MILL 

In  the  transformation  of  combed  wool  into  unspun  yarn  it  is  passed  through  from  six  to 
nine  machines,  each  of  which  unites-  many  slivers  of  its  predecessor  into  one  of  its  own. 
For  instance,  in  the  first  machine  six  slivers  are  united  into  one,  stretching  one  yard  into 
eight  yards.  In  each  drawing  that  follows  a  number  of  the  next  preceding  slivers  are  con- 
solidated into  one  and  drawn  out,  so  it  often  happens  that  a  single  strand  of  worsted  yarn 
is  the  consolidated  and  drawn-out  product  of  hundreds  of  thousands  of  original  slivers  as 
they  came  from  the  wool-combing  machine.  One  inch  of  original  sliver  may  share  in  the 
making  of  several  miles  of  thread. 


ter  pen  every  twelve  months  to  give 
milady  shoes  for  her  dainty  feet.  A  mil- 
lion ordinary  sheep  and  lamb  skins  and  as 
many  more  calfskins  represent  the  nor- 
mal stock  of  Massachusetts  manufac- 
turers, to  say  nothing  of  the  thousands  of 
hides  that  come  from  cattle  and  horses. 


It  is  a  far  cry  from  the  village  cobbler 
who  pegged  his  life  away  over  his  lasts  to 
the  Massachusetts  factory  with  its  thou- 
sands of  hands,  its  scores  of  processes,  its 
dozens  of  kinds  of  machines,  and  its  mil- 
lions of  shoes. 

At  Brockton  one  may  see  more  shoes 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


229 


Photograph  from  American  Woolen  Company 
INSPECTING  THE  FINISHED  CLOTH  IN  A  WOOLEN   MILL 

In  weaving  it  is  inevitable  that  threads  occasionally  break  and  that  knots  appear.  Expert 
menders  go  over  the  cloth  yard  by  yard  and  mile  by  mile,  with  eagle  eyes,  for  defects  that 
they  mend  with  astonishing  speed  and  skill. 


being  made  than  in  any  other  city  on  the 
globe.  It  is  interesting  to  journey  there 
and  see  how  modern  men  are  shod. 

First  of  all,  it  will  be  discovered  that 
Brockton  is  preeminently  the  man's  shoe 
town.  Lynn  claims  first  place  in  the 
manufacture  of  woman's  shoes,  and 
Haverhill  prides  itself  upon  being  the 
slipper  city  of  the  world. 

Being  the  greatest  shoe-wearing  as  well 
as  the  leading  shoe-producing  country  in 


the  world,  the  American  market  is  such  a 
large  one  that  not  only  do  cities  specialize 
in  types  of  shoes,  but  manufacturers 
carry  the  specialization  even  further. 
Massachusetts  makes  more  shoes  than 
Great  Britain  or  Germany  and  has  an  ex- 
port trade  that  reaches  ninety  countries 
and  colonies. 

Following  a  stream  of  shoes  through  a 
factory  from  uncut  leather  to  ready-to- 
wear  product  may  be  rather  a  long  ram- 


230 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Leon  H.  Abdalian 
CUTTING  "UPPERS"  SHOE  LEATHER  IX  A  MASSACHUSETTS  FACTORY 

The  average  American  wears  three  pairs  of  shoes  a  year.    Massachusetts  makes  nearly  half 
of  them.    For  the  pedigree  of  a  shoe  see  text  below. 


ble,  but  the  trip  shows  to  what  perfection 
the  Yankee  shoemaker  has  carried  the  art 
of  quantity  production. 

FOLLOWING  A  SHOE  THROUGH  A  BROCKTON 
; FACTQRY 

Before  going  on  this  pilgrimage,  which 
is  in  a  factory  making  a  specialty  of  welt 
shoes,  it  must  be  remembered  that  there 
are  four  general  types  of  footwear,  ac- 
cording to  the  manner  in  which  the  soles 
are  attached  to  the  "uppers."  The  lead- 
ing type  is  the  welt.  It  has  a  small  strip 
of  leather  sewed  fast,  first  to  the  upper, 
and  then  to  the  sole,  so  that  upper  and 
sole  are  not  joined  directly.  Welt  soles 
are  used  mainly  in  higher-grade  men's 
and  boys'  shoes  and  in  women's  walking 
shoes. 

The  McKay  sewed  shoe  is  the  second 
type.  In  it  the  sole  is  sewed  directly  to 
the  upper.  The  cheaper  grades  of  stiff- 
soled  sewed  shoes  are  made  by  this 
method. 

The  turned  shoe  is  the  third  type.     In 


it  the  sole  is  joined  to  the  upper  with  the 
whole  shoe  inside  out,  then  turned. 
Women's  pliable-soled  shoes  are  made  in 
this  fashion. 

The  nailed,  pegged,  or  screwed-on  <sole 
represents  the  fourth  type  and  goes 
with  cheaper  grades  of  shoes. 

A  merchant  in  Bethesda,  Maryland, 
say,  has  sent  to  the  factory  we  are  to 
visit  an  order  for  ten  dozen  pairs  of 
shoes.  After  the  order  is  entered  upon 
the  records  four  sets  of  tags  are  made 
out.  One  set  goes  to  the  uppers  ma- 
terial department,  another  to  the  uppers 
stitching  department,  the  third  to  the 
sole-leather  department,  and  the  fourth 
to  the  making  department. 

A  MASTER  HIDE-MEASURING  MACHINE 

As  uppers  leather  comes  into  the  fac- 
tory it  has  the  irregular  outlines  of  a  hide 
or  skin,  as  indented  as  the  coast  of  Maine, 
and  by  hand  could  be  measured  only  by 
a  master  of  trigonometry,  through  a  long 
process  of  calculations,  but  a  machine 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 
il /     f      /     ^ 


231 


Photograph  by  Leon  H.  Abdalian 

WHERE  "UPPERS"  MEET  AND  ARE  JOINED  TO  THEIR  "SOLE-MATES"  IN  A 

SHOE  FACTORY 

If  all  the  American  people  wore  hand-made  shoes,  as  they  did  in  Washington's  time,  at  least 
two  million  men  would  be  required  to  keep  the  nation  shod. 


has  been  invented  that  can  calculate 
more  areas  in  half  a  minute  than  a 
mathematician  could  in  half  a  day.  The 
hide  or  skin  is  fed  through  this  device 
as  cloth  through  a  clothes-wringer,  and 
a  hand  on  a  dial  above  points  to  the 
number  of  square  feet  in  it,  just  as  the 
hand  on  a  catch-penny  weighing-machine 
points  to  the  number  of  pounds  the  per- 
son on  the  platform  weighs. 

"How  much  leather  does  this  skin  con- 


tain?" queries  the  operator,  in  effect. 
"Zip,  zip,  zip,"  it  answers,  as  its  pointer 
turns  to  9.9  feet.  Saying  "Jack  Robin- 
son" takes  longer  than  measuring  a  hide 
in  this  factory.  The  machine  is  so  deli- 
cate that  it  has  to  be  adjusted  to  tem- 
perature every  day. 

It  would  be  tedious  to  note  every  person 
engaged,  every  machine,  and  every  proc- 
ess in  the  making  of  a  fur  o*  shoes,  for 
that  would  introduce  ntty  machines,  a 


232 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  from  Waltham  Watch  Company 
CUTTING  MAINSPRINGS  IN  A  MASSACHUSETTS  WATCH  FACTORY 

A  single  Massachusetts  factory  makes  fourteen  tons  of  these  tiny  springs  a  year.  The 
variation. of  even  1/500  of  an  inch  in  the  thickness  of  the  mainspring  will  affect  the  time- 
keeping qualities  of  a  good  watch. 


hundred  people,  and  two  hundred  proc- 
esses, and  serve  to  confuse  the  most  pa- 
tient reader,  so  only  the  salient  features 
of  the  shoe's  journey  through  the  factory 
will  claim  attention. 

In  the  linings  department  are  big  ma- 
chines that  cut  uppers  cloth,  twenty  to 
forty  thicknesses  at  a  clip,  as  easily  as  a 
cake-cutter  cuts  dough. 

Beyond  is  the  uppers  leather  depart- 
ment. Here  a  trained  man,  with  stubby 
bladed,  razor-edge  knife,  takes  the  skin, 
lays  it  on  his  cutting  board,  and,  running 
his  knife  around  his  several  aluminum 
patterns,  cuts  out  vamp  and  quarter  and 
toe  piece  with  accomplished  art  in  getting 
the  maximum  of  pieces  out  of  the  mini- 
mum of  skins.  When  he  has  finished 


with  a  skin  it  looks  like  shapeless  strings 
bordering  a  series  of  irregular  holes. 

In  cheaper  grades  of  shoes  the  leather 
also  is  cut  by  "dinking"  machines — me- 
chanical cake-cutters  applied  to  shoe- 
making.  Only  one  ply  is  cut  at  a  time, 
but  there  are  series  of  dies  for  the  dif- 
ferent parts. 

After,  the  quarters,  vampSj  toe  caps, 
«tc.,  have  been  cut  the  leather  must  be 
"skived,"  so  as  to  prevent  any  raw  edges 
showing  in  the  finished  shoe.  The  edges 
are  fed  through  a  machine  that  shaves 
the  unfinished  side  down  to  a  bevel.  This 
is  then  covered  with  cement  and  the  thin 
edges  folded  over,  much  as  a  seamstress 
lays  a  hem. 

There  are  some  twenty-odd  parts  in 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


232 


Photograph  by  Leon  H.  Abdalian 
REPAIRING  BALANCE-WHEELS   IN   A   MASSACHUSETTS   WATCH    FACTORY 

The  balance-wheel  must  divide  time  correctly,  to  the  infinitesimal  fraction  of  a  second. 
It  plies  back  and  forth  nearly  half  a  million  times  a  day.  To  make  one  of  these  wheels  re- 
quires some  six  hundred  detailed  operations. 


the  upper  of  a  button  shoe  and  more  in 
a  lace  shoe.  To  have  each  bit  of  lining 
and  each  piece  of  leather  meet  its  respect- 
ice  seam-fellow  and  counterpart,  at  the 
proper  moment,  in  the  stitching  depart- 
ment, is  a  task  for  the  organizer. 

The  linings  go  from  the  assembly 
room  to  be  transformed  from  individual 
pieces  into  the  canvas  counterpart  of  the 
leather  upper.  The  quarters  are  joined 


at  the  back  and  stayed  with  a  reinforce- 
ment. The  vamps  are  cemented  into 
shape  ready  for  inclusion  in  the  finished 
upper. 

The  tips  go  to  the  toe-cap  room,  where 
they  are  perforated  at  the  edge  to  give 
them  a  pleasing  appearance  on  the  foot 
of  the  wearer.  Fourteen  different  proc- 
esses are  required  to  transform  a  piece 
of  tip  leather  into  a  finished  cap,  with 


wfc 


<a"§?8 

-^  X   M-p   >. 
.I    0,    05    C    _ 


X*  C3  w  rt  o 

<      .£  £  C  g 

-  -  si  c  -1: 

x  W  o  £;  o  <—> 


<     § 

^  >; 


04  'iS  '<«   "  ^S 

5  c  c^'c 
o     o  o  </.•  rt 

?     c.  c      io 

0.*^ 


g,8fl 


p  *r  « 
c  _S  *"*  o 


5        *o      B  ' 

:    j=  o  cu  g 

f  )       -       i  .      VH 


•  Si  ° 


^-     O     rt 


-    <U  "^     r-» 
^S     rt     S 


rt 


Cfl     tlfi   W5     p  ^  ^ 

£    en    }5    0^  2 

r!  t>  ;  i  i_     -— 


*-(-!      (U      ^   ' 

O  -~  rt 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


235 


GEOGRAPHIC  PAPER  MATERIAL  READY  FOR  CONVERSION   INTO  PULP 

The  wood  from  which  THE  GEOGRAPHIC  paper  is  made  is  first  converted  into  chips.  It 
is  then  put  into  huge  steel  digesters,  where,  with  the  use  of  chemicals  and  under  a  high 
steam  pressure,  it  is  converted  into  pulp,  much  as  the  juices  of  the  stomach  digest  food.  The 
digesters  are  directly  under  these  bins,  and  are  filled  by  pulling  a  slide  at  the  bottom  of  the 
bins.  Both  acids  and  alkalis  are  used  in  converting  wood  into  pulp.  In  general  practice, 
sulphurous  acid  is  used  in  treating  the  long-leaf,  coniferous  woods,  having  the  longer  fibers, 
such  as  spruce,  hemlock,  and  fir,  and  caustic  soda  in  treating  the  broad-leaf  woods,  such 
as  poplar  and  chestnut,  having  the  shorter  fibers. 


its  box  to  hold  the  shape  of  the  shoe 
and  canvas  lining  to  protect  the  hose  of 
the  wearer. 

It  is  interesting  to  pause  in  the  button- 
hole department  and  there  watch  a  ma- 
chine cutting  and  working  buttonholes  in 
one  operation,  and  another  putting  the 
eyelets  and  hooks  in  a  shoe  more  quickly 
than  one  can  tell  about  it. 

The  next  step  in  the  journey  is  that 
of  joining  the  quarters  and  vamp.  This 
must  be  done  with  great  care,  so  that 
there  is  neither  unevenness  nor  rough- 
ness. It  is  the  most  difficult  task  in  the 
making  of  the  upper  of  a  shoe.  Judg- 
ment and  care  are  required  and  much 
strength  of  hand-. ..  Other  minor  processes 
follow,  and  presently  the  finished  upper 


fares  forth  to  meet  its  sole-mate  in  the 
making  department.  Before  it  goes,  if 
it  be  a  laced  upper,  a  girl  puts  it  through 
a  machine  that  laces  it  up  and  ties  it  in 
the  twinkling  of  an  eye — a  machine  that 
would  be  a  glorious  aid  to  a  fat  man. 

JOINING  THE  UPPER  TO  THE  SOLE 

Preparatory  to  its  alliance  with  the 
sole,  the  upper  is  lasted.  The  insole  has 
been  tacked  on  the  last,  and  the  upper  is 
now  pulled  tightly  over  the  last  with  a 
machine  that  has  pincers  which  act  like 
human  fingers.  They  draw  the  whole 
upper  in  tightly  over  the  last,  so  that 
there  is  not  a  wrinkle  left,  and  tack  it 
down  on  the  bottom.  The  toe  and  heel 


236 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A  CORNER  OF  THE  BEATER-ROOM,  WHERE  THE  DIGESTED  WOOD  IS  FURTHER  TREATED 
BEFORE  BECOMING  READY  FOR  CONVERSION  INTO  PAPER 

In  this  room  digested  spruce  wood,  treated  with  sulphur  fumes,  and  digested  poplar 
wood,  treated  with  caustic  soda,  are  mixed — the  one  to  give  strength  and  the  other  bulk  to 
the  paper,  long-fibered  wood  making  strong  paper  just  as  long-staple  cotton  makes  strong 
cloth.  Clay,  used  for  filler,  and  other  materials  are  then  added,  and  the  mass  is  thoroughly 
beaten  and  mixed  and  brought  to  a  proper  consistency  for  use  in  the  paper-making  machines. 


require  a  little  extra  attention  and  are 
held  down  by  a  piece  of  fine  wire. 

The  lasted  shoe  next  goes  through  a 
trimming  machine  that  removes  all  sur- 
plus leather,  while  a  mechanical  hammer 
pounds  the  leather  smooth.  Then  it  goes 
to  another  machine,  where  the  toes  and 
heels  are  beaten  smooth,  making  the  shoe 
ready  for  welting. 

The  welt  is  so  prepared  that  it  can  be 
sewed  to  the  insole  and  the  upper  in  one 
sewing,  and  later  have  the  outsole  sewed 
to  it.  After  the  joining  of  insole  and  up- 
per to  the  welt,  the  shoe  is  passed  through 
the  inseam  trimming-machine.  Next  it 
goes  to  a  machine  where  a  small  hammer 
gives  the  welt  a  terrific  beating.  The 
insole  and  welt  are  then  covered  with 
rubber  cement,  as  is  the  waiting  sole. 
When  this  has  dried  slightly,  the  sole  is 


laid  on  and  the  shoe  is  put  into  a  press- 
ing-machine, where  the  cement  dries. 

Next  it  goes  to  the  rough  rounding- 
machine,  which  rounds  sole  and  welt, 
allowing  them  to  extend  out  from  the 
upper  at  all  points.  Looking  at  the  shoe 
on  your  foot,  you  will  see  that  this  ex- 
tension is  less  at  the  shank  than  at  the 
ball,  and  less  on  the  outer  side  than  on 
the  inner  side  of  the  foot.  The  rough 
rounding-machine  also  cuts  a  little  groove 
around  the  bottom  of  the  sole  for  the 
purpose  of  receiving  and  covering  the 
stitching,  to  follow.  The  welt  extends 
back  only  to  the  heel.  The  latter  has  no 
welt,  but  is  stitched  directly  and  has  its 
own  special  treatment. 

One  could  write  much  more,  telling  of 
the  preparation  of  the  soles ;  how  they 
are  rolled  under  tremendous  pressure  to 


1  |s  If  1 

•^       83  3  -;  ~ 


^T)rt'o 
••  ce   2 


i  W     *^ 


238 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


IN  THE  COATING-ROOM 

This  picture  shows  the  rolls  of  paper  made  on  the  machine  shown  on  page  237,  just 
starting  on  the  coating-machines.  The  paper  passes  through  a  bath  of  coating  material ;  then 
through  felt-covered  rolls ;  then  between  vibrating  brushes,  which  lay  the  coating  material 
evenly  and  smoothly  on  the  paper.  It  then  passes  out  at  the  left  into  the  drying-room  (see 
following  illustration). 


THE  DRYING-ROOM   IN  THE  COATING   MILL  AT  LAWRENCE,   MASS. 

After  the  paper  has  received  its  coating  from  the  coating-machine  shown  in  the  previous 
picture,  it  passes  in  a  continuous  web  to  the  drying-room.  Blasts  of  hot  air  coming  out  of 
galvanized  ducts  beneath  support  it  for  a  distance  of  100  feet,  until  it  reaches  the  drying- 
chamber  in  the  rear  of  the  room.  Here  it  hangs  in  festoons  much  like  those  of  cotton  cloth 
shown  on  page  219.  In  the  picture  the  paper  is  passing  from  right  to  left.  After  leaving  the 
drying-room  it  is  wound  on  rolls,  as  shown  in  the  next  picture. 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


239 


PAPER  READY   FOR  THE  CALENDER  PRESSES  , 

This  picture  shows  the  paper  after  it  has  been  coated  and  dried,  as  shown  on  page  238, 
and  is  being  rolled  at  the  end  of  the  coating-machine.  It  is  now  ready  to  be  sent  to  the  big 
presses  which  calender  it  (or  iron  it,  as  popular  parlance  would  have  it).  The  pictures 
on  pages  238  and  239  show  a  continuous  process  over  a  single  machine ;  but,  on  account  of 
the  length  of  the  machine,  the  process  is  illustrated  in  sections. 


solidify  the  leather,  just  as  the  village 
cobbler  beats  them  under  his  wide-faced 
hammer;  or  of  the  heeling-machine,  that 
sets  the  heel  in  place  and  drives  all  of 
the  nails  at  one  operation;  or 'of  the 
counter-making  machines,  that  give  stiff- 
ness to  the  spur  piece  of  the  heel. 

One  shoe  factory  in  Massachusetts  has 
a  daily  output  of  14,000  pairs,  each  pair 
marching  through  the  factory  in  four- 
teen days  in  ordinary  times. 

THE  PECULIAR  LANGUAGE  OF  THE  SHOE 
FACTORY 

The  industry  has  its  own  peculiar  par- 
lance. A  "cripple  girl"  is  not  crippled  at 
all.  Rather  she  looks  after  the  "cripples," 
as  defective  parts  of  a  shoe  are  known. 


"Vamping"  has  nothing  whatever  to  -do 
with  the  activities  of  sirens,  but  is  only 
the  process  of  joining  the  vamps  and 
quarters  to  the  shoe.  "Blackball"  doesn't 
relate  to  club  proceedings,  but  rather  to 
a  mixture  of  grease  and  lampblack  for 
blacking  the  edges  of  shoe  soles.  A 
"cack"  is  an  infant's  shoe,  and  a  "pac"  a 
duplicate  of  an  Indian  moccasin.  An 
"iron"  is  a  unit  of  thickness  in  sole 
leather,  and  a  "lift"  is  one  thickness  of 
leather  in  the  heel.  A  "nullifier"  is  a 
shoe  for  house  wearj  having  a  high  vamp 
and  quarter,  dropping  low  at  the. sides, 
with  a  short  rubber  goring. 

It  would  be  idle  to  attempt  in  a  few 
paragraphs  to  describe  the  hundreds  of 
processes  and  the  scores  of  intricate 


240 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC   MAGAZINE 


A  BATTERY  OF  CALENDER  PRESSES  AT  WORK  FINISHING  MAGAZINE  PAPER 

After  the  coated  paper  has  been  dried  and  put  into  rolls,  as  shown  in  the  preceding  pic- 
tures, it  is  brought  to  the  room  shown  here.  A  roll  is  put  in  the  reel  at  the  man's  shoulder 
in  the  foreground  and  started  through  the  machine.  It  passes  between  the  two  top  rollers, 
and  then  in  and  out  between  the  succeeding  rollers,  until  it  reaches  the  bottom.  Many  tons' 
pressure  have  ironed  it  before  it  comes  out  and  is  rolled  up  again.  This  process  gives  it  the 
finish  that  the  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  must  have  to  maintain  its  high  standard. 


machines  employed  in  the  making  of 
watches ;  but  to  visit  a  great  Massa- 
chusetts watch  factory  and  there  to  see 
some  of  the  operations  of  making  a  good 
timepiece  is  to  behold  the  highest  de- 
velopment in  mechanical  accuracy  and 
quantity  production. 

STEEL    HAIRSPRINGS    WORTH    $49,OOO  A 
POUND 

Here  one  sees  alloy  steel  wire  worth 
five  dollars  a  pound  being  converted  into 


hairsprings,  some  so  delicate  that  they 
are  worth  $49,000  a  pound.  There  a 
machine  is  taking  in  steel  wire  and  turn- 
ing out  microscopic  screws  with  perfect 
heads  and  threads  and  slots,  yet  so  small 
that  the  ordinary  eye  wants  a  magnifying 
glass  to  perceive  that  they  are  aught  but 
specks  of  steel.  In  another  place  is  a 
machine  which  transforms  bare  blanks 
into  completely  bored  movement  plates 
without  the  interposition  of  a  human 
hand. 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


241 


THE  ASSORTING-ROOM   IX  THE  PAPER  MILL 

After  the  paper  has  been  calendered,  the  big  rolls  are  put  into  a  cutting-machine  that 
cuts  the  continuous  roll  into  sheets  of  the  desired  size.  These  are  then  examined,  sheet  by 
sheet,  by  the  women  shown  in  the  picture.  All  perfect  sheets  are  put  into  one  pile  and  the 
imperfect  ones  are  placed  in  another  pile.  The  perfect  sheets  are  then  ready,  after  trimming, 
for  the  presses  of  the  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC. 


To  see  a  skilled  hairspring-maker  take 
three  little  pieces  of  flat  wire  and  coil 
them  together  with  the  aid  of  a  pencil- 
like  rod  slotted  at  the  end,  putting  the 
coil  into  a  tiny  copper  case  just  large 
enough  for  the  reception  of  the  untem- 
pered  spring,  looks  so  easy  that  one 
thinks  that  anybody  could  do  it;  but  on 
the  day  that  a  GEOGRAPHIC  representative 
was  studying  the  factory  in  question  the 
foreman  of  the  department  in  charge  of 
hairsprings  said  to  the  secretary  of  the 
establishment,  "I  took  two  new  girls  on 
yesterday.  One  of  them  got  one  spring 
wound  yesterday  and  one  today,  but  the 
other  has  not  succeeded  in  getting  a  single 
spring  into  the  tempering  box."  Yet  so 
skilled  do  the  women  spring-winders  be- 
come that  an  expert  can  finish  one  every 
few  minutes. 

There  are  three  slots  in  the  end  of  the 
winder.  Into  one  of  these  goes  the  alloy 


steel  wire  that  is  to  constitute  the  hair- 
spring. Into  the  others  go  soft  steel 
wires  of  corresponding  dimensions.  Be- 
tween the  steel  wires  is  sandwiched  the 
one  of  alloy. 

The  little  copper  .boxes  are  then  sent 
to  the  annealing  furnace  and  heat-treated. 
When  this  process  is  finished  the  soft 
wires  are  thrown  away,  leaving  the  alloy 
wire  a  perfectly  wrought  hairspring,  the 
price  of  the  smallest  of  which  is  seven 
dollars  a  dozen,  or  more  than  a  hundred 
times  their  weight  in  gold. 

SCREWS   SO    SMALL   THAT    5O,OOO   MAKE   A 
THIMBLEFUL 

But,  tiny  as  they  are,  these  infinitesimal 
springs  must  impart  to  the  balance-wheels 
of  the  watches  they  regulate  432,000  im- 
pulses a  day,  and  must  measure  time  cor- 
rectly, down  to  an  astonishingly  small 
fraction. 


242 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


The  machine  that  makes  the  tiny  watch 
screw  is  a  marvel  of  mechanism.  In  the 
morning  it  is  given  a  long  steel  rod  of 
small  diameter,  and  is  then  left  to  its 
own  resources.  Now  a  tiny  section  is 
turned  into  the  shape  of  a  finished  screw  ; 
then  the  thread  is  cut ;  next  the  slot  is 
cut  in  the  head,  and  finally  a  mechanical 
hand  deposits  it  in  a  bath  of  oil,  where  it 
stays  until  fished  out  with  a  tiny  steel 
net  like  a  tea-strainer.  A  sharp  eye  is 
required  to  recognize  it  as  a  screw.  It 
would  take  50,000  of  them  to  make  a 
thimbleful. 

A  WIZARD  OF  MACHINERY 

j 

The    most    dramatic    machine    in   this  ; 
veritable  maze  of  intricate  and  wonder- 
working mechanisms  is  that  which  makes 
the  lower  movement  plates. 

On  one  side  is  a  magnified  dime  savings 
bank,  mounted  so  that  the  "blanks"  it 
contains  will  present  themselves  one  by 
one  at  the  bottom.  A  mechanical  hand 
reaches  over,  and,  taking  one  of  these 
blanks,  gives  it  to  the  first  part  of  the 
mechanism,  which  grasps  the  blank  and 
bores  several  holes.  Then  another  me- 
chanical hand  takes  the  blank  and  pre- 
sents it  to  the  second  section,  which  doss 
its  "stint"  in  the  process  of  plate-making. 
A  third  hand  next  takes  the  blank  and 
presents  it  to  the  third  section  of  the  ma- 
chine, which  contributes  its  share  in  the 
conversion.  These  three  operations  finish 
one  side  of  the  plate. 

Thereupon  comes  a  fourth  hand  and 
passes  the  plate  to  a  fourth  part  of  the 
mechanism ;  but  in  doing  so  it  turns  the 
plate  over  and  presents  the  unfinished 
part  to  the  drills.  A  fifth  hand,  a  sixth, 
and  a  seventh  pass  the  plate  on  to  the 
several  remaining  sections  of  the  ma- 
chine, and  a  final  presents  it,  completed, 
to  the  reservoir  beyond. 

One  hundred  and  forty-one  operations 
on  one  little  disk  of  metal,  all  without 
the  aid  of  a  human  hand  and  each  per- 
formed with  an  accuracy  of  a  fraction  of 
an  inch  that  reaches  to  the  fourth  decimal 
place ! 

A  CITY  FAMOUS  FOR  ITS  JEWELRY 

One  who  wanders  around  the  Bay  State 
looking  for  startling  applications  of  ma- 
chinery to  the  making  of  articles  useful 


and  ornamental  will  find  things  that 
amaze  in  almost  every  town. 

Think  of  ten  thousand  different  kinds 
of  watch-chain  links  produced  in  a  single 
establishment !  Or  of  a  machine  that 
converts  gold  wire  into  watch  chain  by 
the  hour  without  let  or  hindrance  from 
any  man !  Such  machines  are  busy 
throughout  the  year  in  Attleboro. 

Rolled  jewelry  is  finding  a  tremendous 
sale  all  over  the  world,  and  the  Attleboro 
factories  are  months  behind  in  filling 
their  orders. 

In  one  plant  the  first  step  in  making 
a  filled  watch  chain  is  to  prepare  an  ingot 
of  copper  and  zinc  alloy  about  a  foot 
Jong;  and 'an  inch  and  a  half  in  diameter. 
Over  this  is  put  a  sleeve  of,  say,  I4~carat 
gold,  'cast  to  a  perfect  fit.  This  gold- 
filled  ingot  is  then  put  into  a  machine 
which  hammers  it,  reducing  its  diameter 
and  increasing  its  length.  The  process 
is  repeated  by  other  machines  until  finally 
it  becomes  small  enough  to  be  drawn 
through  dies  as  wire,  each  time  growing 
thinner  and  longer  until  it  has  the  di- 
ameter of  the  wire  in  the  chain  link. 

From  this  stage  the  wire  may  be  fash- 
ioned into  links  and  chains  either  by  hand 
or  by  machinery.  In  the  latter  case  the 
wire  is  automatically  fed  into  the  chain 
machine.  A  small  knife  comes  out  and 
cuts  off  the  length  required  to  form  a 
link.  Two  little  jaws  close  and  the  bit 
of  wire  becomes  the  shape  of  a  capital  U. 
Then  a  tiny  hammer  taps  the  open  U  in 
such  a  way  that  it  becomes  an  O,  which, 
with  another  movement,  has  its  position 
switched  from  horizontal  to  upright. 
Then  the  wire  is  fed  through  the  finished 
link  and  the  process  repeated,  the  chain 
growing  longer  at  the  rate  of  many  feet 
an  hour. 

MASSACHUSETTS  MAKES  EVERYTHING, 
FROM  SUSPENDERS  TO  SILVERWARE 

There  are  many  lines  of  manufacture 
in  which  Massachusetts  is  the  nation's 
leader  other  than  those  already  noted. 
The  State  makes  seven-eighths  of  the  na- 
tion's whips;  more  than  two-fifths  of  its 
gum  shoes,  rubber  boots,  and  linen  goods  ; 
one-third  of  its  leather  belting,  bicycles, 
and  motorcycles ;  a  fourth  of  its  en- 
velopes, fireworks,  silverware,  sporting 
and  athletic  goods,  stationery,  suspenders 


MASSACHUSETTS— BEEHIVE  OF  BUSINESS 


243 


Photograph  by  Herbert  B.  Turner 
DRYING  SAILS  AFTER  THE  STORM  :  GLOUCESTER,   MASS. 

One  gets  a  vivid  idea  of  the  wealth  of  the  sea  at  Gloucester.  Cod  and  mackerel,  haddock, 
herring,  and  halibut;  tautog  and  quahog;  scup  and  sculpin;  swordfish  and  spikefish ;  tinkers, 
cusk,  and  eels ;  blue  fish  and  butterfish ;  flounder,  perch,  and  sea  trout ;  oysters,  lobsters,  and 
clams — one  must  tax  his  fishing  lore  to  enumerate  the  species  that  are  brought  into  port  daily. 


and  garters ;  and  in  all  these  lines  sur- 
passes every  other  State. 

With  such  a  vast  concentration  of  light 
manufactures,  it  is  only  natural  that  Mas- 
sachusetts should  have  many  cities  and 
towns ;  but  one  is  hardly  prepared  to  be- 
lieve that  this  small  Commonwealth  has 
32  cities  of  20.000  population  and  up- 
ward, more  than  any  other  State  of  the 
Union.  More  than  100  of  its  smaller 
municipalities  have  populations  above  the 
5,000  mark. 

"THE  HEART  OF  THE  COMMONWEALTH" 

About  each  of  the  principal  cities  a 
word  must  suffice.  As  Boston  will  later 
be  described  in  the  "Big  City"  series  of 
articles  appearing  from  time  to  time  in 
THE  GEOGRAPHIC,  no  mention  of  it  need 
be  made  here. 

The  second  city  of  the  State  is  Worces- 


ter, which  calls  itself  the  "Heart  of  the 
Commonwealth."  A  busy  metropolis,  it 
has  been  a  cradle  of  invention  and  is  a 
center  of  industry.  Within  a  radius  of 
fifteen  miles  of  its  central  square  were 
born  Eli  Whitney,  whose  gin  made  cotton 
the  fabric  of  civilization ;  Ichabod  Wash- 
burn,  who  drew  the  first  piano  wire  in 
America ;  Erastus  Bigelow,  the  inventor 
of  the  carpet  machine ;  Thomas  Blanch- 
ard,  who  designed  a  machine  for  making 
tacks  and  a  lathe  for  turning  irregu- 
lar shapes ;  George  Crompton,  the  in- 
ventor of  the  power  loom  for  weaving 
fancy  cottons ;  and  Asa  Hapgood,  in- 
ventor of  the  upper  berth  in  sleeping  cars. 
Worcester  has  drawn  enough  wire  to 
girdle  the  globe  a  thousand  times.  It  has 
made  enough  corsets  to  fit  out  every  fem- 
inine form  on  the  earth.  It  has  facilities 
for  producing  enough  envelopes  to  carry 


244 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Leon  H.  Abdalian 

IN  THE  SHADOW  OF  THE  OLD  SOUTH 
CHURCH,  BOSTON 

Erected  in  1729,  Old  South  Church  has  lived 
through  the  vicissitudes  of  war  and  peace  for 
nearly  two  centuries.  Diagonally  across  the 
street  from  it,  Benjamin  Franklin  was  born. 
Within  its  walls  were  held  many  of  the  town 
meetings  that  crystallized  the  purposes  of  the 
colonists  to  be  free.  Not  many  years  ago 
commerce  would  have  razed  its  walls  and 
reared  on  its  site  an  office  building.  But  the 
people  of  Boston  raised  $.!Oo,ooo  to  keep  it 
as  a  shrine  of  our  national  beginnings. 


the  correspondence  of  the  world.  It  has 
the  largest  belt  factory,  the  largest  loom 
works,  the  largest  grindstone  plant,  and 
the  largest  automobile  crank-shaft  forg- 
ing plant  in  existence. 

AMERICA'S  FOREMOST  MILL  TOWN 

Fall  River,  third  in  population  among 
the  cities  of  Massachusetts,  h  America's 
foremost  "mill  town."  It  has  148  textile 
mills  and  employs  40,000  operatives. 
That  it  can  bring  coal  for  power  from 
Pennsylvania  and  cotton  from  the  South, 
paying  the  high  freight  rates,  and  still 
compete  with  the  South  in  the  manufac- 
ture of  cotton  goods  is  a  proof  of  its 
energy  and  efficient  organization.  Every 
day  the  city  weaves  enough  cloth  a 
yard  wide  to  reach  from  New  York  to 
Panama.  It  produces  more  goods  than 
any  State  in  the  Union  except  its  own. 

A  close  competitor  of  Fall  River  is 
New  Bedford,  making  fewer  yards  of 
cloth  than  its  rival,  but  specializing  in 
finer  grades,  which  it  produces  at  the 
rate  of  a.  mile  a  minute.  New  Bedford 
has  a  twentieth-century  prosperity  based 
on  cotton  as  great  as  that  in  the  seven- 
teenth century  based  on  the  whaling  in- 
dustry. 

AMERICA'S  CAPITAL  OF  EDUCATION 

Cambridge  is  so  nearly  part  and  parcel 
of  the  New  England  metropolis  that  it 
seems  to  have  lost  its  identity  in  almost 
every  way  except  legally.  When  one  is 
reminded  that  this  city,  with  its  popula- 
tion of  113,000,  is  without  a  daily  news- 
paper, or  a  good  hotel,  or  a  modern 
theater,  one  can  readily  see  that  its 
identity,  except  for  purposes  of  taxation 
and  local  law,  has  been  thoroughly  welded 
into  that  of  Boston. 

But  in  education  it  can  almost  claim  to 
be  the  nation's  capital.  With  Harvard 
and  Radcliffe  and  Technology,  its  influ- 
ence reaches  wherever  religion,  philoso- 
phy, science,  and  engineering  extend. 

But  Cambridge  is  more  than  a  univer- 
sity town.  It  is  one  of  the  principal 
manufacturing  centers  of  the  Common- 
wealth. 

"THE  WORKSHOP  OF  THE  WORLD" 

Lowell  proudly  calls  itself  the  "work- 
shop of  the  world."  It  is  a  busy  town, 


245 


possessing  the.  world's  largest  hosiery 
and  underwear  mills,  as  well  as  its  most 
extensive  sail-cloth  factory,  upper  shoe- 
leather  tannery,  cash-carrier  and  pneu- 
matic-tube factories.  It  also  has  what  is 
considered  the  highest  type  of  textile 
school  to  be  found  anywhere. 

SPRINGFIELD,    LYNN,    AND    LAWRENCE),    A 
THRIVING  TRIO 

Admirably  situated  in  the  Connecticut 
Valley,  at  the  cross-roads  of  east  and 
west  and  north  and  south  trade,  Spring- 
field is  a  thriving  municipality,  its  in- 
dustries alive  to  the  possibilities  of  the 
future,  and  its  civic  spirit  a  contagion 
that  infects  resident  and  visitor  alike. 
The  city  claims  that  its  municipal  build- 
ings constitute  the  finest  civic  group  in 
the  United  States.  In  one  of  these  build- 
ings is  an  auditorium  with  a  seating  ca- 
pacity of  4,500. 

Lynn  and  Lawrence  are  such  close 
rivals  in  point  of  population  that  it  will 
require  this  year's  census  to  decide  their 
relative  rank.  Lynn  is  the  woman's  shoe 
capital  of  the  world,  and  Lawrence  is  a 
great  mill  town,  with  textiles  and  paper 
its  principal  products.  It  is  at  Lawrence 
that  the  paper  for  THE  GEOGRAPHIC 
MAGAZINE  is  manufactured  (see  pictures, 
pages  234-241). 

CITIES    FAMOUS    FOR    MEN'S    SHOES,    GUM 
SHOES,  AND  SLIPPERS 

Following  in  order  of  population  are 
Somerville,  part  and  parcel  of  the  Boston 
community,  but  still  as  independent  of 
the  Hub,  governmentally  speaking,  as  if 
it  were  at  the  other  end  of  the  State ; 
Brockton,  where  men's  shoes  are  pro- 
duced by  the  millions  of  pairs ;  Holyoke, 
where  the  Connecticut  River  surrenders 
its  power  at  Hadley  Falls  for  paper 
mills,  silk  factories,  and  similar  indus- 
tries operated  by  water  power  at  only  a 
fifth  the  cost  of  steam  power;  Maiden, 
the  "gum-shoe"  city;  Salem,  once  the 
witch  city,  but  now  a  staid  and  solid 
commercial  community ;  Haverhill,  the 
"slipper  city" ;  Chelsea,  industrial  bor- 
ough of  Boston ;  and  Newton. 

Fitchburg  brings  up  the  rear  of  the 
line  of  cities  with  40,000  population  and 
upward.  It  reminds  the  world  that  it 


makes  three  revolvers  a  minute,  five  pairs 
of  shoes,  four  cans  of  axle  grease,  three 
shirts,  eight  miles  of  yarn,  ten  paper 
boxes,  fifty  paper  bags,  fifteen  pounds 
of  brass,  and  other  things  in  proportion. 

One  passes  by  with  regret  a  hundred 
other  splendid  cities  and  towns,  for  in 
their  history,  their  achievements,  and 
their  beauty  each  of  them  challenges  at- 
tention. 

Likewise  Plymouth  Rock  and  Prov- 
incetown,  Lexington  and  Concord,  and 
a  score  of  such  places  are  shrines  that 
live  in  the  hearts  of  all  Americans. 

MASSACHUSETTS'  PARKS  AND  FOREST 
RESERVATIONS 

In  the  establishment  of  public  parks 
Massachusetts  has  displayed  the  same 
appreciation  of  esthetic  and  humanitarian 
values  that  has  characterized  her  in 
other  fields.  Greylock,  the  State's  high- 
est peak,  has  been  set  aside  for  the  pub- 
lic, a  reservation  of  9,000  acres  around 
its  summit  having  been  created. 

Mount  Tom,  which  rises  like  a  sentinel 
lookout  guarding  the  cities  of  Northamp- 
ton, Holyoke,  and  Springfield,  is  another 
place  under  State  jurisdiction  where  one 
may  go  and  commune  with  nature. 

A  number  of  State  forests  have  also 
been  established.  One  in  Plymouth 
County,  covering  7,000  acres,  is  appro- 
priately named  the  Miles  Standish  State 
Forest.  Another,  in  the  vicinity  of  An- 
dover,  contains  1,200  acres,  while  a  third, 
in  the  vicinity  of  Winchendon,  contains 
1,700  acres.  There  are  two  in  the  Berk- 
shire Hills  aggregating  2,200  acres.  The 
most  modern  forestry  methods  are  prac- 
ticed in  these  areas,  and  the  State  is 
striving  energetically  to  remedy  the  loss 
of  her  timber  at  the  hands  of  an  un- 
restrained commercialism  in  bygone  dec- 
ades. 

In  her  verdict  of  November  4,  1919, 
Massachusetts  earned  the  gratitude  of 
the  country  and  showed  that  the  spirit 
that  founded  the  greatest  republic  and 
won  a  world  to  liberty  still  survives  and 
stands  committed  to  law  and  order.  No 
praise  is  too  high  for  this  new  declara- 
tion against  class  tyranny,  this -new  stand 
for  the  ideals  that  have  always  made 
Massachusetts  great. 


246 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


TEK  PAI  IS  THE  NAME  GI\7EN  THIS  BAMBOO  RAFT  IN  FORMOSA 

The  craft  is  characteristically  Formosan.  Although  there  is  a  type  of  bamboo  raft  found 
along  the  China  coast,  it  is  not  nearly  so  large  as  that  of  Formosa,  since  the  bamboos  on  the 
mainland  cannot  compare  in  size  with  those  growing  on  this  island.  There  is  a  round  wooden 
tub  in  the  center  for  luggage,  and  when  the  sea  is  rough  the  passengers  sit  in  it,  too. 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


BY  ALICE  BALLANTINE  KIRJASSOFF 

Illustrated  u'ith  photographs  by  the  official  photographer  of  the  Government  of 
Tavwan  and  from  the  Chief  of  the  Camphor  Department 


I 


"TLHA  FORMOSA,"  beautiful  isle, 
early  Portuguese  voyagers  called 
the  island  now  owned  by  Japan 
and  known  to  them  as  Taiwan.  The 
Portuguese  name  has  clung  to  it  in  all 
European  countries,  and  never  was  a 
more  appropriate  name  given  to  an  isle 
of  the  sea. 

If  you  care  to  confirm  this  in  one  of 
several  pleasant  ways,  sail  along  the  west 
coast  of  Formosa  in  a  tek  pai  (or  bamboo 
raft,  see  page  246)  on  a  clear  clay,  and 
you  will  witness  a  pageant  of  mountain 
scenery  that  will  haunt  the  memory  for 
many  a  day. 

Beyond  the  fertile  plain,  with  its  emer- 
ald paddy-fields  and  its  picturesque  lit- 
tle villages  dotted  here  and  there  on 
the  banks  of  meandering  streams,  foot- 
hills with  unending  variations  of  con- 
tour silhouette  their  tree-fringed  sum- 
mits against  the  paler  screen  of  more 
distant  mountains.  Of  these,  sometimes 
five  and  sometimes  even  six  parallel 
ranges  are  visible  at  once,  each  a  separate 
ribbon  of  color,  shading  from  the  deepest 
sapphire  to  the  palest  azure  and  extend- 
ing in  an  unbroken  chain  of  beauty  from 
north  to  south. 

On  the  east  of  the  island  you  can  see 
the  highest  coastal  cliffs  known,  at  some 
places  rising  abruptly  to  an  elevation  of 
about  6.000  feet,  and  affording  an  im- 
pregnable wall  of  defense  to  the  wild 
aboriginal  tribes  living  in  the  mountains 
back  of  them. 

AN   ISLAND  OF  AMAZING  VARIETY  OF 
VEGETATION 

Formosan  scenery  is  unusual  in  its 
diversity  of  vegetation  within  such  nar- 
row confines — the  greatest  length  of  the 
island  from  north  to  south  is  about 
264  miles  and  80  miles  is  its  greatest 
width. 

From  the  palms  and  tropical  fruit-trees 
of  the  western  plain  it  is  only  a  short 
step  to  the  slopes  of  the  lower  mountains, 


with  their  exuberant  jungles  of  various 
growths — the  bearded  banyans,  the  grace- 
ful tree-ferns,  which  in  sheltered  nooks 
attain  the  height  of  palms,  and  the 
ubiquitous  bamboo  grass. 

Here,  among  moss-strung  trees,  is 
found  growing  the  beautiful  butterfly 
orchid,  while  in  exposed  spaces,  nestling 
among  the  rocks,  rose-pink  azaleas  flaunt 
their  gay  blooms.  A  little  higher  are 
plateaus  covered  with  camphor  laurel, 
the  largest  tracts  of  these  valuable  trees 
in  the  world,  while  still  higher  grow  the 
forests  of  coniferous  trees  —  the  giant 
benihi,  similar  to  the  redwoods  of  Cali- 
fornia, the  largest  trees  in  the  East  and 
the  second  largest  in  the  world;  the  val- 
uable hinoki,  or  Japanese  cypress,  and 
the  pine,  cedar,  and  spruce  of  the  New 
England  States ;  and  higher  yet  the 
craggy  peaks  of  the  tallest  mountains,  but 
sparsely  covered  with  vegetation  of  any 
sort,  where  eagles  build  their  nests,  and 
which  for  the  greater  part  of  the  year 
lie  beneath  a  mantle  of  snow. 

"THE  SECOND  WETTEST  PORT  IN  T>HE 
WORLD" 

The  usual  approach  to  the  island  is  the 
port  of  Kelung,  in  the  extreme  north.  It 
was  here  that  the  author  of  this  paper 
landed  after  a  four  days'  steamer  journey 
from  Kobe.  The  rain  was  coming  down 
in  sheets,  obscuring  the  hill-crested  har- 
bor, and  all  looked  gloomy  except  for 
one  bright  patch  of  sky,  where  the  sun 
was  struggling  to  come  through. 

I  remember  reading  in  my  old  gram- 
mar-school geography  that  Kelung  is  the 
second 'wettest  port  in  the  world,  and  I 
have  no  trouble  in  believing  it.  I  have 
been  there  manv  times,  and  each  time  it 
has  rained.  Without  showers,  Kelung 
would  wear  an  unrecognizable  face,  like 
a  person  without  spectacles  who  was  ac- 
customed to  wearing  them. 

After  disposing  of  the  numerous  por- 
ters who  escorted  me  from  the  steamer, 


247 


248 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


SAMPANS    NEARING    THE    BUND:    TAIHOKU,    FORMOSA 


d    • 


DAITOTEI  IS  UNNATURALLY  CLEAN  FOR  A   CHINESE  CITY 

Formerly  Manka,  Daitotei,  and  Taihoku  proper  (within  the  castle  walls)  were  three 
independent  cities,  but  with  the  establishment  of  the  Governor  General's  Office  in  the  castle 
and  the  principal  administration  offices  around  it,  the  three  sections  became  amalgamated 
into  Taihoku.  Daitotei  is  the  Chinese  section  of  Formosa's  busy  capital. 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


249 


THIS  IS  NOT  CHINATOWN  IN  VENICE;  ONLY  A  STREET  SCENE  IN  THE  CHINESE 
QUARTER  OF  TAIHOKU   AFTER  A   TYPHOON 


VIEW  OF  THE  DAITOTEI   BUND   SHOWING   THE   TYPHOON    WALL:   TAKEN    FROM    THE 
EXTREME   SOUTHERN    END  OF   TAIHOKU 

Formosa  is  frequently  swept  by  violent  storms,  the  sea  immediately  to  the  south  of  the 
island  being  known  as  the  "birthplace"  of  typhoons.  In  an  easterly  storm  which  visited 
Taihoku  22  years  ago  the  wind  attained  a  velocity  of  97  miles  an  hour. 


250 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


TEA-PICKING  GIRLS  IN  DAITOTEl :    FORMOSA 

"Seated  on  low  stools  before  wide  wicker  trays,  these  bright-eyed  maids  in  their  peacock- 
blue  smocks,  their  front  hair  clipped  in  bangs,  and  with  a  gay  posy  or  two  stuck  in  the 
braided  knots  at  the  backs  of  their  necks,  were  in  animated  contrast  to  their  rather  drab 
surroundings." 


COOLIES  PACKING  OOLONG  TEA 

Nine-tenths  of  Formosa's  Oolong  tea  finds  its  way  to  the  United  States.  It  is  shipped 
in  lead-lined  boxes  to  protect  the  sensitive  leaves  from  tlie  salt  air  of  the  sea  voyage  and  from 
contamination  with  the  odors  of  other  freight.  Even  this  precaution  cannot  safeguard 
Oolong  from  some  cargoes — copra,  for  example.  If  an  Asiatic  disease  makes  its  appearance 
on  board  and  the  vessel  is  subjected  to  fumigation,  the  cargo  of  the  tea  ship  is  practically 
ruined. 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


251 


A  DUCK-TENDER  GIVING   HIS  BROODS  A   SWIM 

Formosans  are  extremely  fond  of  ducks.  On  a  walk  through  country  districts  the 
traveler  frequently  encounters  a  youth  with  a  long  pole  acting  as  tender  for  two  or  three 
hundred,  sometimes  a  thousand,  birds  which  have  no  special  feeding  ground,  but  wander  over 
the  countryside,  eating  and  drinking  wherever  they  choose. 


SCENE  IN  FORMOSA'S  OPIUM  MONOPOLY  BUREAU  :  THE  ROUND  BALLS  oF  CRUDE 

OPIUM   ARE   IMPORTED   FROM    INDIA   AND  THE  FLAT 
PARCELS    COME   FROM    PERSIA 

Opium  smoking  is  controlled  by  license.  About  2  per  cent  of  the  Chinese  in  Formosa 
are  still  addicted  to  the  habit,  but  year  by  year  the  practice  is  being  checked.  The  island  has 
a  population  of  more  than  3,600,000,  more  than  92  per  cent  of  whom  are  classified  as 
"Formosans,"  mainly  people  of  Chinese  blood ;  a  little  more  than  3  per  cent  are  Japanese,  and 
ZVz  per  cent  are  aborigines  ("ripe"  and  "raw"  savages;  see  text,  page  272). 


w  I 

VJ       e 

w  — 

s  I 

w  § 

to    **» 

O      w 

<  £t 
M 

5-1  . 


O     ^ 

o    S 

M 

55    v 
u 


252 


253 


254 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


COOLIES  WORKING  A  FOOT-PUMP  AND  A  BUFFALO  PLOWING  IN  THF, 
BACKGROUND:  FORMOSA 

Very  picturesque  are  these  foot-pumps,  worked  by  three  and  sometimes  four  coolies,  which 
raise  water  from  one  field  to  another. 


A  WATER  BUFFALO  WITH  HIS  SMALL  CHINESE  DRIVER 

No  rural  Formosan  landscape  is  complete  without  at  least  one  of  these  hulking  creatures, 
with  its  threatening  horns  and  great  staring  eyes.  Most  of  the  plowing  on  the  island  is 
done  with  these  animals.  They  are  strong  and  can  endure  much  hard  work,  provided  they 
have  plenty  of  water,  which  must  be  poured  over  their  backs  as  well  as  given  them  to  drink. 
They  may  be  seen  on  the  outskirts  of  any  large  town,  standing  in  tanks  six  or  seven  feet 
square  while  their  drivers  administer  "shower  baths." 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


255 


THE  TYPE  OF  CART  USED  IN  THE  SUGAR-CANE  DISTRICTS  OF  FORMOSA 

As  the  axles  of  the  wheels  are  never  greased,  the  approach  of  these  sugar-cane-laden  carts 
is  heralded  from  afar  by  strident  squeakings. 


FIELDS  OF  FORMOSAN  SUGAR-CANE 

For  the  first  time  in  its  history,  Formosa  exported  sugar  to  the  United  States  in  1917- 
The  other  principal  exports  to  America  are  Oolong  tea  and  camphor.  Although  the  island 
is  world-famous  for  its  camphor,  the  value  of  its  sugar  exports  during  one  year  of  the 
World  War  was  fourteen  times  greater  than  that  of  the  camphor-tree  product. 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


FRUIT-BEARERS  RESTING  ON  THEIR  WAY  TO   MARKET 

Formosan  pineapples  are  smaller  than  the  Hawaiian  varieties,  but  they  make  up  in  flavor 
what  they  lack  in  size.  The  smaller  fruit  are  longans.  From  the  green  leaves  of  the  pine- 
apple the  Formosans  get  a  fiber  which  they  convert  into  a  cool  summer  cloth.  The  island  is 
no  less  famous  for  its  flowers  than  for  its  fruit. 


I 


LABORERS   THRESHING   RICE 

The  portable  tubs  constituting  the  Formosan's  threshing  apparatus  look  for  all  the  world 
like  sails,  in  the  wake  of  which  follow  the  threshers  with  their  bundles  of  grain.  These  they 
rap  smartly  against  the  corrugated  boards  affixed  to  the  tubs,  to  separate  the  rice  from  the 
blade. 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


257 


I  boarded  a  train  for 
Taihoku,  the  capital 
city,  which  on  most 
maps  still  bears  its 
old  Chinese  name  of 
Taipeh. 

In  about  ten  min- 
utes  we  passed 
through  a  long  tun- 
nel, and  when  we 
came  out  on  the  other 
side  of  the  mountain 
gap  the  landscape  was 
flooded  with  sunshine. 
Rain  seemed  as  out 
of  place  in  this  new 
world  as  stars  in  the 
broad  daylight. 

The  lush  green  rice- 
fields,  with  the  denser 
green  hills  and  purp- 
ling mountain  back  of 
them,  lay  glancing  in 
the  sunlight  with  a 
brilliancy  that  con- 
trasted sharply  with 
objects  but  so  re- 
cently viewed  through 
the  rain. 

Here  and  there  we 
passed  the  low,  mud, 
thatched  dwelling  of 
some  Chinese  home- 
steader with  a  pool  of 
water  by  way  of  front 
yard,  where  huge 
slate  -  colored  buffa- 
loes were  taking  their 
noonday  siesta,  a 
goodly  number  of 
ducks  and  geese  keep- 
ing patrol  as  they  slept,  while  on  the 
brink  would  waddle  a  black  sow  or  two, 
of  an  elongated  variety,  with  backs  that 
sagged  in  the  middle,  their  numerous  off- 
spring following  grunting  at  their  heels. 

I  looked  about  in  vain  for  a  barn  of 
some  sort  to  house  these  creatures  by 
night,  but  was  told  to  my  surprise  that 
they  were  all  dearly  beloved  members  of 
one  household  and  lived  together  most 
amicably  under  the  same  roof  with  their 
owner. 

At  length  we  arrived  at  Taihoku,  cov- 
ering the  distance  of  twenty  miles  in  a 


A  BENIHI  TREE  (Cham&citaris  formosensis  MATS.) 

The  giant  benihi  of  Formosa,  similar  to  the  redwood  of  Cali- 
fornia, is  the  largest  tree  in  the  East  and  the  second  largest  in  the 
world. 


little  more  than  an  hour.  I  was  amazed 
at  the  westernized  appearance  of  the 
city — the  broad  streets,  the  beautiful 
parks,  and  the  imposing  public  buildings. 

A  JAPANESE  HOUSE-CLEANING  TWICE  A 
YEAR 

Japanese  cities,  which  I  had  so  recently 
visited,  possessed  the  picturesqueness  of 
the  Orient,  and  I  had  expected  even  more 
of  this  quality  in  what  I  had  looked  upon 
as  a  most  out-of-the-way  corner  of  the 
globe.  Only  the  gateways  of  the  old  wall, 
which  surrounded  the  ancient  Chinese 


258 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


SUNSET  FROM  THE  BUND,  THE  WATERFRONT  IN  DAITOTEI,  THE  CHINESE  SECTION 
OF  TAIHOKU,  CAPITAL  OF  FORMOSA 

At  sunset  dusky  ghosts  of  sampans,  laden  with  families  living  up  the  river,  glide  home- 
ward against  a  jonquil  sky.  Taihoku,  a  city  the  size  of  Lowell,  Mass.,  is  situated  20  miles 
southeast  of  the  port  of  Tamsui,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tamsui  River,  and  18  miles  southwest 
of  Kelung,  the  seaport  possessing  the  best  harbor  of  the  island  (see  map,  page  262). 


city,  remain,  looking  as  out  of  place  in 
their  rejuvenated  setting  as  the  Egyptian 
obelisk  in  Central  Park. 

I  found  more  of  the  quality  I  had 
looked  for  in  Daitotei,  the  Chinese  sec- 
tion of  Taihoku;  but  even  Daitotei  was 
unnaturally  clean  for  a  Chinese  city. 

The  Japanese  insist  upon  two  official 
house-cleanings  a  year,  and  as  they  are 
executed  under  a  policeman's  vigilant  eye, 


you  may  be  sure  that  there  is  nothing 
slipshod  in  the  undertaking.  All  a  man's 
chattels,  his  Lares  and  Penates,  his  wives 
and  children  (I  say  wives  advisedly,  for 
if  a  Chinaman  can  afford  it  you  can  count 
on  his  having  more  than  one),  even  to  his 
cherished  opium  pipe,  all  are  heaped  un- 
ceremoniously in  front  of  his  dwelling, 
and  the  work  of  scouring  begins. 

Everything  he  owns  is  washed,  within 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


2-59 


A  JUNK  ON   THE  TAMSUI   RIVER 

The  antique  sails,  patched  and  repatched,  speed  the  oarsmen  when  sailing  down-stream 

with  the  wind. 


and  without,  except  his  wives  and  chil- 
dren, and  this  additional  sanitary  measure 
would  round  out  a  very  good  beginning 
toward  that  attribute  which  is  attested  as 
next  to  godliness. 

MUSIC  TO  SAVE   THE  DYING   FROM   EVIIy 
SPIRITS 

However,  in  respect  to  noise,  Daitotei 
is  characteristically  Chinese.  There  is 
never  an  hour  of  the  day  without  some 
puppet  show  and  its  accompaniment  of 


drums  and  cymbals,  or  a  marriage  pro- 
cession, or  a  funeral  procession,  or,  at 
best,  a  few  bunches  of  fire-crackers  to 
celebrate  the  birthday  of  some  indulged 
urchin,  the  apple  of  his  father's  eye. 

If  any  of  the  sounds  attendant  on  these 
rites  are  lacking,  there  can  always  be 
heard  the  piercing  music  of  "sing-song" 
girls,  entertaining  tea-house  habitues,  the 
far-reaching  cries  of  push-cart  vendors, 
the  high-pitched,  unintelligible  chatter  of 
the  passers-by,  and,  at  the  risk  of  intro- 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


to, 


Photograph  by  B.  Boning 


PASSENGER    PUSH-CARS    IN    FORMOSA 


ducing  an  anti-climax,  I  might  add  the 
cackle  of  hens ;  for  so  numerous  are  these 
denizens  of  the  barnyard  that  it  seems  to 
the  nervous  onlooker  as"  if  some  one  has 
either  just  stepped  on  one  or  just  avoided 
stepping  on  one. 

I  shall  never  forget  my  first  night  in 
Daitotei.  I  was  tired  out  by  an  arduous 
day,  but  my  determination  to  retire  early 
was  dealt  a  sudden  blow  by  the  outbreak 
of  a  Chinese  orchestra  in  the  narrow 
alley  at  the  back  of  our  house.  Its  irritat- 
ing discordances,  repeated  fortissimo  in 
rapid,  monotonous  succession,  not  only 


drove  away  all  idea  of  sleep,  but  inci- 
dentally nearly  drove  me  mad. 

Our  servant,  upon  being  questioned,  in- 
formed us — but  not  in  just  these  words — 
that  our  next-door  neighbor,  a  wealthy 
Chinese  money-lender,  was  about  to  give 
up  the  ghost.  After  repeated  objections 
on  my  part  as  to  the  advisability  of  ac- 
celerating his  end  in  this  violent  manner, 
I  was  assured  that  the  music  was  intended 
only  to  drive  off  such  evil  spirits  as  might 
be  lurking  about  the  house. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  the  music  was 
admirably  adapted  for  this  objective,  and 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


261 


PUSH-CARS  BEARING  IMPERIAL  JAPANESE   MAIL, 

All  the  baggage  push-cars  are  third  class.  The  passenger  cars  are  first  class  and  have 
the  right  of  way.  The  third-class  cars  have  to  be  derailed  to  allow  the  first-class  cars  to 
pass,  although  it  would  be  far  more  convenient  if  the  first-class  cars  were  derailed,  as  the 
others  are  usually  heavily  loaded. 


seeing  that  there  was  no  hope  of  relief,  I 
resigned  myself  to  the  rather  meager  con- 
solation of  playing  the  innocent's  role  in 
suffering  for  the  guilty.  However,  when 
I  was  told  that  the  Japanese  have  insti- 
tuted a  ruling  whereby  all  music  of  this 
nature  must  cease  at  midnight,  I  felt  a 
more  substantial  basis  for  thankfulness. 

THE  TEA-PICKING  GIRLS  AT  WORK 

During  the  summer  months  Daitotei 
presents  its  busiest  face,  for  it  is  then  that 
the  tea  season  is  in  full  swing.  The  col- 
onnades of  the  tea  hongs,  if  such  an  im- 
posing architectural  term  as  colonnades 
can  be  fittingly  applied  to  such  unimpos- 
ing  structures,  are  ahum  with  the  stac- 
cato accents  of  chattering  tea-pickers. 
These  are  generally  young  girls,  as  old 
hands  are  too  numb  for  the  deft  manipu- 
lation of  the  tea  leaves. 

Seated  on  low  stools  before  wide  wicker 
trays,  these  bright-eyed  maids,  in  their 
peacock-blue  smocks,  their  front  hair 
clipped  in  bangs,  and  with  a  gay  posy  or 


two  stuck  in  the  braided  knots  at  the 
backs  of  their  necks,  are  in  animated  con- 
trast to  their  rather  drab  surroundings. 

With  flying  wisps  of  fingers,  at  least 
one  of  which  on  each  hand  has  a  long, 
carefully  trained  nail,  a  rather  inconven- 
ient concession  to  a  fashion  which  origi- 
nally spelled  leisure,  they  separate  the 
coarser  twigs  from  the  partially  fired  tea 
leaves ;  and,  just  as  in  all  probability  well- 
bred  western  matrons  will  exchange  a  few 
words  of  gossip  over  their  cups  of  tea, 
these  cheerful  tea-picking  girls  start  the 
ball  a-rolling  on  this  side  of  the  globe. 

Not  so  many  years  ago  the  tea-chests 
were  decorated  by  lightning  artists  with 
tropical-looking  birds  and  beasts,  but  now 
designs  are  stenciled  on  sheets  of  paper, 
which  are  pasted  on  the  boxes  and  glossed 
over  with  varnish. 

Everywhere  we  saw  coolies  packing 
these  gaily-flowered,  lead-lined  boxes  that 
carry  their  sensitive  freight  of  tea  to 
America.  I  say  America,  for  about  QO 
per  cent  of  Formosa  Oolong  goes  to  the 


202 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


CHIN 


F  U  -  K  I  E  N 


± 

I      \  (TAIWAN) 

' 


A   MAP  OF   FORMOSA    (TAIWAN)    SHOWING   ITS   GEOGRAPHICAL,   RELATION    TO    JAPAN, 

CHINA,    AND   THE   PHILIPPINES 


United  States.  The  little  that  goes  to  Eng- 
land is  generally  used  in  making  choice 
blends  in  combination  with  other  teas. 

GUARDING  TEA  FROM   OBNOXIOUS   FREIGHT 

As  an  additional  protective  measure, 
each  chest  is  sewn  up  in  reed  matting. 
So  sensitive  is  tea  to  other  freight  that  a 
tea  merchant,  before  he  loads  his  cargo, 
has  to  find  out  what  goods  a  ship  is 
carrying  in  her  hold.  Tea  and  copra, 
for  instance,  cannot  travel  together  with 
anything  approaching  congeniality.  More- 
over, if  it  so  happens  that  some  Asiatic 
disease  breaks  out  on  the  ship  and  the 
hold  is  fumigated,  the  tea  might  just  as 
well  have  caught  the  disease  and  died, 
for  its  commercial  life  is  at  an  end. 

Besides  the  Oolong  tea,  whose  natural 


fragrance  is  of  the  sort  to  commend  it- 
self to  the  most  fastidious  tea-bibber, 
there  is  an  artificially  scented  tea,  called 
Pouchong,  produced  in  Formosa.  This 
is  exported  chiefly  to  the  Philippines  and 
the  Straits  Settlements  for  Chinese  con- 
sumption. 

Four  kinds  of  flowers  are  used  in  the 
process  of  scenting  Pouchong — two  va- 
rieties of  jasmine,  white  oleanders,  and 
gardenias.  These  flowers  are  grown  in 
great  quantities  outside  the  city  of  Tai- 
hoku  for  this  purpose,  and  are  bartered 
on  a  certain  street  corner  in  Daitotei. 

I  shall  always  recall  this  street  corner 
as  the  abode  of  Perfume — an  oasis  of 
Fragrance  in  a  hostile  desert.  Coming 
down  Hokumongai,  the  principal  street 
in  Daitotei,  the  sensitive  western  nose  is 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


263 


A  NATIVE  CAMPHOR  STIU,  IN  THE   HEART  OF   A  CAMPHOR  FOREST 

Native  stills  are  scattered  here  and  there  throughout  the  camphor  districts,  where  crude 
camphor  is  collected,  packed  in  tins,  and  carried  down  precipitous  mountain  paths  on  coolies' 
backs  to  the  nearest  railway  line,  whence  it  goes  to  the  refinery  in  Taihoku. 


264 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A    CAMPHOR   TREE 

The  camphor  trees  are  unusually  beautiful,  with  shapely  trunks 
and  wide-spreading  branches  profusely  covered  with  graceful 
leaves  of  a  soft  green.  According  to  an  article  appearing  recently 
in  a  semi-official  publication  of  Formosa,  the  camphor  produced 
in  the  island  at  the  present  time  is  obtained  entirely  from  natural- 
grown  camphor  trees,  the  supply  of  which,  it  is  anticipated,  will 
be  exhausted  within  ten  years.  For  more  than  a  decade,  however, 
the  camphor  monopoly  bureau  has  been  planting  camphor  trees 
at  the  rate  of  more  than  3,000  acres  a  year.  In  1919  its  program 
was  expanded  to  more  than  12,000  acres,  and  this  will  be  the 
annual  acreage  planted  in  future. 


regaled  by  a  thousand  conglomerate 
Chinese  odors — Chinese  joss-sticks  -and 
Chinese  fire-crackers.  Chinese  clothes 
and  Chinese  food.  Chinese  shops  and 
Chinese  houses,  Chinese  men  and  Chinese 
women.  Then  of  a  sudden  comes  this 
flower  mart. 

The  handkerchief  drops  to  the  lap  and 
the  owner  of  the  sensitive  nose  "sits  up 


and  takes  notice."  Are 
these  white  waxen  blos- 
soms really  the  gardenias 
we  were  wont  to  revere 
on  account  of  their  ex- 
pensiveness  ?  Let  us  try 
to  imagine  the  qualms  of 
some  Fifth  Avenue  flor- 
ist if  he  could  but  see 
so  many  potential  bou- 
tonnieres,  at  a  dollar 
apiece,  so  carelessly 
heaped  up  in  baskets,  lin- 
ing the  dingy  pavement. 

SEARCHING  FOR  SMUG- 
GLERS 

However,  it  is  to  the 
waterfront  of  the  Tam- 
sui  River,  commonly 
called  the  Bund,  that  we 
must  go  if  we  wish  to 
see  the  most  picturesque 
part  of  Daitotei.  Here 
it  is  that  junks,  with 
great  eyes  painted  on 
the  sides  of  the  bow, 
bring  cargoes  from  the 
ports  of  Tarnsui  and 
Kelung.  Their  antique 
sails,  patched  and  re- 
patched,  speed  the  oars- 
men when  sailing  down- 
stream with  the  wind, 
but  against  both  wind 
and  the  tide  the  prog- 
ress of  these  clumsy 
craft  is  slow  indeed. 

The  custom's  jetty  is 
the  scene  of  the  most 
animated  discussions,  for 
the  customs  officials  are 
very  thorough  in  their 
search  for  smuggled 
goods,  and  the  junk- 
owners,  many  of  whom 
bring  wares  from  the 
China  coast,  are  just  as  eager  to  as- 
sert their  innocence.  More  often  the 
barter  is  merely  in  local  products,  such 
as  charcoal  from  some  hillside  kiln  a  few 
miles  upstream,  or  sweet  potatoes,  which 
with  the  soaring  price  of  rice  are  a  chief 
staple  of  diet  among  the  poor. 

A   junk's   crew   has   no   regular   meal 
hours.     At  almost  any  time,   while  the 


265 


A   CHINESE   FAMILY    WORKING   A   CAMPHOR   TREE 

Few  trees  can  rival  the  camphor  in  value.  An  average  tree,  twelve  feet  in  circum- 
ference at  its  base,  will  yield  about  fifty  piculs  of  camphor  (approximately  6,660  pounds), 
which  at  the  present  market  price  is  worth  about  $5,000. 


boats  weigh  anchor,  a  small  party  can  be 
seen  in  the  stern,  clustering  about  a  char- 
coal brazier — a  woman  busy  dishing  out 
bowls  of  soup  and  macaroni,  and  men  in 
palm-leaf  hats,  their  bronzed  bodies 
stripped  to  the  waist,  hurriedly  scooping 
up  steaming  threads  with  the  aid  of  long 
wooden  chop-sticks. 

Every  hour  of  the  day  the  river  is 
aglow  with  life — women  washing  their 
clothes ;  the  footsore  washing  their  feet ; 
duck-tenders  giving  their  broods  a  swim  ; 
fishermen  trying  their  luck ;  housewives 
cleaning  their  vegetables  and  strips  of 
pork ;  cattle  and  their  owners  fording 
the  stream  at  low  tide ;  and,  at  sunset, 
dusky  ghosts  of  sampans,  laden  with 
families  living  up  the  river,  gliding  home- 
ward against  a  jonquil  sky. 

FORMOSA  THE  HOME  OF  CAMPHOR 

The  population  of  Formosa  is  mainly 
agricultural.  The  cultivation  of  rice,  and 
more  especially  sugar-cane,  is  encour- 
aged by  the  government,  and  these  are 
grown  in  great  quantities. 


However,  the  most  interesting  indus- 
try is  the  production  of  camphor,  and 
it  can  truly  be  said  to  be  peculiar  to  the 
island,  when  it  is  remembered  that  For- 
mosa holds  a  practical  monopoly  in  the 
world's  market  of  this  valuable  drug. 

Before  the  war,  Germany,  by  a  secret 
process,  succeeded  in  manufacturing 
some  synthetic  camphor,  but  so  expensive 
was  the  labor  entailed  that  the  artificial 
product  could  not  compete  with  the 
natural  camphor,  nor  is  it  likely  to  do  so 
for  some  time  to  come. 

Shortly  after  the  Japanese  came  to 
Formosa,  25  years  ago,  the  camphor  in- 
dustry became  a  government  monopoly. 
Before  that  time  there  had  been  a  great 
deal  of  ruthless  waste,  both  in  the  cut- 
ting down  of  trees  and  in  extracting 
camphor  from  them. 

At  first  the  Japanese,  too,  were  care- 
less in  this  respect,  for  the  supply  of 
camphor  trees  seemed  practically  limit- 
less, but  the  great  increase  in  the  demand 
for  the  product  in  late  years  has  made 
scientific  afforestation  necessary.  Now 


266 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


IN    MANY   DISTRICTS    CAMPHOR   WORKERS    REQUIRE   THE    PROTECTION    OF 

ARMED  GUARDS 

Tales  of  the  camphor  workers  recall  the  days  of  our  pioneer  fathers,  who  constantly  faced 
the  dangers  of  tomahawk  and  scalping-knife. 


large  tracts  of  land  are  given  over  to  the 
cultivation  of  the  camphor  laurel.  The 
oldest  of  these  cultivated  trees  are  now 
twenty  years  of  age,  and  these,  I  am  in- 
formed, are  to  be  cut  down  next  year. 

Paradoxical  as  it  may  seem  at  first 
glance,  the  savage  head-hunters  of  For- 
mosa have  been  both  an  impediment  and 
a  boon  to  the  camphor  industry. 

As  the  forests  are  cut  down,  the  head- 


hunters  have  to  be  driven  further  back 
into  the  mountains.  These  expeditions 
against  the  savages  are  never  very  suc- 
cessful, encountering  as  they  do  heavy 
obstacles  in  the  way  of  dense  forests, 
rapid  streams  without  bridges,  steep 
mountains  without  trails,  and,  above  all, 
the  danger  of  sudden  attack. 

The  life  of  a  camphor  worker  is  in- 
deed  an   adventurous   one ;   he   is  never 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


267 


GOUGING  CHIPS  FROM  A  CAMPHOR 

The  adz  is  used  in  reducing  the  camphor  tree  to  chips,  which  can  be  placed  into  retorts  for 
the  distillation  process  (see  illustration  on  the  next  page). 


safe.  Although  a  woodsman  with  an  axe 
never  moves  except  in  the  company  of 
an  armed  guard,  there  is  always  danger 
of  an  ambush. 

Tales  of  the  camphor  workers  recall 
the  days  of  our  pioneer  fathers  in  the 
times  of  the  tomahawk,  the  poisoned 
arrow,  and  the  scalping-knife.  And  yet 
if  this  menace  had  not  existed,  the  cam- 
phor forests  would  have  disappeared 
long  ago.  Thanks  to  the  head-hunters, 


there  are  'still  large  tracts  of  virgin  cam- 
phor forests  in  Formosa. 

Camphor  trees  grow  best  on  moderate, 
well-drained  slopes,  not  over  4,000  feet 
in  elevation,  where  the  sun's  rays  can 
reach  them. 

Nowhere  else  in  the  world  have  these 
trees  attained  such  height  and  girth.  In 
the  past,  trees  with  a  basal  circumfer- 
ence of  from  35  to  40  feet  have  been 
noted,  but  these  have  inevitablv  fallen 


268 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


PLACING   CAMPHOR   CHIPS    IN   THE    CHIP   RETORT 

The  retort  is  above  boiling  water.     Beneath  is  a  furnace.     To  the  right  a  man  is  removing 
the  chips  from  which  the  camphor  has  been  extracted. 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


269 


DRAINING  OFF   THE  OIL   FROM   THE   CAMPHOR:    FORMOSA 

Here  \ve  see  the  camphor  placed  on  wooden  troughs,  and  whatever  free  oil  it  contains  drains 

off  into  tin  pails. 


<U     O(   r; 

g  w  g> 

||  II 

M  H    O    > 


0     •£ 
S  H^ 


§ 


i-r  e5  « 

O     -M  J 
!       O      :/"- 


O       C8 

t:     a 

t/2      ^ 


o  u  ~  y 

a  u       — 
rt  cs  s  « 


•£  ^  s 


2/0 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


271 


victims  to  the  woodsman's  axe.  Perhaps 
in  the  uncharted  forests,  where  the  savage 
still  holds  sway,  more  of  these  noble 
specimens  still  grow  unscathed.  At 
present  a  camphor  tree  with  a  basal  cir- 
cumference of  20  feet  is  considered  a 
very  ample  specimen. 

A  SINGLE:  TREE  PRODUCES  $5,000  WORTH 
OF  CAMPHOR 

In  point  of  view  of  value,  few  trees 
can  rival  the  camphor.  An  average  tree, 
say  with  a  basal  circumference  of  12  feet, 
will  yield  about  50  piculs  of  camphor 
(approximately  6,660  pounds),  which,  at 
the  present  market  price,  is  worth  about 
$5,000. 

Strictly  speaking,  there  are  no  cam- 
phor forests,  as  the  camphor  laurel  is 
only  one  of  a  number  of  trees  growing 
together.  The  camphor  trees  are  un- 
usually beautiful,  with  shapely  trunks 
and  wide-spreading  branches  profusely 
covered  with  graceful  leaves  of  a  soft 
green. 

Native  stills  are  scattered  here  and 
there  throughout  the  districts  where 
crude  camphor  is  collected,  packed  in 
tins,  and  carried  down  precipitous  moun- 
tain paths  on  coolies'  backs  to  the  "near- 
est railway  line,  whence  it  goes  to  the 
refinery  at  Taihoku. 

It  was  my  good  fortune  to  visit  one  of 
these  native  stills  in  the  district  about  ten 
miles  beyond  Urai,  the  first  savage  vil- 
lage with  a  police  garrison  to  the  south 
of  Taihoku. 

We  motored  as  far  as  Sintian.  and 
from  there  the  stronger  members  of  the 
party  "hiked,"  while  the  rest  alternately 
\valked  and  rode  in  sedan  chairs. 

We  had  to  cross  many  streams  and  we 
always  found  a  Chinese  ferryman  with  a 
sampan  awaiting  us  on  the  bank,  for  our 
route  had  been  kindly  prearranged  by  the 
Japanese  official  from  whom  we  obtained 
permission  to  enter  the  savage  zone. 
There  seemed  to  be  no  fixed  fare,  and  the 
sampan  owner  accepted,  as  a  matter  of 
course,  the  few  coins  we  tossed  him  on 
alighting. 

AN  ENCOUNTER  WITH  A  "BROTHER" 
FORMOSAN 

The  ferryman  at  the  last  stream  we 
crossed  was  an  old  "ripe"  savage,  with  a 


face  seared  and  seamy.  A  veritable 
Charon  he  looked,  and  this  resemblance 
was  heightened  by  a  dark-colored  shawl 
thrown  over  his  head,  for  the  poor  fellow 
suffered  from  ague. 

He  regarded  us  with  much  solemnity, 
and  I  for  one  was  trying  to  fathom  his 
thoughts,  when  quite  unexpectedly  he 
spoke.  "You  and  I  are-  brothers.  We  are 
not  like  these,"  and  he  indicated  the  few 
Japanese  and  Chinese  passengers  at  the 
rear  of  the  sampan. 

I  was  somewhat  surprised,  but  found 
that  all  the  Formosan  savages  have  this 
idea.  Besides  themselves  the  world  con- 
tains for  them  but  two  groups,  the  Chi- 
nese and  the  Japanese  ;  so  when  they  meet 
persons  belonging  to  neither  of  these,  by 
a  process  of  elimination  they  claim  them 
as  relations. 

At  Urai  we  stopped  for  luncheon  at  a 
Japanese  inn,  and  the  entire  savage  popu- 
lation turned  out  to  watch  us  eat.  It  hap- 
pened that  we  had  some  caviar  sand- 
wiches* in  our  lunch  baskets,  and  when 
we  had  finished  eating,  as  I  had  one  left 
I  gave  it  to  an  old  savage  chief.  He  ate 
it  with  great  relish,  and  when  he  was 
through  he  signified  his  desire  for  more. 
Then  I  gave  him  a  plain  bread-and-butter 
sandwich,  and  his  disgust  was  amusing 
to  behold. 

Whenever  I  hear  of  savages  assimilat- 
ing most  eagerly  the  evils  rather  than  the 
more  substantial  benefits  of  civilization, 
I  think  in  particular  of  this  born  epicure. 
I  am  sure  he  would  have  preferred  cham- 
pagne to  beer  at  first  draught. 

THE   SIMPLICITY   OF   THE   CAMPHOR    STILL 

The  still  we  visited,  was  operated  by 
the  members  of  one  Chinese  family. 
When  our  party  approached,  some  of  the 
men  were  gouging  chips  from  the  trunks 
of  camphor  trees  with  adzes,  while  others 
were  in  the  still  feeding  the  fires. 

Adjoining  the  still  was  a  shanty,  where 
the  workers  lived,  and  in  front  of  the 
door  was  a  woman  preparing  the  after- 
noon meal,  while  beside  her  a  little  boy 
was  busy  playing  blocks  with  chips  from 
which  the  camphor  had  been  extracted. 

The  stills  are  operated  in  a  very  simple 
manner.  Camphor  chips  are  placed  in  a 
chip  retort  over  boiling  water,  and  as  the 
camphor  vaporizes  it  passes  through 


272 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A  PINE-CRESTED  RIDGE 

This  photograph  might  have  been  taken  in  New  England  except  for  the  "ripe"  savages  carry- 
ing guns.    The  border  savages  are  often  employed  to  assist  the  police  guard. 


pipes  into  submerged  vats,  which  are  so 
arranged  that  cool  water  from  a  moun- 
tain stream  can  run  over  them  to  acceler- 
ate crystallization.  After  the  camphor 
has  crystallized  the  vats  are  opened,  and 
the  product  is  placed  on  wooden  troughs 
to  allow  whatever  free  oil  there  may  be 
to  drain  off.  This  oil  will  yield  90  per 
cent  of  crude  camphor  in  the  process  of 
refining. 

THE  PEOPLE;  OF  FORMOSA 

Ever  since  we  have  any  authentic  rec- 
ord, Formosa  has  been  peopled  with  wild 
tribes  of  probably  Malayan  and  Polyne- 
sian origin.  They  are  nearest  in  point  of 
resemblance  to  the  Dayaks  of  Borneo, 
and  although  their  origin  has  never  been 
proved  beyond  a  doubt,  they  are  suffi- 


ciently like  certain  of  the  South  Sea 
tribes  to  justify  us  in  ascribing  to  them  a 
common  ancestry. 

They  are  found  on  the  island  today  in 
all  stages  of  development.  The  "raw" 
savages,  as  the  Chinese  term  them,  live 
much  as  their  ancestors  did  centuries  ago, 
while  the  "ripe"  savages,  living  on  the 
borderland  between  their  wild  kin  and 
Chinese  settlers,  have  more  or  less  as- 
similated Chinese  ways  of  life. 

The  savage  population  of  Formosa  is 
estimated  at  about  150,000.  There  are 
eight  main  groups  of  savage  tribes  on  the 
island,  each  group  with  fairly  well-de- 
fined differences  of  dress,  speech,  and 
customs,  and  in  many  cases  the  tribes 
that  make  up  a  group  display  minor  dif- 
ferences among  themselves. 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


273 


LUMBERING  OPERATIONS  IN  THE  HINOKI  FORESTS  ON  MOUNT  ARIZAN 

Next  to  the  camphor  laurel,  the  hinoki,  or  sun  trees,  are  the  most  valuable  trees  in 
Formosa.  The  tallest  specimens  attain  a  height  of  130  feet  and  are  of  such  girth  as  to  enable 
a  dozen  people  to  stand  on  the  stump  of  a  tree  that  has  been  felled. 


Although  in  most  instances  the  simi- 
larities are  more  striking  than  the  differ- 
ences in  the  various  groups,  still  they  are 
sufficiently  unlike  to  lead  us  to  suppose 
that  they  migrated  to  Formosa  at  differ- 
ent times  and  perhaps  from  different 
places. 

A   PASSION    FOR    HEAD-HUNTING 

There  is  one  trait  that  all  the  "raw" 
savages  possess  in  common,  and  that  is 
their  passion  for  head-hunting.  With 
some  of  the  groups  the  practice  is  closely 
bound  up  with  their  religious  and  social 
life,  while  with  others  it  is  more  espe- 
cially a  question  of  prowess,  and  the 
brave  who  can  display  the  greatest  array 
of  skulls  is  regarded  as  the  greatest  hero. 

The  "ripe"  savages  have,  of  course, 
abandoned  the  practice  altogether,  but 
they  still  cherish  a  sneaking  affection  for 
it,  as  is  shown  by  their  adherence  to  the 
old  dances  which  originated  in  the  fes- 
tivities over  the  capture  of  heads. 

In  every  savage  village  the  open-air 
skull  museum  is  a  matter  of  civic  pride, 


and  most  chiefs  have  their  private  collec- 
tion of  skulls  as  well. 

At  the  time  that  the  Chinese  army  of 
occupation  left  Formosa  and  the  Japanese 
entered  their  new  domain,  guns  were  at 
a  premium.  As  the  Chinese  residents 
were  not  allowed  to  retain  fire-arms, 
nearly  all  the  rifles  belonging  to  the  de- 
parting army,  numbering  about  20,000, 
were  sold  by  Chinese  traders  to  the  sav- 
ages. It  is  this  possession  of  fire-arms 
that  makes  the  head-hunters  particularly 
dangerous  to  cope  with. 

THE  LIVE-WIRE  BARRIER 

It  is  so  common  for  some  Chinaman 
living  near  the  savage  border  to  lose  his 
head  that  not  much  attention  is  paid  to 
the  incident,  unless  his  relatives  band  to- 
gether to  avenge  the  murder.  But  if 
some  Japanese  policeman,  official,  or  sol- 
dier falls  a  victim,  there  is  always  an  ex- 
pedition to  avenge  his  death.  A  village 
is  forewarned,  and  if  the  culprit  is  sur- 
rendered all  are  spared  except  the  guilty 
one,  who  pays  the  death  penalty. 


274 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


JAPANESE    INFANTRY  DESCENDING  A   MOUNTAIN   IN   THE 
SAVAGE  DISTRICT  :  FORMOSA 

The  men  employed  to  safeguard  the  camphor  workers  are  known 
as  "Aiyue"  (Guardsmen),  and  their  outpost  line  as  "Aiyu-sen" 
(Guard-line).  The  line  is  established  by  cutting  a  path  along  the 
crest  of  mountains,  after  which  the  jungle  is  cleared  away  for  18 
or  20  feet  on  both  sides :  guard-houses  are  established  at  strategic 
points  and  wire  entanglements  charged  with  electricity  are  con- 
structed. 


At  present  Formosa  enjoys  greater 
freedom  from  savage  attacks  than  ever 
before  in  her  history.  This  is  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  Japanese  have  installed  a 
live-wire  barrier  from  Karenko,  about 
midway  on  the  east  coast,  to  Pinan,  in 
the  south,  a  distance  of-  about  a  hundred 
miles,  to  serve  as  a  protection  against 
savage  raids. 

The  trees  for  twenty  feet  on  both  sides 
of  the  barrier  have  been  cleared  awav  to 


prevent  the  savages 
from  crossing  the 
wire  by  felling  trees 
on  it. 

At  distances  of 
every  half  mile  along 
the  route  blockhouses 
are  stationed,  and  a 
sentry  paces  the  beat 
between  two  posts  all 
day  long  to  see  that 
the  wire  has  not  been 
tampered  with  or  any 
holes  burrowed  un- 
derneath. 

At  first  the  electric 
current  was  turned 
on  only  at  night,  the 
usual  time  for  a  sav- 
age raid,  but  the  wily 
head-hunters  soon  dis- 
covered this,  as  they 
noticed  that  no  smoke 
issued  from  the 
power-house  by  day. 
Then,  as  they  turned 
their  night  raids  into 
daylight  expeditions, 
the  Japanese  were  ob- 
liged to  turn  on  the 
current  by  day  as  well. 
This  device,  al- 
though not  exactly  a 
cheap  one,  has  done 
much  to  develop  the 
fertile  plain  to  the 
west  of  the  barricade, 
as  many  Japanese 
agriculturists  have 
been  attracted  to  this 
region,  now  that  they 
can  live  there  in  com- 
parative safety. 

Even  now  traders, 

who  go  as  far  as  the  barricade  to  ex- 
change small  wares  for  deer  horns  and 
tortoise  shell,  occasionally  lose  their  lives, 
when  they  venture  singly  or  are  careless 
about  going  unarmed. 

There  are  two  kinds  of  deer,  Formosa 
spotted  deer  and  Swinhoe's  rusa  deer, 
that  roam  in  large  numbers  on  the  moun- 
tains occupied  by  the  savages,  and.  on  the 
seacoast  back  of  them  are  found  enor- 
mous turtles,  varying  from  three  to  five 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


275 


A   MILITAKV  GARRISON  ON  THE  BORDER  OF  THE  SAVAGE  DISTRICT  I    FORMOSA 

These  temporary  structures  serve  as  the  headquarters  of  the  commanding  officer  during  an 

expedition  against  the  savages. 


feet  in  length  and  from  200  to  400  pounds 
in  weight. 

DIFFICULT  TO  STUDY  THE  SAVAGES 

It  is  through  a  study  of  some  newly 
conquered  tribe  that  we  come  to  know 
the  characteristics  of  the  Formosan 
savage. 

Even  though  the  ardent  student  of 
anthropology  cared  to  risk  his  life  among 
the  "raw"  savag'es,  permission  to  enter 
the  danger  zone  could  not  be  obtained 
from  the  Japanese  authorities.  In  fact, 
the  Japanese  are  so  careful  in  this  respect 
that  even  when  foreigners  want  to  visit  a 
village  of  "ripe"  savages  they  must  al- 
ways be  accompanied  by  a  police  escort. 

It  is  not  my  purpose  here  to  write  a 
descriptive  history  of  the  savage  tribes 
on  this  island,  having  no  first-hand 
knowledge  on  the  subject,  but  I  wish  to 
relate  the  story  of  a  trip  I  took  to  Kam- 
panzan,  a  little  savage  village  in  the  north 
of  the  island,  and  of  an  interesting  en- 
counter with  Kim  Scan,  a  savage,  which 
throws  some  new  sidelights  on  the  life 


of  his  tribe,  the  Atayals  of  North  For- 
mosa. 

We  started  out  by  train  to  Toyen,  a 
two  hours'  ride,  on  a  beautiful  day  last 
autumn.  It  was  the  time  of  the  second 
rice  harvest,  and  in  the  paddy-fields  were 
scattered  little  groups  of  laborers  in  their 
broad  palm-leaf  hats,  some  reaping  the 
grain  with  sickles,  others  threshing,  and 
still  others  plowing  the  fields  for  the  new 
seedlings. 

Sunny  blue  skies  overhead  and  the 
soft  browns  of  the  ripened  grain,  inter- 
spersed with  vivid  green  patches  of  the 
young  seedlings,  formed  the  color  scheme 
of  the  picture  before  us,  and  the  frame 
was  the  encircling  mountains. 

WESTERN    INVENTIONS    BECOME   ORIENTAL 
COMMONPLACES 

Very  picturesque  were  the  portable 
tubs  with  their  canvas  awnings,  looking 
for  all  the  world  like  sails,  in  the  wake 
of  which  followed  the  threshers  with 
their  bundles  of  grain,  which  they  rapped 
smartly  against  the  corrugated  board 


276 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A   BRIDGE   CONSTRUCTED   BY    THE   SAVAGES 
Of  course,  when  the  heavy  rains  come,  this  bridge  will  be  carried  down-stream. 


affixed  to  the  tub,  to  separate  the  rice 
from  the  blade. 

Picturesque,  too,  were  the  foot  pumps, 
worked  by  three  and  sometimes  four 
coolies,  in  pumping  water  from  one  field 
to  another.  These  were  the  invention  of 
a  Spanish  missionary  and  are  used  in 
China  as  well. 

It  would  be  interesting  indeed  to  find 
out  how  many  of  the  inventions  of  which 
we  think  as  typically  Oriental  have  origi- 
nated in  Western  brains.  I  call  to  mind 
the  tonga,  a  vehicle  used  all  over  Central 


India,  the  invention  of  an  American 
missionary;  and  more  especially -the  jin- 
rikisha,  the  first  one  of  which  was  con- 
structed by  an  American  missionary  in 
Japan  for  his  lame  wife,  and  which  is 
now  used  all  over  the  East. 

EVERY  BUFFALO  HAS  ITS  FRIENDLY  HERON 

The  plowing  is  done  by  water  buffa- 
loes, which  are  brought  down  from  their 
mountain  pastures,  where  they  return  to 
graze  when  their  work  is  finished.  No 
rural  Formosan  landscape  is  complete 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


277 


A    RATTAN    SUSPENSION    BRIDGE    CONSTRUCTED    BY   THE    JAPANESE    IN    THE 

SAVAGE   COUNTRY 

The  longest  structure  of  this  kind  in  the  island  is  more  than  400  feet  in  length.    Even  in  flood 
times  this  footbridge  swings  safely  above  the  foaming  waters. 


MOUNT   MORRISON,    13,075   FEET   IN   ELEVATION,   THE   HIGHEST  PEAK    IN   THE 

JAPANESE    EMPIRE 


I 


<U 


Q 


o  a 


rt 
>>rt 
£  C 


o    jy  o 


C >.£•£: 

«    -o^T 
o    .  rt 


•^  o 

en  ^3 
rt  rt 

bo   - 


5    Sti 


z;  <u 

w  fij 

w  *"* 

tn  -M': 


278 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


279 


I 


= 


o   .t; 


without  at  least  one  of  these  hulking 
creatures,  with  its  lowering  horns  and 
great  staring  eyes.  Their  hides  are  just 
the  shade  of  weathered  rock,  and  so 
motionless  do  they  stand  for  hours  while 
grazing  on  some  grassy  slope  that  they 
look,  even  from  a  short  distance  away, 
as  if  they  were  carved  from  stone. 

Wherever  there  are  buffaloes,  graceful 
white  herons  are  seen  perched  on  their 
backs.  It  seems,  indeed,  that  each  buffalo 
has  a  particular  heron  for  a  pal.  who 
takes  care  to  rid  him  of  smaller  friends, 
just  as  devoted,  perhaps,  but  less  de- 
sirable. 

At  Toyen  we  took  push-cars.  These 
are  small,  wicker-covered  chariots  on 
narrow-gauge  rails.  The  seats  are  just 
large  enough  to  accommodate  two  pas- 
sengers, and  there  is  a  small  platform 
behind,  where  the  two  coolies  who  push 
the  car  on  the  upgrade  can  stand  and 
ride  when  the  route  lies  down  hill. 

The  confirmed  motorist  would  find 
these  push-cars  a  bit  tedious  on  the  level 
or  upgrade,  but  going  down  mountains 
they  leave  nothing  to  be  desired  in  the 
way  of  thrills. 

Our  route  lay  for  the  first  hour  through 
level  country.  We  passed  through  fields 
of  sugar-cane,  with  occasional  patches  of 
sweet  potatoes,  cabbages,  and  pumpkins. 
And  now  and  then  we  came  upon  some 
Chinese  village  near  a  stream,  where  our 
approach  was  heralded  by  the  shouts  of 
children. 

Women  tugging  small  babies  would 
hobble  out  of  their  doorways  as  fast  as 
their  bound  feet  would  permit  and  ex- 
change laughing  comments  on  our  ap- 
pearance. Young  men  would  frankly 
jeer  at  us,  and  only  the  old  men,  like 
figures  in  ivory  yellow  with  age,  gazed 
upon  us  with  imperturbable  calm. 

A  JOURNEY  WITH  EVERY  VISTA  A  PICTURE 

At  length  we  started  the  ascent.  At 
first  our  way  lay  through  terraced  tea 
gardens  and  groves  of  pineapples,  ba- 
nanas, and  citrus  fruits ;  but  as  we 
progressed  the  mountain  sides  became 
covered  with  Nature's  own  rich  mantle. 
Ornamental  grasses  fringed  our  path, 
while  through  the  bracken  and  lichened 
rocks  projecting  overhead  little  bubbling 
freshets  trickled  down  at  our  feet. 


280 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE   SCHOOL  FOR   SAVAGE   CHILDREN   AT   KAMPANZAN,   A   MOUNTAIN   VILLAGE   IN 

NORTHERN    FORMOSA 


£ 


A    SAVAGE  PALAVER-HOUSE 

Most  of  the  savage  groups  have  these  dwellings,  which  serve  the  double  purpose  of  club- 
houses and  bachelor  dormitories. 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


281 


A  THATCHED-ROOF  TYPE  OF  SAVAGE  DWELLING 
These  natives  are  displaying  some  of  their  hand-made  pottery. 


A  SAVAGE  DWELLING  WITH  SKULLS  HANGING  FROM  THE  RAFTERS 

Whenever  savages  live  in  the  vicinity  of  slate  quarries  they  construct  their  homes    from 

slabs  of  slate. 


rt 

> 

U 

0 

LO 

-— 

u 

5 

~ 

C 

•—  • 

'— 

« 

5 

J" 

« 

i-> 

.*• 

d 
j-> 

5-| 
< 

H 

W 

c 

a 

-r 

o 
5 

'u 

VH 

w 

(« 

^ 

-S 

,~, 

^ 

H 

'a 

o 

OJ 

'* 

"^ 

•< 

s 

^t-i 

^ 

2 

y 

o 

^ 

"*^ 

,j^ 

rf 

H 

a 

>, 

o 

u 

0 

0 

^ 

z 

"S 

"rt 

— 

< 

2 

_c 

•-' 

tn 

<-i 

o 

u 

Tr 

^> 

v 

Q 

+-r 

1 

•= 

•| 

2 

< 


<    CD 


W    fej 


r-«        -s 

W   > 

G   <1 

to 


.go0 

s^sg 

u  g  S  2 

g  c  s  o, 

^*i^  o> 


a 


0  ° 

~    W    G 

'S  i2  rt 


.  o 

"-"^  P 


cr  bo  rt 


^S2 


282 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


283 


Every  bend  in  the  path  brought  to 
view  some  new  slope  more  exquisitely 
arrayed  than  the  last — a  profusion  of 
tropical  foliage  plants,  elephants'  ears, 
plantains,  and  tree-ferns  intermingled 
with  flowering  shrubs  of  many  varieties, 
wild  hydrangeas,  morning-glories,  pink 
oleanders,  hibiscus,  and  the  lovely  gold- 
banded  lilies  of  Japan. 

Kampanzan  itself  is  not  over  2,000  feet 
in  elevation,  but  the  mountains  surround- 
ing it  form  a  splendid  setting,  the  lower 
hills  densely  wooded  and  the  higher 
veiled  in  clouds  and  snow. 

Toward  dusk  we  arrived  at  the  savage 
village,  tucked  away  in  a  valley  between 
two  mountains.  Smoke  clouded  the  door- 
ways of  the  mud,  grass-roofed  huts,  for 
within  savage  mothers  were  boiling  their 
evening  meal  of  sweet  potatoes  over 
wood  fires  in  the  center  of  the  floor. 

Children  ran  out  at  our  approach,  their 
eyes  quite  wet  and  streaming  tears  from 
their  recent  smoke  bath,  while  their 
sires,  one-time  braves,  but  now  mere 
blear-eyed  phantoms  of  savagery,  squat- 
ted in  front  of  their  houses  and  blinked 
at  us,  as  we  passed,  between  puffs  from 
long  thin  pipes. 

THE  STORY  OF  KIM  SOAN 

We  went  to  a  small  Japanese  inn,  and 
it  was  here  that  we  met  Kim  Soan,  after 
we  had  finished  supper  and  were  wonder- 
ing how  to  spend  the  hour  before  bed- 
time. 

He  came  as  the  messenger  from  the 
chief  police  official  to  inquire  wrhether 
we  had  everything  we  needed  for  our 
comfort.  A  member  of  our  party,  who 
has  lived  many  years  in  Formosa  and 
speaks  fluent  Chinese,  requested  him  to 
convey  our  thanks  to  the  police  official, 
and  then  return  to  us  for  a  talk.  After 
he  had  gone  our  friend  said,  "I  know 
that  man ;  his  face  comes  back  to  me," 
and  he  told  us  what  he  knew  of  Kim 
Soan's  history. 

When  the  Chinese  were  still  in  posses- 
sion of  Formosa — a  period  of  gross  mis- 
rule, from  all  accounts — there  seems  to 
have  been  one  governor  with  a  few  ad- 
vanced ideas.  He  conceived  the  scheme 
of  educating  the  young  boys  of  conquered 
savage  tribes  and  sending  them  back  as 
apostles  of  light  to  their  people.  But  he 


reckoned  without  the  volition  of  his 
pupils,  as  in  the  case  of  Kim  Soan,  who 
was  one  of  these  boys,  and  who  after  he 
had  become  attached  to  the  amenities  of 
civilization  refused  to  return  to  savagery. 

Later,  when  the  Japanese  came  to  the 
island,  Kim  Soan  was  commissioned  to 
accompany  two  Japanese  officials  who 
were  going  to  enter  the  savage  territory 
to  take  the  census.  The  three  set  out.  all 
dressed  alike  in  Japanese  garb,  and  they 
had  not  proceeded  very  far  when  they 
were  attacked  by  some  savages,  who 
killed  the  two  Japanese,  but  spared  Kim 
Soan. 

He  returned  to  report  the  murders  to 
the  authorities,  and  they,  in  turn,  con- 
demned him  to  die,  deeming  him  respon- 
sible for  the  two  deaths.  He  managed  to 
escape,  however,  and  fled  to  the  moun- 
tains, where  he  stayed  for  eight  years. 
Then  he  received  his  pardon,  returned  to 
the  plains,  and  was  made  an  instructor  in 
the  school  for  savage  children  at  Kam- 
panzan. 

"lIOW    MANY    HEADS    DID    YOU    CUT   OFF?" 

Our  companion  had  hardly  finished  this 
narrative  when  Kim  Soan  himself  reap- 
peared. The  conversation  which  took 
place  between  the  two  follows : 

"Don't  you  remember  me,  Kim  Soan, 
and  the  little  school  at  Tamsui  that  you 
used  to  attend  ?" 

"Oh,  sir,  that  is  a  long  time  ago — so 
long  that  it  seems  like  a  dream." 

"So  you  became  a  savage  again.  How 
many  heads  did  you  cut  off?" 

This  remark  had  the  effect  of  a  bomb. 
Instantly  Kim  Soan  leaped  to  his  feet, 
and  raising  his  hand,  his  voice  choking 
with  emotion,  said  very  solemnly,  "I 
swear  by  the  heavens  above  and  the  earth 
below  my  feet  that  I  have  never  been 
guilty  of  taking  any  human  life." 

"But  you  have  the  tattoo-marks  on 
your  forehead  that  indicate  that  you  have 
been  admitted  into  the  council  of  the  men 
of  your  tribe.  Surely  you  must  have  pro- 
cured at  least  one  head  to  enable  you  to 
accomplish  that?" 

Again  he  asserted  his  innocence  with 
the  same  impressive  solemnity. 

"Then  you  must  have  accompanied  the 
others  on  some  head-hunting  raid.  You 
couldn't  refuse  to  go,  could  you?" 


284 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  T.  MacGregor 


A   GROUP   Of    KAMPANZAN    SAVAGES 


The  savages  in  the  northern  half  of  the  island  are  distinguished  from  the  southern 
natives  by  their  tattooing.  The  southern  savages  are  not  given  to  this  practice.  Of  the 
northern  tribes  the  one  scattered  over  the  largest  area  is  the  Atayal  group,  to  which  the 
Kampanzan  savages  belong.  They  live  in  mountain  recesses,  are  among  the  least  civilized 
of  all  the  inhabitants  of  Formosa,  and  are  especially  partial  to  head-hunting. 


"Xo,  I  couldn't  refuse.  I  always  tried 
to  find  some  excuse,  but  finally  our  chief 
said,  'Tomorrow  you  go.'  Then  we  shook 
a  tree  full  of  birds  to  read  the  omens 
from  their  flight,  and  the  old  woman  of 
our  tribe  said,  'It  is  well ;  you  will  be  suc- 
cessful.' 

THE  DOUBLE  ASSASSINATION 

"That  night  I  went  to  bed  with  a  heavy 
heart,  and  when  I  slept  I  dreamed  that 


we  would  meet  a  woodsman  with  an  axe 
and  a  guardsman  with  a  rifle. 

"On  the  next  day  it  turned  out  even  as 
I  dreamed.  My  companions  shot  the 
guardsman  through  the  heart  from  an 
ambush  ten  feet  distant,  and  the  woods- 
man threw  up  his  hands  and  begged  for 
mercy. 

"I  pleaded  with  my  companions  to  spare 
his  life,  and  they  said,  'Fie!  shame  upon 
you !  You  have  a  Chinese  heart.'  Then 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


285 


they  turned  upon  me 
to  kill  me  as  well,  so 
I  withdrew  my  peti- 
tion. After  that  they 
cut  off  the  woods- 
man's head,  and  we 
returned  home." 

"And  didn't  you 
take  part-  in  any  more 
raids  after  that?" 

"Yes,  one  more. 
Once  we  lay  in  am- 
bush in  some  tall 
grass  as  some  Jap- 
anese infantry  were 
coming  along.  They 
were  very  brave, 
those  men,  for  though 
we  shot  down  the  first 
ones,  the  others  kept 
right  on  coming.  Soon, 
however,  we  were 
forced  to  make  our 
escape,  for  they  far 
outnumbered  us.  We 
respect  the  courage  of 
the  Japanese  soldiers, 
but  the  Japanese  po- 
licemen —  bah  !  they 
scuttle  away  like  mice 
at  the  first  glimpse  of 
us." 


WOODEN 

EXPLODE 

Then  we  asked  Kim 
Soan  many  questions, 
and  he  gave  us  many 
interesting  answers. 
He  told  us  of  the 
blacksmiths  of  every  tribe  who  kept  the 
guns  in  good  condition.  He  contradicted 
the  rumor  that  arms  and  ammunition 
are  still  smuggled  into  the  savage  terri- 
tory. 

He  related  to  us  how  the  savages  make 
bullets  from  the  heart  of  a  very  hard 
wood  cured  by  a  special  process.  These 
bullets  are  only  effectual  when  fired  from 
a  short  range,  and  when  they  lodge  in  the 
flesh  they  explode  like  dumdum  bullets. 

He  also  explained  to  us  the  ingenious 
way  in  which  the  men  of  his  tribe  make 
caps.  Two  small  disks  are  cut  from  the 
striking  side  of  a  safety  match-box,  the 
tip  of  a  match  is  placed  between,  and  then 


HOW   WOULD  YOU   LIKE  TO   MEET   US   IN  THE  DARK? 

An  old  savage  chief  and  his  wife.    The  former  was  told  to  dress  up 
as  he  would  to  go  on  a  head-hunting  raid. 


the  disks  are  glued  together.  He  told  us 
that  they  were  always  able  to  buy  as 
many  matches  as  they  wanted  from  Chi- 
nese traders. 

For  hunting  birds  and  beasts,  he  stated, 
bows  and  arrows  were  used,  and  all  their 
ammunition  was  saved  to  hunt  men. 

THE  BLOODY  HAND  A  PASSPORT  TO  THE 
SAVAGE  HEAVEN 

"But  why  do  your  people  hunt  heads? 
Is  it  true  that  a  man  must  procure  a  head 
before  he  can  claim  a  bride?" 

"No,  it  isn't  that;  but,  of  course,  the 
women  prefer  the  men  that  have  brought 
back  the  most  heads.  But  it's  this  way: 


286 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE   HOME  OF  A   SAVAGE   CHIEF:   FORMOSA 

In  nearly  all  the  savage  groups  the  home  of  the  chief  is  distinguished  by  the  crude  carvings 
of  human  figures  ove'r  the  doorways.    Note  the  skull  on  the  shelf  at  the  left. 


AN    OPEN-AIR    SKULL    MUSEUM 
"In  every  savage  village  the  open-air  skull  museum  is  a  matter  of  civic  pride." 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


2S7 


all  my  people  believe 
that  when  we  die  we 
all  must  walk  up  the 
rainbow  to  the  Land- 
of-After-Death. 

"At  the  end  of  the 
rainbow  the  gateman 
stands,  and  when  we 
come  he  will  say  to 
us,  'Show  me  your 
hand.'  And  he  will 
look  at  our  hand,  and 
if  he  finds  it  clean  he 
will  say,  'Go  to  the 
right,'  and  he  will 
kick  us  into  the  dark 
nothingnes  s  below; 
Taut  if  he  looks  at  our 
hand  and  finds  it 
stained  he  will  say, 
'You  may  enter,'  and 
he  will  allow  us  to 
pass  within." 

JAPANESE  SCHOOL  FOR 
SAVAGE   CHILDREN 

Before  we  left 
Kampanzan  we  visited 
the  savage  school  in 
which  Kim  Scan  was 
a  teacher.  The  chil- 
dren sang  the  Japan- 
ese national  anthem 
for  us  with  very 
pleasing  voices.  I 
"have  never  heard  Jap- 
anese or  Chinese  chil- 
dren sing  half  so  well. 

Then  several  of 
the  children  made 
speeches,  which  were  very  amusing,  as 
they  were  so  obviously  the  product  of  the 
teacher's  pen.  Each  speech  started  some- 
what as  follows :  "I  am  a  poor  little  sav- 
age boy.  Before  the  kind  Japanese  came 
here,  I  was  very  ignorant.  Now  my  kind 
teacher  is  teaching  me  many  things,"  and 
more  of  the  same  sort. 

The  Japanese  are  taking  steps  to  train 
the  savages  in  certain  manual  arts,  chiefly 
cloth-weaving  on  hand-looms,  so  that 
they  can  earn  their  living,  now  that  they 
can  no  longer  follow  the  more  exciting 
life  of  the  chase. 

I  left  Kampanzan  with  a  feeling  of 
depression.  There  is  something  poig- 


"ALAS,  POOR  YORICK,  i  KNEW  HIM  WELL!" 

A  nearer  view  of  a  skull  museum,  showing  the  trophies  placed  on 
bamboo  poles. 


nantly  pathetic  in  the  spectacle  of  these 
wild  creatures  of  the  forest  tied  down  to 
a  dull  domesticity,  even  as  wild  beasts 
captive  in  cages. 

FORMOSA  ONCE  THE  STRONGHOLD  OF  JAP- 
ANESE AND  CHINESE  PIRATES 

The  bulk  of  the  population  of  Formosa 
is,  of  course,  Chinese.  Several  centuries 
ago  the  island  used  to  be  the  stronghold 
of  both  Chinese  and  Japanese  pirates, 
who  found  it  a  very  convenient  base 
from  which  to  intercept  vessels  follow- 
ing the  trade  routes  between  Japan  and 
the  rest  of  the  Orient. 

It  was  not  until  the  fourteenth  century 


288 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


SAVAGES    CARRYING  WATER   IN   BAMBOO   POLES 

This  practice  is  only  one  of  many  points  of  resemblance  between  Formosan  savages  and 

South  Sea  tribes. 


A  SAVAGE  WOMAN   WEAVING  CLOTH   ON   A   HAND-LOOM 


FORMOSA  THE  BEAUTIFUL 


289 


BLACK  TEETH  AND  FLAT,  ROUND  BAMBOO  EARRINGS  ARE  HIGHLY  PRIZED  AMONG  THE 
SAVAGES  OF   THE   TAIWAN   GROUP   OCCUPYING   SOUTHERN    FORMOSA 

It  was  upon  the  Paiwan  savages  that  the  Japanese  wreaked  a  bitter  vengeance  in  1872,  follow- 
ing the  massacre  of  a  crew  of  shipwrecked  Japanese  sailors. 


FANTASTIC  EFFECTS  IN  MILLINERY  DISTINGUISH  THE  ORNAMENTATION  OF  BOTH 
MEN  AND  WOMEN  OF  THE  TSUO  GROUP 

This  tribe  has  a  unique  organization.  All  the  land  is  owned  by  one  clan,  the  Hyoft'pa, 
to  whom  every  tribesman  gives  a  tithe  of  his  annual  harvest.  A  public  council  hall,  called 
the  Kutsuba,  is  used  as  a  lodging  place  for  all  unmarried  youths  more  than  12  years  of  age. 
These  boys  are  subjected  to  Spartan  hardships  in  training  to  foster  discipline,  courage,  and 
virtue. 


290 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE    BELL-SHAPED    EARRINGS    AND    CHAPLETS   OF    BONE    AND    BEADS    INDICATE    THAT 
THESE   SAVAGES    BELONG   TO   THE   VONUM    GROUP 

According  to  a  tribal  legend,  the  Vonum  Group  of  Formosan  mountain  savages  lived  in 
the  plains  until  the  misfortune  of  an  all-destroying  deluge  befell  them.  With  the  flood  came 
a  huge  serpent,  which  swam  through  the  stormy  waters  toward  the  terrorized  people.  They 
owed  their  deliverance  from  the  great  snake  to  the  timely  appearance  of  a  monster  crab, 
which,  after  a  terrific  battle,  succeeded  in  killing  the  reptile. 


that  the  first  industrial  class  of  Chinese, 
the  agriculturist  Hakkas,  who  were  out- 
casts in  their  own  country,  came  to  settle 
in  Formosa.  After  that,  at  the  time  of 
the  Tatar  invasion,  several  thousand 
Ming  loyalists  sought  refuge  on  the 
island. 

Then  there  has  always  been  more  or 
less  of  an  influx  of  immigration  from  the 
overpopulated  province  of  Fu-kien,  just 
across  the  Formosa  Straits.  These  Chi- 
nese from  Fu-kien  far  outnumber  the 
others,  and  their  speech,  known  as  the 
"Amoy  dialect,"  is  the  vernacular  of  the 
island. 

When  the  Japanese  came  into  control 
of  the  island  after  the  Chino-Japanese 
War,  in  1895,  a  third  element  was  added 
to  the  population. 

THE   WORK   OF   THE    JAPANESE 

The  Japanese  have  instituted  great  ma- 
terial improvements  in  Formosa.  The 


most  important,  of  course,  are  the  mod- 
ern courts  of  justice  in  lieu  of  the  old 
mandarin  courts,  where  the  man  with  the 
greatest  "pull,"  which,  needless  to  say, 
spelled  money,  invariably  won  out.  There 
is  also  greater  security  to  life  and  limb 
now,  for  not  only  is  the  Japanese  police 
system  a  most  thorough  and  efficient  or- 
ganization, but  the  sanitary  measures 
that  they  have  adopted  have  practically 
eradicated  such  diseases  as  malaria  and 
bubonic  plague. 

AN   ERA  OF   PROSPERITY 

Harbor  improvements,  railways,  and 
bridges  have  greatly  facilitated  traffic, 
but  the  road  systems,  as  yet,  outside  the 
city  of  Taihoku,  leave  much  to  be  de- 
sired. 

Education,  too,  has  been  advanced, 
but,  owing  to  the  policy  of  assimilation, 
native  schools  are  not  encouraeed,  and 
the  percentage  of  Chinese  children  at- 


FORMOSA  THE  BE.U'TIFUL 


291 


A   DANCE  OF   THE   AMI   GROUP  :    FORMOSA 

The  Amis  have  discontinued  head-hunting,  but  they  still  adhere  to  the  old  dances,  which 
originated  in  the  festivities  over  the  capture  of  heads. 


WOMEN    WATER-BEARERS   OF   THE   PEPO   GROUP 

The  members  of  this  group  are  scattered  over  the  broad  tracts  of  level  land  in  the 
western  parts  of  Formosa.  They  long  had  intercourse  both  with  the  Dutch  and  the  Chinese. 
Today  they  are  scarcely  distinguishable  from  the  Chinese. 


292 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


YOUTH    AND   OLD   AGE 

This  tattooed  design  is  peculiar  to  the  Tsalisen  Group,  whose  members  ceased  to  hunt 
heads  more  than  a  century  ago.  They  are  now  good  farmers,  and  through  their  frequent 
intercourse  with  the  Chinese  have  become  skillful  blacksmiths  and  carvers.  Many  of  the 
women  of  this  tribe  wear  dresses  with  long  trailing  skirts. 


tending  public  schools  is  only  a  little  over 
13  as  against  a  rate  of  over  95  for  the 
Japanese  children  of  the  island.  Opium 
smoking  is  controlled  by  license.  About 
2.  per  cent  of  the  Chinese  at  present 
smoke  opium,  but  eventually  this  will 
stop  entirely. 

The  future  of  Formosa  under  its  pres- 


ent benevolent  paternal  government  looks 
bright,  indeed.  Never  before  has  this 
island,  so  beautiful  to  the  eye,  enjoyed 
such  a  degree  of  prosperity.  Old  in- 
dustries are  thriving,  new  industries  are 
cropping  forth,  foreign  trade  increases 
yearly,  and  the  general  welfare  of  the 
Formosan  people  is  steadily  improving. 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY   NOTICE 

The  Board  of  Managers  of  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY  report  to  the  members 
the  following  proposed  changes  in  the  By-Laws  of  the  Society : 

That  Section  2.  of  Article  VII  of  the  By-Laws  be  amended  to  read  as  follows : 

''The  annual  dues  of  members  shall  be  $2.50,  payable  in  January. 
"This  amendment  shall  be  effective  as  of  January   i,   1920,  but  shall  not  apply  to 
members  who  have  paid  their  dues  prior  to  its  adoption." 

That  article  XII  be  amended  to  read  as  follows : 

"These  By-Laws  may  be  amended  at  any  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Managers  by  a 
two-thirds  vote  of  the  members  present ;  provided,  however,  that  notice  of  intention 
to  amend  said  By-Laws  has  been  sent  to  all  members  of  said  Board  not  less  than 
thirty  days  prior  to  such  meeting." 

A  special  meeting  of  the  members  of  the  Society  is  hereby  called  and  will  be  held  on  the 
I5th  day  of  March,  1920,  at  Hubbard  Memorial  Hall,  Washington,  D.  C.,  at  two  o'clock  p.  m., 
for  the  purpose  of  voting  on  the  above  amendments. 

By  order  of  the  Board  of  Managers:  O.  P.  AUSTIN,  Secretary. 


VOL.  XXXVII,  No.  4        WASHINGTON 


APRIL,  1920 


PEARY   AS    A    LEADER 

Incidents  from  the  Life  of  the  Discoverer  of  the  North 

Pole  Told  by  One  of  His  Lieutenants  on  the 

Expedition  Which  Reached  the  Goal 

BY  DONALD  B.   MACMILLAN 


«/^TARS  AND  STRIPES  nailed  to 

W  the  Pole!" 

k^J  Tne  accomplishment  of  that 
which  had  been  declared  repeatedly  to  be 
the  impossible,  that  which  our  strongest 
nations  had  striven  to  do  for  more  than 
three  hundred  years,  at  the  cost  of  many 
lives  and  the  expenditure  of  millions  of 
dollars,  demanded  great  leadership. 

What  manner  of  man  was  this  who 
persuaded  the  polar  Eskimos  to  penetrate 
to  the  interior  of  the  great  ser-mik-suah, 
the  abode  of  evil  spirits;  induced  them 
to  leave  their  homes  and  journey  seven 
hundred  miles  due  north ;  to  travel  out 
over  the  drift-ice  of  the  Polar  Sea  so 
far  that  they  declared  that  they  would 
never  again  see  their  wives  and  children? 

What  was  the  secret  of  that  power 
which  he  possessed  over  his  white  men 
that,  had  he  wished,  they  would  have 
followed  him  through  broken  ice,  would 
have  crossed  treacherous  thin  leads,  sur- 
mounted pressure  ridges,  and  clung  to 
him  until  the  last  ounce  of  food  was  gone 
and  the  last  dog  eaten  ? 

We  find  the  key  to  Rear  Admiral  Rob- 
ert E.  Peary's  character  in  his  reply  to 
the  late  ex-President  Roosevelt  upon  the 
presentation  of  the  Hubbard  Medal  of 
the  National  Geographic  Society  upon 
the  explorer's  return  in  1906  from  the 


world's  record  of  "Farthest  North,"  when 
he  said : 

"The  true  explorer  does  his  work  not 
for  any  hopes  of  reward  or  honor,  but 
because  the  thing  which  he  has  set  him- 
self to  do  is  a  part  of  his  being  and  must 
be  accomplished  for  the  sake  of  its  ac- 
complishment. 

"To  me  the  final  and  complete  solution 
of  the  polar  mystery,  which  has  engaged 
the  best  thought  and  interests  of  some  of 
the  best  men  of  the  most  vigorous  and 
enlightened  nations  of  the  world  for 
more  than  three  centuries,  and  which  to- 
day stirs  the  heart  of  every  man  or 
woman  whose  veins  hold  red  blood,  is 
the  thing  which  should  be  done  for  the 
honor  and  credit  of  this  country,  the 
thing  which  it  is  intended  that  I  should 
do,  and  the  thing  that  I  must  do." 

Here  we  have  energy,  purpose,  de- 
termination, and  love  of  country — some 
of  the  essentials  of  a  great  leader,  and 
as  such  we  who  had  the  honor  of  serving 
under  him  like  to  think  of  him,  and  such 
we  know  he  was. 

DEFYING  THE  GODS  OF  THE  FROZEN 
SAHARA 

On  the  1 5th  of  July,  1886,  far  in  on 
the  back  of  the  great  ice-cap  of  Green- 
land, at  an  altitude  of  7,525  feet,  lay  two 


294 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Donald  B.  MacMillan 

A   MEMBER  OF  THE   MAC  MILLAN   EXPEDITION    FINDING   PEARY'S   CABIN   AND  RECORD 
AT  THE  NORTHERN  END  OF  AXEL  HEIBERG  LAND,   MAY,    1914 

The  Arctic  explorer  reached  this  point  in  June,  1906,  on  his  return  from  "Farthest  North," 
87°  6',  reached  in  April  of  that  year  (see  map,  page  297,  and  text,  page  300). 


forms  huddled  in  the  snow.  For  forty- 
eight  hours  they  listened  to  the  sullen 
roar  of  wind  and  drifting  snow  across 
their  bodies. 

The  jealous  gods  of  that  great  frozen 
Sahara,  guarding  its  secrets  down  through 
the  ages,  were  justly  alarmed  at  this  in- 
vasion and  looked  in  wonder  at  these 
pioneers  who  had  the  temerity  to  leave 
the  comforts  of  civilization  and  flower- 
bedecked  slopes  of  the  Warm  Greenland 


fiords  and  advance  into  the  great  white 
unknown,  with  its  attendant  severity  of 
cutting  winds  and  drifting  snows. 

These  same  gods  must  have  laughed 
aloud  five  years  later  upon  seeing  a  man 
lashed  to  a  plank  and  landed  upon  their 
shores  with  a  broken  leg,  far  up  at  the 
head  of  Inglefield  Gulf.  This  American 
explorer  would  not  go  home;  he  would 
do  what  he  came  to  do! 

And  when  the  ship  steamed  out  through 


PEARY  AS  A  LEADER 


295 


*". 


Photograph  by  Donald  B.  MacMillan 

PEARY'S  HUT  AT  CAPE  SABINE,  FROM  WHICH  THE  EXPLORER  MADE  HIS  DASH  TOWARD 

THE  POLE  IN  1900 

This  refuge  was  formerly  the  deck-house  of  the  steamship  Windward,  used  by  Peary  in  his, 

1898-1902  Expedition. 


the  broken  fields  of  ice  and  disappeared 
over  the  southern  horizon,  these  gods 
knew  that  here  in  the  little  tent  on  the 
beach  was  a  man  against  whom  immedi- 
ate warfare  must  be  declared  and  their 
strongest  forces  united  (see  also  p.  319). 

"MAN  WAS  NOT  BORN  TO  DIE  BENEATH 
SUCH  A  SKY" 

At  the  first  peep  of  dawn  of  the  long 
Arctic  day  we  find  Peary  accepting  the 


challenge  and  assembling  his  forces  at 
the  edge  of  the  ice-cap.  On  Independ- 
ence Day  the  American  flag  was  unfurled 
at  Navy  Cliff,  some  six  hundred  miles  to 
the  north. 

When,  weeks  later,  he  struggles  to- 
ward home  over  that  apparently  endless 
white  waste,  with  inflamed  eyes,  frost- 
bitten and  sunburnt  face,  dropping  dogs, 
and  food  nearly  gone,  he  looks  up  into 
the  clear  heavens  and  declares  that 


296 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


"man  was  not  born  to  die  beneath  such 
a  sky." 

Here  was  belief  in  self,  hope,  optimism. 

Six  years  later,  contrary  to  all  Arctic 
precedent,  he  dared  to  harness  his  dogs, 
leave  his  ship  frozen  in  the  ice,  and  sledge 
northward  in  the  middle  of  the  big  Arctic 
night. 

With  the  thermometer  at  fifty  and 
sixty  below  zero,  not  a  particle  of  food 
in  his  sledges,  he  groped  his  way  along 
the  eastern  shores  of  Ellesmere  Land, 
around  Cape  Baird,  and  into  Lady 
Franklin  Bay,  searching  for  the  head- 
quarters of  the  Greely  Expedition,  aban- 
doned sixteen  years  before. 

He  stumbled  through  the  door  with 
both  feet  frozen  to  the  ankles.  Nothing 
could  be  done  here  to  relieve  his  suffer- 
ing. Toe  after  toe  sloughed  off.  Finally 
he  was  lashed  to  a  sledge  and  carried 
through  the  broken  ice  of  bays  and  in- 
lets and  along  the  ice  foot  back  to  his 
ship,  two  hundred  miles  to  the  south. 
And  with  him,  to  aid  in  the  amputation 
of  the  stumps  of  eight  toes,  went  a  can 
of  anesthetic,  found  there  in  the  house 
and  brought  into  the  Arctic  regions  in 
1881. 

Now  a  cripple?  Within  thirty-seven 
days  following  the  final  amputation  he 
was  headed  north  again,  equipped  with 
crutches ! 

The  antagonistic  elements  of  the  North- 
land should  have  submitted  meekly  and 
bowed  humbly,  as  this  plucky  litt)e  cara- 
van wound  its  way  up  through  Kennedy 
and  Robeson  channels  with  the  great 
unknown  as  its  objective  point. 

FIGHTING  FOR  THE;  LIVES  OF  HIS  NATIVES 

Two  years  later  we  find  this  intrepid 
man  encamped  on  the  bleak  shores  of 
Cape  Sabine,  surrounded  by  his  loyal 
Eskimos,  patiently  perfecting  his  equip- 
ment and  preparing  for  that  hazardous 
trip  of  eight  hundred  miles  to  the  top  of 
the  earth. 

Every  attack  had  been  made  upon  him 
that  Torgnak,  the  evil  spirit  of  the  North, 
could  devise — bitter  cold,  cutting  winds, 
blinding  drift,  treacherous  thin  ice,  rough 
ice,  pressure  ridges,  crevasses,  piblocto 
among  his  dogs,  frost-bitten  face,  fingers, 
feet,  and  starvation ;  yet  his  will  was 


adamant,   his   body   strong,  his  purpose 
unshaken. 

And  now  a  new  mode  of  attack  to 
thwart  his  plans,  one  cunningly  devised 
and  relentlessly  executed — deprive  him 
of  the  valuable  services  of  his  loyal 
Eskimos!  Those  were  the  darkest  days 
of  Peary's  career,  fighting  not  for  the 
Pole,  but  for  the  lives  of  his  natives,  and 
with  the  same  energy  and  determination 
which  characterize  all  of  his  work.  Six 
mounds  of  rock  within  a  few  yards  of 
his  wooden  shack  testify  to  his  losing 
fight. 

THE  "ROOSEVELT"  BEGINS  HER  CAREER 

Four  years  he  remained  in  the  North, 
and  returned  scarred  and  temporarily 
beaten,  but  with  a  knowledge  of  why  he 
was  beaten — the  secret  of  final  success. 
His  staunch  friends  believed  in  him  and 
gathered  around  him,  and  in  the  fall  of 
1904  they  saw  the  sturdy  Roosevelt  be- 
ginning to  take  shape  under  the  skillful 
hands  of  Maine  shipbuilders. 

With  engines  throbbing  under  high 
pressure  and  smoke  belching  from  her 
funnel,  Peary  and  Bartlett  fairly  hurled 
this  first  American-built  Polar  ship 
around  Cape  Sheridan  and  into  the  Polar 
Sea,  farther  north  than  any  other  ship 
had  ever  steamed.  She  had  done  what 
she  was  planned  to  do ;  she  had  justified 
her  existence ;  and  there  she  lay,  on  the 
northern  shore  of  Grant  Land,  panting 
like  an  athlete  at  the  end  of  the  race. 

The  sun  dropped  below  the  hills,  dark- 
ness crept  over  the  land,  and  in  that  great 
white  expanse  of  snow  and  ice  one  thing 
alone  betokened  that  man  lived  in  what 
was  apparently  a  world  long  dead  or  one 
unfinished  by  the  hand  of  the  Creator — a 
warm  beam  of  light  from  the  cabin  of 
the  ship. 

Long  before  the  sun  returned  the 
ninety-mile  trail  to  Cape  Columbia  was 
patted  down  with  the  feet  of  more  than 
two  hundred  dogs.  From  that  point  to 
the  Pole  the  course  lay  straight  out  over 
the  drift-ice  of  the  Polar  Sea  for  413 
miles. 

"Impossible !"  was  the  word  brought 
back  to  the  British  Government  by  the 
British  North  Pole  Expedition  of  1875- 
76.  Peary  never  recognized  this  word  in 
connection  with  his  life's  work. 


PEARY  AS  A  LEADER 


297 


Paary,  arrived  April  6, 1SO9 

North  *  Pole 

ViPeary,  left  April  7, 19O9 


Continual  Day 
March  nffo  September  23 

\\ 


The  inhabUaofeeoaat  of  Greenland 
is  under  the  juimdhtion  of  the 

Government^exeept  Cape  York 
region 


ERIOR  is  entirely  covered 


to  W.OUOf 

d its, 924 feet;  Peary, 
than  a,ooo  feet. 


A    MAP    RECORD   OF    REAR  ADMIRAL    PEARY'S    2O   YEARS    OF    POLAR   EXPLORATION, 
FINALLY   CROWNED    WITH    SUCCESS  APRIL  6,    IQCX) 


298 


2Q9 


300 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  from  Rear  Admiral  Robert  E.  Peary 
AN  ESKIMO  SEXTET  ON  THE   MAIN  DECK  OF  PEARY'S  ARCTIC  SHIP   "ROOSEVELT" 

"Let  there  be  no  doubt  as  to  Peary's  popularity  in  the  Far  North.  Absolutely  square 
and  honest  in  all  his  dealings  with  these  black-haired  children  of  the  Arctic,  firm  but  ever  just 
and  kind  in  all  his  relations,  he  remains  to  them  as  the  great  'Nalegak,'  a  leader  or  chief 
among  men"  (see  text,  page  305). 


With  the  ever-repeated  "FJuk!  Huk!" 
and  the  snapping  of  whips,  men,  dogs, 
and  sledges  were  swallowed  up  in  the 
rough  sea  ice.  And  again  silence  reigned 
along  the  shore,  along  the  face  of  the 
cliff,  and  in  and  about  the  deserted  snow 
village. 

PEARY    WITHIN    174    MILES    OF    HIS    GOAL 

All  went  well  for  a  few  days,  which  is 
but  a  friendly  ruse  of  the  Arctic  to  in- 
spire confidence,  and  then  it  happened — 
a  six-day  blizzard,  obliterating  the  trail, 
smashing  up  the  ice  of  the  Polar  Sea, 
scattering  and  destroying  caches  of  food, 
and  driving  all  natives,  white  men,  and 
dogs  60  miles  to  the  east  (see  map, p. 297) . 

One  by  one  the  various  divisions  strug- 
gled shoreward ;  but  Peary  and  his  men, 
although  knowing  that  no  relief  could  be 
expected  from  the  rear,  that  all  food  sup- 
plies were  gone,  deliberately  turned  their 
backs  toward  home  and  their  faces  to- 
ward their  objective  point  and  plodded 


on  until  they  stood  at  the  world's  record 
of  "Farthest  North,"  174  miles  from  the 
Pole. 

Weeks  later  that  tired  little  band 
climbed  feebly  up  over  the  ice  foot  on 
the  northern  coast  of  Greenland,  burned 
their  last  sledge  for  fuel,  ate  one  of  three 
dogs,  and  began  their  long  walk  back  to 
the  ship,  frozen  in  the  ice  at  Cape  Sher- 
idan. Within  two  weeks  this  indomita- 
ble man  was  heading  west  along  the 
northern  shores  of  Grant  Land,  in  a 
thousand-mile  trip  to  the  northern  shores 
of  Axel  Heiberg  Island ! 

Such  a  journey  immediately  following 
such  an  experience  in  the  Polar  Sea  was 
so  improbable  and  apparently  impossible 
so  late  in  the  year  that  many  were  in- 
clined to  doubt  Peary's  claim  to  have 
reached  that  distant  point.  Our  finding 
of  his  record  there  in  1914*  removes  all 
doubt  as  to  his  achievement. 

*  See  the  records  of  the  Donald  B.  MacMillan 
Arctic  Expedition,  1913-1917. 


PEARY  AS  A  LEADER 


301 


Photograph  from  Rear  Admiral  Robert  E.  Peary 

PEARY'S  ARCTIC  SHIP  "ROOSEVELT"  ICE-BOUND  IN  ROBESON  CHANNEL 

The  Roosevelt  was  184  feet  long,  35.5  /feet  broad,  16.2  feet  deep,  with  a  gross  registered 
tonnage  of  614  tons.  The  frames  of  the  hull  were  of  oak;  the  planking  was  double,  yellow 
pine  inside  and  oak  outside.  Its  engines  developed  1,000  horse-power,  driving  a  single  eleven- 
foot  propeller.  In  addition,  it  carried  14  sails,  with  a  sail  area  somewhat  less  than  that  of  a 
three-masted  coasting  schooner  of  the  same  size. 


In  1906  Peary  arrived  in  America,  re- 
porting that  he  had  failed  to  reach  the 
Pole,  but  declaring  that  he  would  make 
another  and  last  attempt. 

NO  MISUNDERSTANDING  ON  THE  PART  OF 
PEARY'S  ASSOCIATES 

What  young  man  with  red  blood 
wouldn't  follow  such  a  man  and  spend 
every  ounce  of  his  energy  to  help  place 
him  at  the  goal  of  his  ambition?  Not 
one  who  signed  his  contract  in  the  old 
Grand  Union  Hotel  in  New  York  ex- 
pected to  go  to  the  Pole ;  not  a  man  went 
north  for  that  purpose.  Each  wanted  to 
do  his  little  and  that  little  his  best  to 
place  Peary  there.  Such  was  our  admi- 
ration for  this  great  explorer.  I  write 
this  in  answer  to  the  oft-repeated  state- 
ment that  Peary's  men  were  very  much 
disappointed  in  not  being  permitted  to 
accompany  their  commander  to  his  last 
camp. 


We  entered  upon  this  enterprise  with 
no  misunderstanding.  We  knew  what 
we  were  facing,  for  we  had  followed  him 
in  our  reading  for  years.  We  knew  that 
this  was  probably  his  last  attempt,  and 
that  he  might  go  beyond  the  limit  of 
safety,  but,  if  so,  then  we  all  wanted  to 
be  with  him  and  were  eager  for  the  start. 

As  we  steamed  along  the  Labrador 
coast  and  out  into  the  ice  of  Baffin  Bay, 
we  began  to  know  our  commander  and 
were  drawn  strangely  toward  the  man 
whom  we  recognized  as  one  thoroughly 
versed  in  ice  technique — a  master  of  his 
profession.  We  often  recalled  the  part- 
ing words  of  President  Roosevelt  at 
Oyster  Bay:  "Peary,  I  believe  in  you, 
and  if  it  is  possible  for  man  to  get  there. 
I  know  you'll  do  it !" 

We  all  had  this  same  faith  in  the  man, 
and  now  that  we  saw  him  in  action,  that 
faith  was  even  strengthened. 

Decks  were  cleared  for  our  battle  in 


J=J5 


302 


303 


304 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE;  ONLY  MAN  BESIDES  ADMIRAL  PEARY  AND  FOUR  ESKIMOS  WHO  STOOD  AT  THE 

TOP  OF  THE  WORLD 

Matthew  Henson,  the  expert  colored  assistant,  had  been  with  Peary  since  his  second 
expedition  to  Nicaragua,  in  1887,  and  on  all  his  Arctic  expeditions  except  the  first,  in  1886. 
The  leader  considered  him  the  best  dog-driver  living,  except  some  of  the  best  of  the  Eskimo 
hunters  themselves  (see  page  310). 


PEARY  AS  A  LEADER 


805 


Melville  Bay.  Holds  were  carefully  re- 
stored; necessary  food  and  equipment 
made  readily  accessible ;  boats  supplied 
with  provisions,  rifles,  and  ammunition 
for  a  retreat  following  a  possible  loss  of 
our  ship,  and  all  without  a  single  order 
from  the  man  who  has  been  called  tyrant 
and  martinet.  To  us,  his  assistants,  it 
was  always :  "I  would  like  to  have  you 
do  this";  "Some  time  today";  "Tomor- 
row will  do,"  etc.  We  were  amazed,  for 
we  did  not  expect  such  consideration. 
Kindness  toward  his  men  was  apparent 
at  every  stage  of  our  voyage. 

Borup  was  summoned  to  Peary's  cabin 
from  the  after  hold,  where  he  was  mis- 
erably seasick  but  pluckily  sticking  to  his 
job  of  packing  away  skins,  with  now  and 
then  a  dash  to  the  rail.  He  returned  an 
hour  later,  enthusiastic  over  his  visit  and 
over  the  kindness  shown  him  by  the 
leader  of  the  expedition. 

PEARY  REVERED  BY  THE  ESKIMOS 

Those  happy  days  of  wending  our  way 
northward  in  and  out  between  floes  and 
icebergs  passed  all  too  quickly.  Finally 
that  day  arrived  when  we  passed  in  under 
the  big  hills  of  Meteorite  Island  and 
heard  the  glad  cry  of  those  Far  North 
natives  upon  beholding  "Peary-ark-suah" 
(Big  Peary)  back  again. 

Let  there  be  no  doubt  as  to  Peary's 
popularity  in  the  Far  North.  Absolutely 
honest  and  square  in  all  his  dealings  with 
these  black-haired  children  of  the  Arctic, 
firm  but  ever  just  and  kind  in  all  his  re- 
lations, he  remains  to  them  as  the  great 
"Nalegak,"  a  leader  or  chief  among  men. 

We  can  never  forget  this  reception  at 
Cape  York — kayaks  darting  about  the 
ship,  the  shouts  of  his  former  dog  drivers, 
men  who  had  starved  with  him  on  the 
Polar  Sea,  others  on  the  shore  standing 
at  the  water's  edge  ready  to  grasp  the 
bow  of  our  boat,  women  laughing,  babies 
crying,  and  half-grown  children  with  that 
look  of  mingled  fear  and  animal  curiosity. 

How  happy  they  were  to  see  him  back 
and  how  eagerly  and  how  impatiently 
they  awaited  the  word  to  pack  their 
world's  goods  and  transfer  all  to  the  deck 
of  the  Roosevelt  for  the  long  voyage 
northward. 

And  so  it  was  at  every  village ;  the  best 
men  in  the  whole  tribe  awaited  his  call — 


a  fact  not  without  significance,  in  view 
of  oft-repeated  statements  that  Peary  was 
unkind  to  his  native  help. 

INTO   THE    HEAVY    ICE 

Some  three  weeks  later,  with  decks  al- 
most awash  and  black  and  fuzzy  with 
dogs  and  Eskimos,  the  saucy  -  looking 
Roosevelt  swung  around  Sunrise  Point 
and  into  the  heavy  ice  of  Smith  Sound, 
her  destination  the  northern  shores  of 
Grant  Land,  far  up  at  the  edge  of  the 
Polar  Sea. 

Behind  us,  upon  the  shores  of  Foulke 
Fiord,  was  a  reserve  of  coal  and  food,  to 
which  Peary  and  his  men  could  retreat 
if  their  ship  was  crushed.  Such  wise 
precaution  was  the  result  of  his  years  of 
labor  in  the  North  and  his  repeated  fail- 
ures. 

The  successful  negotiation  of  this  last 
dangerous  stretch  Peary  considered  as 
the  crucial  link  in  the  long  chain  of  suc- 
cess. That  no  opportunity  for  advance 
should  be  lost  was  very  evident  from  his 
almost  constant  vigil  on  the  bridge,  in  the 
main  rigging,  or  in  the  crow's  nest. 

Bartlett  and  Commander  were  a  per- 
fect team ;  the  former  young,  intensely 
energetic,  courageous ;  the  latter  experi- 
enced, cautious,  of  excellent  judgment, 
constantly  advising  and  holding  his  cap- 
tain in  check. 

No  braver  man  ever  trod  the  quarter- 
deck than  Bartlett.  I  sometimes  think 
that  Bob  would  rather  lose  his  ship  for 
the  pure  love  of  the  fight  southward  in 
the  drift-ice  or  in  open  boats  than  sail 
into  port  with  his  charge  staunch,  trim, 
and  unscarred. 

FARTHER  NORTHWARD  THAN  ANY  OTHER 
SHIP  EVER  STEAMED 

Together  they  drove  their  ship  farther 
northward  than  any  other  ship  ever 
steamed.  Boats  were  ready  for  immedi- 
ate launching ;  food  lined  the  rail ;  emer- 
gency bags  were  packed. 

Once  in  our  winter  quarters,  Peary 
again  displayed  his  qualities  of  leadership 
by  removing  from  the  ship  everything 
absolutely  needed  for  the  attainment  of 
the  Pole  and  the  retreat  southward,  if  the 
vessel  should  be  crushed,  carried  away  by 
the  ice,  or  burned. 

In  spite  of  the  loss  of  the  Roosevelt, 


306 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Donald  B.  MacMillan 
THE  WINTER  HOME  OF  THE  SMITH    SOUND  NATIVE,  THE  ROCK  IGLOO 

The  sides  ar4  banked  with  sod,  the  roof  is  covered  with  grass  and  the  summer  tent,  and 
lastly  with  snow,  making  a  very  comfortable  habitation.  Access  is  gained  by  a  tunnel, 
some  twelve  feet  in  length,  which  leads  to  a  hole  in  the  floor.  The  window,  which  has  the 
appearance  of  a  large  striped  flag  hung  against  the  rocks,  is  made  of  the  intestines  of  the 
seal  or  walrus.  It  is  translucent,  not  transparent. 


the  work  would  have  been  carried  out  as 
planned.  Even  houses  were  built  to  shel- 
ter the  large  contingent  of  seventy-five 
men,  women,  and  children. 

MEN  CONSTANTLY  ON  THE  MOVE 
THROUGHOUT  THE  WINTER 

With  the  Arctic  night  now  coming  on, 
the  problem  presented  itself  of  how  to 
preserve  the  health  and  happiness  and 


good  spirits  until  the  time  of  our  depar- 
ture out  over  the  ice  of  the  Polar  Sea, 
five  months  later. 

At  this  stage  of  the  battle  many  a 
leader  has  failed  because  he  has  not  ap- 
preciated the  full  value  of  work,  and  nec- 
essarily out-of-door  work,  as  shown  by 
oft-repeated  statement  in  books  on  the 
Arctic,  such  as :  "No  work  can  be  done 
during  the  darkness  of  the  Arctic  win- 


PEARY  AS  A  LEADER 


Photograph  by  Donald  B.  MacMillan 
ESKIMO    WOMEN   AT    ETAH    CHEWING    SKINS 

The  one  on  the  left  is  chewing  sealskin  out  of  which  she  will  make  a  pair  of  mittens. 
The  one  on  the  right  is  chewing  a  boot  sole  in  order  that  she  may  pass  the  needle  through 
it  more  readily  and  that  it  may  be  more  comfortable  to  the  foot. 


ter" ;  "It  is  positively  suicide  to  sledge 
during  the  winter,"  etc. 

Peary  laughed  at  such  ideas.  His  men 
were  away  with  crack  of  whip  and 
laughter  and  enthusiasm  almost  as  soon 
as  our  keel  touched  bottom  at  the  edge 
of  the  Polar  Sea,  and  they  continued  to 
come  and  go  throughout  the  year,  far 
into  the  interior  of  Grant  Land,  in  quest 
of  musk-oxen,  caribou,  and  Arctic  hare ; 
for  Peary,  who  never  had  a  single  case 
of  scurvy  on  any  of  his  expeditions, 
fully  appreciated  the  value  of  fresh  meat 
as  an  antiscorbutic. 

Fresh  vegetables,  acids,  and  fruits  are 
not  necessary.  This  fact  we  have  known 
for  at  least  a  half  century,  having  ac- 
quired it  from  the  experience  of  the 
American  whaling  captains  when  winter- 
ing on  the  shores  of  Baffin  Land  and 
Hudson  Bay.  Scurvy-stricken  patients 
were  always  dispatched  by  them  immedi- 
ately to  the  igloos  of  the  Eskimos,  there 
to  be  restored  to  health  by  consuming 
raw  frozen  meat. 


These  excursions  were  not  merely  J:o 
keep  us  in  good  health  and  contentment ; 
every  move  was  directe'd  toward  the  suc- 
cess of  the  expedition,  geographically 
and  scientifically.  There  were  no  schools 
between  decks  for  the  men,  as  in  olden 
days ;  no  weeks  of  preparation  for  farce 
or  drama ;  no  weekly  or  monthly  periodi- 
cal published ;  no  roped  promenade  from 
berg  to  berg;  no  long  hours  in  bed  be- 
tween meals. 

We  were  either  away  with  our  dog 
teams  among  the  mountains  of  Grant 
Land  hunting  reindeer,  musk-oxen,  or 
Arctic  hare  or  were  one  hundred  miles 
up  or  down  the  coast,  living  in  snow 
houses,  engaged  in  taking  tidal  observa- 
tions, or  at  the  ship  working  upon  our 
equipment  for  the  Polar  dash. 

If  one  word  was  written  large  upon 
the  face  of  every  man  and  upon  the 
walls  of  every  little  stateroom  in  the 
steamship  Roosevelt,  it  was  the  word 
enthusiasm,  which  may  be  translated  into 
good  leadership ;  for  we  felt  our  strength 


308 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Donald  B.  MacMUlan 

AL-NING-WA,    AGED    TWENTY-TWO,    WIFE    OE    ARKUO,    A    DOG- 
DRIVER   OE    THE    MAC  MILLAN    EXPEDITION, 
DRESSED    IN    BLUE-EOX    SKINS 


and  our  knowledge  in  Arctic  matters  in- 
creasing day  by  day  and  beheld  an  equip- 
ment being  perfected  which  we  knew 
must  win. 

Certain  items  were  so  far  superior  to 
anything  yet  devised  for  Arctic  work 
that  their  value,  even  to  a  novice,  was 
obvious.  Such  were  perfected  by  Peary 
following  years  of  repeated  struggle. 

PEARY  DEVISED  A    NEW   ARCTIC   STOVE 

Do  not  forget  the  great  word  experi- 
ence. As  an  illustration,  previous  to  the 
1908  trip  the  most  satisfactory  stove  for 
Arctic  sledge-work  was  the  so-called 


Primus,  which  con- 
verts cracked  ice  at 
60  below  zero  into  a 
gallon  of  tea  in  about 
20  minutes.  Peary 
reasoned  that  the 
more  rapid  his  stove, 
the  more  sleep  for 
his  men  at  the  end  of 
the  long  march.  He 
thereupon  devised  a 
stove  which  is  so  eco- 
nomical in  fuel  con- 
sumption and  so  quick 
in  its  action  that  many 
are  almost  inclined  to 
doubt  the  fact  that 
we  had  our  gallon  of 
tea  in  nine  minutes 
from  the  time  that  the 
match  was  applied. 

Our  clothing,  that 
of  the  Smith  Sound 
Eskimo,  could  not  be 
improved  upon.  Our 
food  was  amply  suffi- 
cient for  the  mainte- 
nance of  health  and 
strength.  Our  sledges 
were  modeled  by 
Peary  for  the  rough 
ice  of  the  Polar  Sea 
and  skillfully  fash- 
ioned by  our  master 
mechanic,  Matt  Hen- 
son.  Our  equipment 
was  without  a  doubt 
the  most  nearly  per- 
fect yet  devised  for 
Polar  work. 

Peary's  plan  for  advance  and  attack 
upon  the  Pole,  based  upon  his  experience 
and  failure  in  1906,  was  unique  and  a 
large  factor  in  his  final  success. 

From  the  time  when  one  leaves  the 
northern  shores  of  Grant  Land  or  Green- 
land, one  must  depend  wholly  upon  the 
food  on  the  sledges  for  sustenance  of 
men  and  dogs.  An  occasional  bear  or 
seal  might  be  secured,  but  such  would 
be  the  exception,  as  proved  by  the  ex- 
perience of  Nansen,  Sverdrup,  Captain 
Cagni,  Peary,  and  every  man  who  has 
been  north  of  84°. 

To  feed  Peary  and  his  men  until  he 


PEARY  AS  A  LEADKR 


309 


Photograph  by  Donald  B.  MacMillan 

SHOO-E-GING-WA,    A   UTTLE    ESKIMO   GIRL   OF    ETAH,    AGED    SEVEN 
The  Eskimo  puppy-dogs  are  the  common  playthings  of  the  Smith  Sound  children. 


was  within  striking  distance  of  the  Pole 
and  selfsupporting  for  the  five  hundred 
miles  of  the  return  trip  was  the  work 
assigned  to  the  so-called  supporting  par- 
ties under  the  command  of  Henson,  Bart- 
lett.  Marvin,  Borup,  Goodsell,  and  my- 
self. 

Every  five  days  a  white  man  and  his 
Eskimos  were  to  return  to  land  with  an 
amount  of  food  equal  to  one-half  con- 
sumed in  the  outward  trip,  with  orders 
to  double  march,  and  if  held  up  by  open 
water  to  eat  the  dogs.  The  work  of  this 
division  was  done ;  it  was  no  longer 
needed  in  a  task  where  one's  life  might 
depend  upon  ounces,  not  pounds ;  where 


every  additional  particle  of  food  is  a 
synonym  for  miles  of  travel,  and  where 
the  last  ounce  might  mean  the  last  mile 
and  success  in  one's  life-work. 

AN   INSTANCE  OF  HEROIC  SACRIFICE 

In  general,  the  American  people  have 
minimized  the  dangers  of  travel  on  the 
Polar  Sea  and  have  overestimated  the 
narrow  margin  of  safety  of  even  a  small 
party  five  hundred  miles  from  land. 

The  presence  of  one  man  not  absolutely 
needed  in  the  work  endangers  the  lives 
of  all,  for  that  man  must  be  fed  and  must 
receive  an  equal  amount  of  the  last  bite. 

Do  you  remember  the  brave  Gates,  of 


310 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Donald  B.  MacMillan 

AK-KOM-MO-DING-WA    EATING    MEAT    IN    THE    USUAI,    MANNER  OF   THE    SMITH 

SOUND    NATIVE 

There  are  no  plates  and  no  forks ;  consequently  the  meat  is  grasped  in  the  hand,  shoved  into 

the  mouth,  and  cut  off  at  the  lips. 


the  Scott  starvation  party,  who,  realizing 
that  his  presence  meant  the  loss  of  all, 
calmly  remarked  to  his  commander,  "I 
am  going  out  for  a  little  while;  I  may. 
not  come  back"  ? 

With  the  dropping  of  the  tent  flap  and 
the  disappearing  of  that  stumbling  frost- 
bitten form  into  the  swirling  snows  of 
the  Antarctic  ice-cap,  there  ended  the 
most  pathetic  and  the  most  heart-stirring 
scene  ever  enacted  upon  the  stage  of 
Polar  work.  All  honor  to  such  a  hero ! 

Every  white  man  realized  what  the 
success  of  this  trip  meant  to  Peary,  and 
each  man  knew  that  the  sooner  he  re- 
turned to  land  after  he  had  finished  his 
work,  the  better  the  chances  of  Peary 
reaching  his  goal. 


When  we  heard  the  words,  "You  are 
to  go  back  tomorrow,"  let  me  emphasize 
the  fact  that  every  man  did  so  cheerfully 
and  willingly,  knowing  that  it  was  for  the 
best  interests  of  the  expedition.  No  man 
expected  to  go  at  the  start  and  no  man 
complained  at  the  finish. 

Peary  owed  it  to  himself,  to  his  friends, 
to  his  country,  to  rid  himself  of  all  en- 
cumbrances, of  all  superfluous  material, 
and  strip  for  action.  It  was  his  fight 
now,  not  ours ;  ours  only  just  as  long  as 
we  were  needed. 

And  the  negro  ?  He  was  indispensable 
to  Peary  and  of  more  real  value  than  the 
combined  services  of  all  four  white  men. 
With  years  of  experience  equal  to  that 
of  Peary  himself,  an  expert  dog-driver. 


PEARY  AS  A  LEADER 


31.1 


Photograph  by  Donald  B.  MacMillan 

E-TOOKA-SHOO    FINDING,    AT    CAPE    ISABELLA,    IN    APRIL,    IQI/,    THE    MAIL    LEFT    BY 
SIR  ALLEN   YOUNG,   OF   THE    "PANDORA,"    FOR   THE    BRITISH 
NORTH   POLE  EXPEDITION   OF 


The  packet  contained  two  letters  for  Captain  Nares,  of  the  Alert,  and  one  letter  for  Captain 

Stephenson,  of  the  Discovery. 


a  master  mechanic,  physically  strong, 
most  popular  with  the  Eskimos,  talking 
the  language  like  a  native,  clean  full  of 
grit,  he  went  to  the  Pole  with  Peary  be- 
cause he  was  easily  the  most  efficient  of 
all  Peary's  assistants  (see  page  304). 

UNREASONABLE  DOUBT  CAUSED  BY  PEARY'S 
SPEED 

Weeks  later  the  little  band  of  six  re- 
turned,   clearly    revealing    the    terrible 


strain  and  anxiety  during  that  rapid 
dash  to  land  over  ice  fields  which  threat- 
ened to  be  rent  asunder  by  the  high  tides 
of  the  approaching  full  moon.  In  fact, 
the  work  was  too  well  done,  as  many  a 
doubt  as  to  Peary's  achievement  was 
based  upon  the  time  of  his  return. 

During  the  days  of  that  most  unfortu- 
nate controversy  enough  consideration 
was  not  given  by  the  public  to  the  fol- 
lowing all-important  facts: 


0.     W 

3 

as 
< 


i 


2    *  -  -r 

s 

K 

fH 


4J  -M 

c  c, 


2 

D 

t/> 

o 


P     'f   §3 

5 


pq 


312 


313 


314 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


I 


^=    O 

CO  n 


in    .,_, 


tLT       &0 


g  « 


O      <u  — . 


-i       C   u. 

r^     rt  o 
^1 

O     "o" 

z    ts3 


X    M  O 

o  o  c 
~  rt 


CX  o 

rt  ~ 


First.  Peary's  supporting  par- 
ties placed  him  at  nearly  the  88th 
parallel. 

Second.  The  observations  at  this 
point  were  taken  and  signed  by 
Captain  Bartlett,  of  the  Roosevelt. 

Third.  From  this  point  on  Peary 
had  five  well-provisioned  sledges, 
five  of  the  best  men  of  25,  48  o'f 
the  best  dogs  of  250,  and  only  120 
miles  to  go. 

Fourth.  The  trail  to  land  was 
well  marked  and  broken  ends  knit 
together  by  the  retreat  of  the  vari- 
ous divisions. 

Fifth.  All  expeditions  for  a 
half  century  have  double-marched 
and  even  triple-marched  on  the 
return  trip. 

How  often  have  I  heard  the  as- 
se"rtion  that  Peary  told  none  of  his 
men  that  he  had  reached  the  Pole 
until  he  learned  of  Dr.  Cook's 
attainment !  Far  up  on  the  north- 
ern shores  of  Grant  Land,  at  the 
edge  of  the  Polar  Sea,  there  stands 
a  cairn,  Peary's  announcement  of 
the  attainment  of  his  life's  work, 
built  there  twelve  weeks  before  we 
reached  civilization.  He  did  not 
forget  his  men.  The  names  not 
only  of  his  assistants,  but  of  every 
man  on  board  the  Roosevelt,  are 
written  there  and  placed  under 
glass  as  a  protection  against  the 
weather. 

PEARY    DELAYS    NEWS    OF    HIS 

TRIUMPH    IN    ORDER   TO 

HELP    ESKIMOS 

Upon  our  arrival  at  Etah,  sev- 
eral weeks  later,  Dr.  Cook's  two 
Eskimo  dog  drivers,  E-took-a- 
shoo  and  Ah-pellah,  came  on 
board  and  told  us  that  in  company 
with  Cook  they  had  been  living 
down  in  Jones  Sound  for  nearly 
a  year,  and  that  at  no  time  had 
they  been  farther  north  than  a 
spot  which  they  indicated  on  the 
map  close  to  the  northern  shores 
of  Axel  Heiberg  Land,  distant 
500  miles  from  the  Pole.  - 

Naturally  eager  to  steam  south- 
ward to  proclaim  to  the  world  the 
news  of  his  discovery  after  so 


PEARY  AS  A  LEADER 


315 


Photograph  by  Donald  B.  MacMillan 
THE   HEAD  OF   A   BULL   WALRUS    KILLED   AT   ETAH,    GREENLAND 

The  Atlantic  walrus  is  not  as  large  as  the  Pacific,  but  specimens  have  been  secured  in 
Smith  Sound  weighing  3,000  pounds.  On  a  walrus  hunt,  which  is  the  most  dangerous  sport 
in  the  Arctic  regions,  the  whale-boats  are  painted  white  to  resemble  pieces  of  ice,  and  the 
rowlocks  are  muffled,  to  enable  the  hunters  to  steal  upon  their  quarry  without  detection. 


many  years  of  hardship,  yet  Peary  felt 
that  his  first  duty  was  toward  his  Eski- 
mos, those  natives  who  made  it  possible 
for  him  to  win  out.  And  there  we  re- 
mained, killing  walrus  and  supplying 
them  with  food  for  the  long  winter  night 
to  come,  while  Cook  was  wearing  roses 
and  being  feted  by  kings  and  queens. 
Peary's  attitude  upon  reaching  the 


Labrador  coast  has  been  grossly  misun- 
derstood. Not  only  did  he  not  mention 
his  rival's  name  in  his  first  telegrams,  but 
expressly  requested  us  to  refrain  from 
doing  so  ;  and  this  in  view  of  the  fact  that 
he  knew  that  an  impostor  was  being  pro- 
claimed as  the  real  discoverer.  He  was 
not,  however,  to  be  permitted  to  retain 
this  role  of  stoic. 


3i6 


PEARY  AS  A  LEADER 


317 


We  steamed  southward  from  Indian 
Harbor,  and  upon  our  arrival  at  Battle 
Harbor  our  Commander  was  met  by  a 
flood  of  telegrams  from  the  press  and 
from  various  geographical  and  scientific 
societies  at  home  and  abroad,  all  request- 
ing that  he  give  them  his  honest  opinion 
as  to  Dr.  Cook's  achievement. 

What  should  he  do? 

At  this  crucial  point  in  his  career  the 
average  man  believes  that  Peary  failed. 
But  the  average  man  has  not  slept  with 
his  back  against  a  sledge  at  fifty  and  sixty 
degrees  below  zero,  with  biting  winds 
whipping  the  snow  over  his  body,  dead 
tired  with  the  day's  work ;  has  not  crossed 
treacherous  black  ice  on  snow-shoes ;  has 
not  staggered  back  beaten  to  his  little  hut, 
followed  by  one  shadow — of  a  dog ;  has 
not  returned  to  home,  family,  and  friends 
year  after  year  with  the  one  word  failure 
on  his  lips ;  has  not  in  the  flush  of  victory 
seen  an  impostor  bowing  to  the  plaudits 
of  the  multitude. 

Was  his  one  public  telegram  in  answer 
to  urgent  requests  too  severe  in  condem- 
nation of  one  whose  claims  have  since 
been  discredited  by  every  scientific  so- 
ciety in  the  world :  "Dr.  Cook  has  handed 
the  people  a  gold  brick.  When  he  claims 
to  have  discovered  the  Pole  over  his  own 
signature,  I  shall  have  something  de- 
cidedly interesting  to  say"  ? 

Peary  could  have  shifted  the  responsi- 
bility for  that  answer  upon  Captain  Bart- 
lett  or  any  of  his  assistants ;  but  all  who 
know  Peary  know  that  the  thought  of 
doing  so  never  entered  his  mind,  as  he 
restlessly  paced  the  floor  of  his  little  cabin 
in  that  northern  port. 

That  bitter  controversy  is  dismissed 
today  with  "most  unfortunate" ! 

As  we  steamed  southward  on  our  last 
lap  with  this  great  explorer,  we  often 
reviewed  the  year  that  had  gone  so 
quickly,  and  our  relations  with  our 
leader,  all  so  pleasant. 


Ever  kind  and  thoughtful  and  consid- 
erate of  his  young  and  inexperienced 
men,  he  treated  them  as  a  father  would 
treat  his  sons.  He  helped  us  lash  and 
pack  our  sledges,  untangled  and  repaired 
our  frozen  and  knotted  traces. 

When  struggling  along  far  in  the  rear, 
with  refractory  dogs  and  heavy  loads,  an 
Eskimo  would  often  be  detailed  to  re- 
lieve us  of  a  part  of  our  load  and  pilot 
us  safely  across  an  open  lead,  and  if  we 
arrived  with  frost-bitten  face,  it  was 
often  the  Commander's  warm  hand  that 
brought  the  blood  back  to  the  surface. 

SOLICITUDE)  FOR  HIS  ASSOCIATES'  WELFARE 
ONE  OE  PEARY'S  NOTEWORTHY  TRAITS 

I  well  remember  falling  through  the  ice 
at  59  below  zero.  With  sealskin  boots 
filled  with  water  and  rapidly  stiffening 
clothes,  I  arrived  at  our  encampment  of 
snow  houses.  He  beat  the  ice  from  my 
bearskin  pants,  pulled  off  my  boots,  and 
wiped  my  feet  and  legs  with  the  inside  of 
his  warm  shirt.  And  when  covered  with 
blood,  a  heavy  40-82  bullet  having  passed 
through  my  arm,  into  my  shoulder,  and 
out  through  the  back,  and  clipping  the 
side  of  one  finger,  he  remarked :  "I  would 
much  rather  had  that  thing  happen  to  me 
than  to  you !" 

This  does  not  sound  like  "martinet"  or 
"tyrant"  or  "unkind  to-;  his  men."  His 
last  words  to  Marvin,  lost  on  the  return, 
"Be  careful  of  the  leads,  my  boy,"  is 
characteristic  of  the  man. 

Is  it  any  wonder,  then,  that  we  as  as- 
sistants, when  we  heard  the  blowing  of 
the  whistles  of  Sydney,  N.  S. ;  beheld  the 
line  of  craft  circling  out  to  escort  us  into 
the  harbor;  saw  waving  flags  and  docks 
black  with  people,  should  be  almost  sorry 
that  he  had  won  out  ? 

We  knew  that  never  again  would  we 
have  the  honor  and  the  pleasure  of  serv- 
ing under  such  a  leader. 


Photograph  by  Charles  Martin 

PEARY,    STEFANSSON,   AND   GREELY,    A   TRIUMVIRATE    IN    POLAR    EXPLORATION 

ACHIEVEMENT 

This  photograph,  made  at  the  Washington  headquarters  of  the  National  Geographic 
Society  in  January,  1919,  was  the  last  taken  of  Rear-Admiral  Peary,  discoverer  of  the  North 
Pole,  who  stands  at  the  left.  In  the  center  is  Vilhjalmur  Stefansson,  who  had  just  been 
awarded  The  Society's  Hubbard  Gold  Medal  for  his  work  in  adding  100,000  square  miles  to 
the  mapped  Polar  regions  of  the  Western  Hemisphere.  At  the  right  is  Major-General  A.  W. 
Greely,  leader  of  the  Greely  International  Polar  Expedition  of  i88i-'84. 


BY  GILBERT  GROSVENOR 

PRESIDENT  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY 


THE  struggle  for  the  North  Pole 
began   nearly  one  hundred  years 
before  the  landing  of  the  Pilgrim 
Fathers  at  Plymouth  Rock,  being  inaugu- 
rated (1527)  by  that  king  of  many  dis- 
tinctions, Henry  VIII  of  England. 

Scores  of  hardy  navigators — British, 
French,  Dutch,  German,  Scandinavian, 
and  Russian — followed  Davis,  all  seek- 
ing to  hew  across  the  Pole  the  much- 
coveted  short  route  to  China  and  the  In- 
dies. The  rivalry  was  keen  and  costly  in 
lives,  ships,  and  treasures;  but  from  the 
time  of  Henry  VIII  for  three  and  one- 
haW  centuries,  or  until  1882  (with  the 
exception  of  1594-1606,  when,  through 
"William  Barents,  the  Dutch  held  the  rec- 
ord). Great  Britain's  flag  was  always 
waving  nearest  the  top  of  the  globe.* 

Immense  treasures  of  money  and  lives 
were  expended  by  the  nations  to  explore 
the  northern  ice  world  and  to  attain  the 
apex  of  the  earth ;  but  all  efforts  to  reach 
the  Pole  had  failed,  notwithstanding  the 
unlimited  sacrifice  of  gold  and  energy 
and  blood  which  had  been  poured  out 
without  stint  for  nearly  four  centuries. 

PEARY'S  INTEREST  IN  THE  ARCTIC 

AWAKENED    IN    l886 

A  brief  summer  excursion  to  Green- 
land in  1886  aroused  Robert  E.  Peary,  a 
civil  engineer  in  the  United  States  Navy, 
to  an  interest  in  the  Polar  problem. 
Peary  a  few  years  previously  had  been 
graduated  from  Bowdoin  College  second 
in  his  class — a  position  which  means  un- 
usual mental  vigor  in  an  institution  which 
is  noted  for  the  fine  scholarship  and  in- 
tellect of  its  alumni.  He  realized  at  once 
that  the  goal  which  had  eluded  so  many 
hundreds  of  ambitious  and  dauntless  men 
could  be  won  only  by  a  new  method  of 
attack. 

The  first  Arctic  problem  with  which 
Peary  grappled  was  considered  at  that 

*  In  1882  Lockwood  and  Brainard,  of  Greely's 
expedition,  won  the  record  of  Farthest  North 
for  the  United  States,  and  we  held  it  until 
Nansen's  feat  of  1896. 


time  in  importance  second  only  to  the 
conquest  of  the  Pole,  namely,  to  deter- 
mine the  insularity  of  Greenland  and  the 
extent  of  its  projection  northward.  At 
the  very  beginning  of  his  first  expedition 
to  Greenland,  in  1891,  he  suffered  an  ac- 
cident which  sorely  taxed  his  patience  as 
well  as  his  body,  and  which  is  mentioned 
here  as  it  illustrates  the  grit  and  stamina 
of  his  moral  and  physical  make-up. 

As  his  ship,  the  Kite,  was  working  its 
way  through  the  ice  fields  off  the  Green- 
land shore,  a  cake  of  ice  became  wedged 
in  the  rudder,  causing  the  wheel  to  re- 
verse. One  of  the  spokes  jammed  Peary's 
leg  against  the  casement,  making  it  im- 
possible to  extricate  himself  until  both 
bones  of  the  leg  were  broken. 

The  party  urged  him  to  return  to  the 
United  States  for  the  winter  and  to  re- 
sume his  exploration  the  following  year ; 
but  Peary  insisted  on  being  landed,  as 
originally  planned,  at  McCormick  Bay, 
stating  that  the  money  of  his  friends  had 
been  invested  in  the  project,  and  that  he 
must  "make  good"  to  them. 

The  assiduous  nursing  of  Mrs.  Peary, 
aided  by  the  bracing  air,  so  speedily  re- 
stored his  strength  that  at  the  ensuing 
Christmas  festivities  which  were  ar- 
ranged for  the  Eskimos  he  outraced  on 
snowshoes  all  the  natives  and  his  own 
men! 

HE    ASCENDS    THE    GREENLAND    ICE-CAP 

In  the  following  May,  with  one  com- 
panion, Astrup,  he  ascended  to  the  sum- 
mit of  the  great  ice-cap  which  covers  the 
interior  of  Greenland,  5,000  to  8,000  feet 
in  elevation,  and  pushed  northward  for 
500  miles  over  a  region  where  the  foot 
of  man  had  never  trod  before,  in  tem- 
peratures ranging  from  10  degrees  to  50 
degrees  below  zero.  Imagine  his  sur- 
prise on  descending  from  the  table-land 
to  enter  a  little  valley  radiant  with  gor- 
geous flowers  and  alive  with  murmur- 
ing bees,  where  musk-oxen  were  lazily 
browsing. 

This  sledding  journey,  which  he  dupli- 


319 


320 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


©  Harris  and  Ewing 

THE  DISCOVERER   OF   THE   NORTH    POLE   GREETING    THE   DISCOVERER   OE   THE    SOUTH 
POLE  AT  A   NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC   SOCIETY  BANQUET 

It  was  upon  this  occasion  that  Rear-Admiral  Peary,  on  behalf  of  The  Society,  presented- 
to  Captain  Roald  Amundsen  a  special  gold  medal  for  his  Antarctic  achievement  resulting  in 
the  attainment  of  the  South  Pole.  Mrs.  Peary  at  extreme  left,  Ambassador  James  Bryce  at 
right  of  Peary,  and  Ambassador  Jusserand  at  extreme  right. 


cated  by  another  equally  remarkable, 
crossing  of  the  ice-cap,  three  years  later, 
defined  the  northern  extension  of  Green- 
land and  conclusively  proved  that  it  is  an 
island  instead  of  a  continent  extending 
to  the  Pole.  In  boldness  of  conception 
and  brilliancy  of  results,  these  two  cross- 
ings of  Greenland  are  unsurpassed  in 
Arctic  history.  The  magnitude  of  Peary's 
feat  is  better  appreciated  when  it  is  re- 
called that  Nansen's  historic  crossing  of 
the  island  was  below  the  Arctic  Circle, 
1,000  miles  south  of  Peary's  latitude, 
where  Greenland  is  some  250  miles  wide. 

HE  TURNS    HIS   ATTENTION    TO   THE    POLE 

Peary  now  turned  his  attention  to  the 
Pole,  which  lay  396  geographical  miles 
farther  north  than  any  man  had  pene- 


trated on  the  Western  Hemisphere.  To 
get  there  by  the  American  route  he  must 
break  a  virgin  trail  every  mile  north  from 
Greely's  83°  24'.  No  one  had  pioneered 
so  great  a  distance  northward.  Mark- 
ham  and  others  had  attained  enduring 
fame  by  advancing  the  flag  considerably 
less  than  100  miles,  Parry  had  pioneered 
150  miles,  and  Nansen  128  from  his  ship. 
His  experiences  in  Greenland  had  con- 
vinced Peary,  if  possible  more  firmly  than 
before,  that  the  only  way  of  surmounting 
this  last  and  most  formidable  barrier  was 
to  adopt  the  manner  of  life,  the  food,  the 
snow  houses,  and  the  clothing  of  the 
Eskimos,  who  by  centuries  of  experience 
had  learned  the  most  effective  method  of 
combating  the  rigors  of  Arctic  weather; 
to  utilize  the  game  of  the  Northland,  the 


PEARY'S  EXPLORATIONS  IN  THE  FAR  NORTH 


321 


Arctic  reindeer,  musk-ox,  etc.,  which  his 
explorations  had  proved  comparatively 
abundant,  thus  with  fresh  meat  keeping 
his  men  fit  and  good-tempered  through 
the  depressing  winter  night ;  and,  lastly, 
to  train  the  Eskimo  to  become  his  sledg- 
ing crew. 

In  his  first  North  Polar  expedition, 
which  lasted  for  four  years,  1898-1902, 
Peary  failed  to  get  nearer  than  343  miles 
to  the  Pole.  Each  successive  year  dense 
packs  of  ice  blocked  the  passage  to  the 
Polar  Ocean,  compelling  him  to  make  his 
base  approximately  700  miles  from  the 
Pole,  or  200  miles  south  of  the  head- 
quarters of  Nares,  too  great  a  distance 
from  the  goal  to  be  overcome  in  one 
short  season.  During  this  trying  period, 
by  sledging  feats  which  in  distance  and 
physical  obstacles  overcome  exceeded 
the  extraordinary  records  made  in  Green- 
land, he  explored  and  mapped  thousands 
of  miles  of  coast  line  of  Greenland  and 
of  the  islands  west  and  north  of  Green- 
land. 

PEARY    LED    HUNDREDS    INTO    THE    ARCTIC 
WITH  ONLY  TWO  TRAGIC  ACCIDENTS 

On  the  next  attempt  Peary  insured 
reaching  the  Polar  Ocean  by  designing 
and  constructing  the  Roosevelt,  whose 
resistless  frame  crushed  its  way  to  the 
desired  haven  on  the  shores  of  the  Polar 
sea.  From  here  he  made  that  wonderful 
march  of  1906  to  87°  6',  a  new  world's 
record.  Winds  of  unusual  fury,  by  open- 
ing big  leads,  robbed  him  of  the  Pole  and 
nearly  of  his  life. 

The  last  Peary  expedition,  1908-1909, 
resulted  in  the  discovery  of  the  Pole  and 
of  the  deep  ocean  surrounding  it.  The 
396  miles  from  Greely's  farthest  had 
been  vanquished  as  follows:  1900.  30 
miles;  1902,  23  miles;  1906,  169  miles; 
1909,  174  miles. 

No  better  proof  of  the  minute  care 
with  which  every  campaign  was  prear- 
ranged can  be  given  than  the  fact  that, 
though  Peary  has  taken  hundreds  of  men 
north  with  him  on  his  various  expedi- 
tions, he  has  brought  them  all  back,  and 
in  good  health,  with  the  exception  of 
two,  who  lost  their  lives  in  accidents  for 
which  the  leader  was  in  no  wise  respon- 
sible. What  a  contrast  this  record  is  to 
the  long  list  of  fatalities  from  disease, 


ADMIRAL  PEARY'S  PHOTOGRAPH  o£  THE 

NORTH  POLE 

The  northern  axis  of  the  globe  is  in  the  midst 
of  a  vast  Polar  Sea,  and  the  mound  of  the 
photograph  is  a  mere  mass  of  snow  and  ice 
utilized  by  Peary  as  a  pinnacle  for  the  Amer- 
ican flag  which  floats  at  the  top.  On  his  re- 
turn journey,  five  miles  from  the  Pole,  the  ex- 
plorer came  upon  a  narrow  crack  in  the  ice, 
through  which  he  attempted  a  sounding.  The 
length  of  his  apparatus  was  9,000  feet,  but  the 
lead  did  not  strike  bottom.  So,  the  depth  of 
the  sea  at  the  Pole  is  still  undetermined. 

frost,  shipwreck,  and  starvation  which  in 
the  popular  mind  has  made  the  word 
arctic  synonymous  Avith  tragedy  and 
death. 

THE   PRIZE   OE   FOUR   CENTURIES   IS   HIS 
REWARD 

Thus  Robert  E.  Peary  crowned  a  life 
devoted  to  the  exploration  of  the  icy 
North  and  to  the  advancement  of  science 
by  the  hard-won  discovery  of  the  North 
Pole.  The  prize  of  four  centuries  of 
striving  yielded  at  last  to  the  most  per- 
sistent and  scientific  attack  ever  waged 
against  it.  Peary's  success  was  made 
possible  by  long  experience,  which  gave 
him  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  diffi- 
culties to  be  overcome,  and  by  an  un- 
usual combination  of  mental  and  phy- 


322 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


sical  power — a  resourcefulness  which  en- 
abled him  to  find  a  way  to  surmount  all 
obstacles,  a  tenacity  and  courage  which 
knew  no  defeat,  and  a  physical  endow- 
ment such  as  Nature  gives  to  few  men. 

It  has  been  well  said  that  the  glory  of 
Peary's  achievement  belongs  to  the  world 
and  is  shared  by  all  mankind.  But  we, 
his  fellow-countrymen,  who  have  known 
how  he  struggled  those  many  years 
against  discouragement  and  scoffing  and 
how  he  persevered  under  financial  bur- 
dens that  would  have  crushed  less  stal- 
wart shoulders,  especially  rejoice  that  he 
"made  good  at  last,"  and  that  an  Ameri- 
can has  become  the  peer  of  Hudson, 
Magellan,  and  Columbus.* 

PEARY'S  ASSOCIATION  WITH  THE  NA- 
TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY 

Peary's  first  address  to  the  National 
Geographic  Society  was  in  the  fall  of 
1888,  when  The  Society  was  only  a  few 
months  old.  He  then  described  an  ex- 
pedition which  he  had  led  across  Nica- 
ragua. He  was  actively  associated  with 
its.  work  ever  since  those  early  days, 
and  on  his  return  from  each  of  his  ex- 
peditions to  the  Far  North,  his  first  pub- 


lic address  was  to  the  National  Geo- 
graphic Society.  His  last  public  -appear- 
ance was  on  the  platform  of  the  National 
Geographic  Society  when  in  January, 
1919,  he  introduced  Stefansson,  who  had 
just  returned  from  the  Canadian  North. 

It  was  at  a  National  Geographic  So- 
ciety meeting  in  1907  that  he  was  pre- 
sented the  Hubbard  Gold  Medal  of  The 
Society  by  President  Roosevelt,  and  in 
1909  a  Special  Gold  Medal  for  his  dis- 
covery of  the  North  Pole,  and  later  he 
became  a  member  of  its  Board  of  Man- 
agers. 

It  was  my  privilege  to  know  Admiral 
Peary  intimately  for  twenty  years,  and 
I  find  it  difficult  to  express  my  admira- 
tion and  affection  for  his  personal  quali- 
ties, the  bigness  of  his  heart  and  per- 
sonality, his  loyal  devotion  to  his  friends, 
his  generous  enthusiasm  at  real  'accom- 
plishment by  others  in  any  field,  his 
rugged  integrity,  and  his  love  for  every- 
thing American. 

As  long  as  the  National  Geographic 
Society  lives,  its  members  can  take  pride 
in  the  fact  that  the  organization  did  its 
utmost  to  help  Peary  "nail  the  Stars  and 
Stripes  to  the  Pole." 


THE   CROW,  BIRD    CITIZEN   OF   EVERY    LAND 

A  Feathered  Rogue  Who  Has  Many  Fascinating  Traits 

and  Many  Admirable  Qualities  Despite 

His  Marauding  Propensities 

BY  E.R.   KALMBACH 


ASSISTANT    BIOLOGIST,    U.    S.    BIOLOGICAL    SURVEY 


OUR  American  crows,  with  all 
their  thousands,  comprise  but  a 
small  contingent  of  the  corvine 
hordes  that  are  to  be  found  in  one  form 
or  another  in  almost  every  inhabitable 
land.  Crows  are  present  throughout  a 
large  part  of  the  North  American  Conti- 
nent, the  tundras  of  Siberia,  in  the  thickly 
settled  valleys  of  central  Europe,  along 
the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  in  Af- 
rica, India,  China,  Japan,  throughout 
many  of  the  islands  of  the  Eastern  archi- 


pelagoes, as  well  as  on  that  biologically 
unique  continent  of  Australia. 

South  America  alone  seems  to  be  de- 
void of  representatives  of  that  group  of 
birds  classified  as  crows  and  ravens. 

It  is  true  this  host  is  composed  of  a 
great  number  of  different  species,  mainly 
black  fellows,  and  frequently  with  repu- 
tations appropriately  associated  with  such 
a  garb ;  but,  with  all  its  species,  this  group 
of  birds  is  a  wonderfully  distinct  one. 

These  royal  rogues,  like  clannish  races 


*  The  preceding  paragraphs  are  extracted  from  a  brief  history  of  North  Polar  explorations 
written  by  Gilbert  Grosvenor  for  the  Foreword  of  Admiral  Peary's  book,  "The  North  Pole" 
(F.  A.  Stokes  Company). 


THE  CROW,  BIRD  CITIZEN  OF  EVERY   I. A. XI) 


328 


or  certain  religious  sects,  have  to  a  re- 
markable degree  preserved  their  odd 
mannerisms  through  many  ages.  Their 
bold  sagacity  and.  above  all,  their  ability 
to  eke  out  a  living  in  environments  that 
Nature  seems  to  have  neglected  have 
stood  them  in  good  stead  in  their  strug- 
gle for  existence.  Be  it  a  raven,  or  jack- 
daw, chough,  rook,  or  crow,  its  corvine 
attributes  are  at  once  recognizable. 

Each  of  the  species  has  peculiarities  all 
its  own,  but  the  characteristics  that  are 
common  to  all,  the  family  marks  of  rec- 
ognition, are  the  ones  that  readily  appeal 
to  any  one,  and  have  resulted  in  the  crows 
and  ravens  holding  a  distinctive  place  in 
bird  lore. 

A    SUBJECT    FOR    POETS,     FABULISTS,    AND 
MEN    OF   SCIENCE 

Probably  more  has  been  written  of 
crows  and  ravens  than  any  other  group  of 
birds.  From  ancient  myth  and  fable  to  the 
poetry  and  prose  of  modern  times,  litera- 
ture is  replete  with  allusions  to  them. 

In  this  article  the  author  will  endeavor 
to  present,  in  a  way  understandable  to  all, 
some  of  the  principal  findings  of  his  in- 
vestigation of  the  food  habits  of  our 
crows,  the  full  results  of  which  were  pub- 
lished as  Department  Bulletin  621  of  the 
U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture — "The 
Crow  and  its  Relation  to  Alan." 

The  preparation  of  this  bulletin  en- 
tailed the  examination  of  the  stomachs  of 
more  than  2,100  crows  from  all  parts  of 
the  bird's  range,  supplemented  by  field 
observations  of  many  able  ornithologists 
and  practical  farmers.  A  period  of  about 
five  years,  with  some  interruptions,  was 
consumed  in  stomach  examinations  alone, 
using  the  best  of  laboratory  equipment, 
including  extensive  collections  of  insects, 
crustaceans,  mollusks,  vertebrates,  seeds, 
and  other  possible  food  items  for  com- 
parison, and  with  the  collaboration  of 
specialists  in  the  different  groups. 

Future  days  may  bring  about  changes 
in  the  relative  abundance  of  crows,  in  the 
character  of  crops  raised,  or  even  in  the 
feeding  habits  of  the  birds  themselves, 
but  while  present  conditions  prevail  the 
results  of  this  investigation  must  be 
looked  upon  as  authentic  (see  page  331). 

To  most  people  a  crow  is  a  crow,  and 
few  realize  that  within  the  borders  of  the 


United  States  there  are  no  less  than  nine 
different  forms  of  corvine  birds.  Three 
of  these  are  ravens  and  six  are  crows. 

At  least  four  of  the  six  recognized 
forms  of  crows  present  in  the  United 
States  are  simply  geographical  races  of 
the  one  species,  the  common  crow,  differ- 
ing chiefly  in  the  dimensions  of  the  wing, 
tail,  and  bill,  and  in  any  treatment  of  the 
subject  outside  of  the  naturalist's  cloister 
may  well  be  considered  as  one.  In  food 
habits,  and  hence  in  economic  signifi- 
cance, the  members  of  these  four  races 
are  as  much  alike  as  the  varying  food  in 
their  respective  ranges  permits.  Another 
form,  inhabiting  the  coastal  region  from 
Puget  Sound  to  Alaska,  is  by  some  au- 
thorities also  considered  a  geographic 
race,  but  in  food  habits  this  bird,  the 
northwest  crow,  is  quite  distinctive. 

The  combined  breeding  ranges  of  these 
five  races  give  a  distribution  to  the  com- 
mon crow  that  extends  to  the  North 
nearly  to  the  Arctic  Circle,  throughout 
northern  Manitoba,  Ontario,  central  Que- 
bec, and  eastward  into  Newfoundland. 
It  is  found  all  along  our  Atlantic  sea- 
board, well  down  into  the  peninsula  of 
Florida,  and  throughout  the  Mississippi 
Valley,  south  to  the  Gulf  coast.  In  the 
West  crows  are  found  locally  in  Califor- 
nia and  abundantly  in  Washington  and 
Oregon — in  diminishing  numbers  north 
to  Alaska.  Throughout  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tain area  and  the  arid  regions  of  the 
Southwest  they  are  not  common. 

In  addition  to  the  widely  distributed 
common  crow,  there  is  one  other  form, 
quite  distinct  from  it  in  food  habits  and 
economic  influence,  the  fish-crow  of  the 
South  Atlantic  and  Gulf  coasts.  While 
something  is  known  of  the  food  prefer- 
ences of  this  odd  maritime  species,  a  full 
appreciation  of  its  economic  influence  is 
dependent  on  more  extensive  laboratory 
and  field  work. 

CROWS   ARE    MODEL   PARENTS 

The  home  life  of  crows  is  very  orderly 
and  need  hardly  be  mentioned.  As  par- 
ents, they  are  models  in  the  avian  world. 
The  nest,  which  is  well  concealed  from 
below  during  the  breeding  season,  is 
placed  at  heights  varying  from  20  to  60 
feet.  Here  are  laid  from  three  to  seven 
eggs,  which  in  our  Southern  States  may 


324 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  William  L,.  Finley  and  H.  T.  Bohlman 
THE  THEME  OF   POETS,   FABULISTS,  AND   ME,N   OF   SCIENCE 

The  crow  is  equally  at  home  throughout  the  continent  of  North  America,  in  the  tundras 
of  Siberia,  along  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  in  Africa,  India,  China,  Japan,  and  on 
many  of  the  islands  of  the  Eastern  archipelagoes.  South  America  alone  knows  him  not. 


be  found  as  early  as  the  end  of  February. 
Young  crows  may  be  found  from  the 
middle  of  March,  in  the  South,  to  as  late 
as  July  along  our  northern  border. 

The  voracious  young  remain  in  the  nest 
for  about  three  weeks,  and  even  after 
they  learn  to  fly  are  fed  to  some  extent 
by  their  parents.  Throughout  July  and 
August  crows  may  be  found  in  family 
parties  or  in  small  flocks,  living  comfort- 
ably on  a  commendable  diet  into  which 
enters  a  variety  of  insects,  though  the 
annual  crop  of  grain  furnishes  a  portion 
of  the  subsistence. 

MIGRATION    BEGINS    IN    SEPTEMBER 

By  September,  however,  begins  the  fall 
migration,  and  associated  with  it  the  es- 
tablishing of  crow  roosts,  by  all  odds  the 
most  interesting  phenomena  connected 
with  these  birds. 

From  September  to  March  of  each  year 
the  migratory  habits  of  these  birds  bring 
together  in  two  comparatively  small  areas 
the  bulk  of  the  crow  population  of  North 
America.  One  of  these  nuclei  is  located 


east  of  the  Alleghanies,  with  its  center  in 
the  lower  Delaware  Valley;  the  other 
centers  about  the  junction  of  the  Ohio 
and  Mississippi  rivers.  The  western  con- 
centration, however,  covers  a  much  larger 
area,  and  roosts  of  enormous  size  may  be 
found  as  far  south  as  Oklahoma. 

In  the  Far  West  there  is  also  a  con- 
densation of  the  crow  population  in  the 
winter  months,  particularly  along  the 
Columbia  River  and  near  the  coast,  but 
the  number  of  birds  involved  is  in  no 
way  comparable  to  the  mammoth  gath- 
erings farther  east. 

While  these  clannish  birds  may  be 
noted  gathering  in  colonies  of  as  many 
as  several  hundred  in  northern  localities 
in  August  and  September,  it  is  not  until 
about  the  first  of  October  that  the  large 
conclaves  in  the  latitude  of  Washington, 
D.  C.,  begin  to  take  on  the  aspect  of  their 
winter  popularity.  There  is  considerable 
fluctuation  in  numbers  from  day  to  day, 
and  in  periods  of  mild  weather  a  roost 
previously  established  may  wholly  dis- 
appear. 


THE  CROW,  BIRD  CITIZEN  OF  EVERY  LAND 


325 


Photograph  by  William  L,.  Finley  and  H.  T.  Bohlman 
A   MOTHER  CROW  AT  THE   NEST  EDGE 

The  nestling  crow  is  one  of  the  most  voracious  members  of  the  animal  kingdom.  Most 
of  its  "growing  pains"  are  in  its  stomach,  and  one  baby  bird  consumes  from  eight  to  ten 
ounces  of  food  every  day  (see  chart,  page  335 ). 


In  late  January  these  nightly  congre- 
gations reach  their  greatest  size,  and  by 
the  first  of  March  the  birds  are  well  on 
the  northward  journey  to  their  breeding 
grounds. 

REMARKABLE  CROW  CITIES  IN  WINTER 

Words  fail  to  describe  adequately  to 
one  who  has  never  witnessed  it  the 
nightly  gathering  at  a  large  winter  roost 
of  crows.  I  consider  such  congregations 
the  most  remarkable  ornithological  phe- 
nomena that  in  this  day  and  age  can  still 
be  witnessed  in  the  thickly  settled  sec- 
tions of  our  country  (see  page  328). 

And,  strange  to  relate,  an  extremely 
small  part  of  the  populace  realizes  the 
significance  of  those  seemingly  endless 
streams  of  black  forms  passing  twice 
daily  to  and  from  the  roosts,  sometimes 
directly  over  thickly  settled  metropolitan 
sections.  Fewer  still  have  any  conception 
of  the  countless  thousands  that  gather 
at  the  hub  of  the  converging  streams. 
Mention  of  the  numbers  estimated  at 


several  of  the  better-known  roosts  may 
give  some  impression  of  the  immensity 
of  these  conclaves. 

One  of  the  most  notable  roosts  was  that 
formerly  located  at  Arlington,  Va.,  where 
at  the  height  of  its  occupancy  from  150,- 
ooo  to  200,000  crows  gathered  nightly. 

The  so-called  "Arbutus"  roost,  near 
Baltimore,  Md.,  contained  in  1888  about 
200,000  birds.  At  about  the  same  time 
one  or  more  roosts  in  the  vicinity  of  St. 
Louis,  Mo.,  harbored  from  70,000  to 
90,000  crows,  and  the  one  at  Peru,  Nebr., 
had  from  100,000  to  200,000.  Other 
roosts  in  which  it  was  estimated  the  in- 
dividuals aggregated  more  than  100,000 
were  formerly  located  at  Hainesport, 
Merchantville,  Bridgeboro,  and  Center- 
ton,  N.  J.,  and  on  Reedy  Island,  in  the 
Delaware  River. 

Some  of  these  roosts,  or  their  suc- 
cessors near  by,  still  shelter  many  thou- 
sands of  birds,  although  I  am  inclined  to 
believe  that  in  the  East  the  crow  roosts 
are  becoming  smaller.  But  the  total  num- 


326 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Crow  roosts  are 
usually  located  in 
sparsely  settled  sec- 
tions, but  with  the 
constant  encroach- 
ment of  man  on  virgin 
tracts  the  bird  has 
found  it  increasingly 
difficult  to  find  its 
former  seclusion. 
Even  in  face  of  this, 
the  crow  maintains  its 
interesting  roosting 
habit,  with  the  result 
that  now  we  may  wit- 
ness this  phenomenon 
in  places  readily  ac- 
cessible. 

FAMOUS    CROW    COLO- 
NIES NEAR  WASH- 
INGTON 

In  the  winter  of 
1912-1913  several 
thousand  crows  es- 
tablished a  roost 
northwest  of  Wash- 
ington within  a  few 
hundred  feet  of  the 
Connecticut  Avenue 
Boulevard,  where  trol- 
ley cars  and  automo- 
biles passed  every  few 
minutes  throughout 
the  night. 

The  former  location 
of  the  Woodridge 
ber  of  these  birds  appears  to  be  about  roost,  northeast  of  the  National  Capital, 
the  same.  In  the  winter  of  1910-1911  a  was  in  a  small  strip  of  Virginia  pines 
roost  near  Woodridge,  D.  C.,  which  ap-  near  the  station  of  Rives,  on  the  Balti- 
pears  to  have  been  the  successor  to  the  more  and  Ohio  Railroad.  The  passing 
Arlington  roost,  was  estimated  to  con-  trains  caused  no  end  of  uproar  while  the 
tain  270,000,  while  in  1914  only  about  clans  were  assembling,  but  when  dark- 


Photograph  by  William  L.  Finley  and  H.  T.  Bohlman 
THE  DINNER   CALL 

Grasshoppers,  mice,  May  beetles,  mollusks,  frogs,  caterpillars,  and 
a  score  of  other  crow  dainties  are  required  to  sate  the  appetite  of 
this  inordinate  young  feaster. 


30,000  birds  could  be  accounted  for. 


ness  came  they  paid   little  attention  to 


There  is  evidence  that  leads  one  to  the  noise, 
think  that  in  parts  of  Oklahoma  some  The  present  location  of  the  Woodridge 
of  the  roosts  have  increased  materially  roost,  while  in  a  more  secluded  place  than 
within  recent  years — a  situation  that  may  formerly,  is  still  readily  accessible  and 
have  been  brought  about  by  the  increas-  forms  an  important  attraction  to  the  bird- 
ing  acreage  of  sorghum  in  that  section,  lovers  of  Washington.  Just  south  of  the 
as  this  grain  serves  as  an  admirable  Bladensburg  road  and  at  a  point  about 
winter  food  for  these  birds.  Absolutely  one-third  of  a  mile  northeast  of  the 
no  credence,  however,  need  be  given  to  Pennsylvania  Railroad  bridge  lies  a  tract 
reports,  which  at  times  have  had  wide  of  woodland  that  extends  in  a  long  nar- 
circulation,  of  roosts  totaling  "millions  row  strip  to  the  south. 


of  birds." 


At  the  southern  end  there  is  still  much 


THE  CROW,  BIRD  CITIZEN  OF  EVERY  LAND 


327 


of  the  virgin  stand  left,  but  throughout 
most  of  this  stretch  a  more  or  less  muti- 
lated second  growth  furnishes  the  nightly 
abode  for  many  thousands  of  crows. 
Here,  thanks  to  regulations  prohibiting 
hunting  in  this  part  of  the  District  of 
Columbia,  the  birds  have  found  a  fair 
measure  of  safety,  though  at  times  ad- 
venturous boys  or  thoughtless  adults  can- 
not resist  the  temptation  to  shoot  up  the 
roost. 

Time  will  come  when  the  clearing  of 
this  land  will  drive  the  birds  away,  but 
until  then  let  us  hope  the  Woodridge 
crows  may  continue  unmolested  their 
wonderful  winter  performance. 

BIRD  ASSASSINS  RAID  THE  ROOSTS 

At  the  roosts,  where  some  conclude 
crows  gather  for  mutual  protection  from 
enemies,  the  mortality  is  often  high. 
Here  the  great  horned  owl  wreaks  cruel 
vengeance  for  the  mobbing  it  receives  at 
their  hands  in  daylight  hours,  and  the 
gaunt  specter  of  disease  at  times  stalks 
through  their  ranks. 

A  malady  that  has  been  erroneously 
termed  roup  leaves  in  its  wake  a  certain 
toll  every  winter,  and,  when  it  appears  in 
virulent  form,  the  occupants  of  large 
roosts  may  be  practically  exterminated. 
This  disease,  affecting  the  mucous  mem- 
branes of  the  throat  and  nostrils,  also 
causes  a  whitish,  translucent  film  to  form 
over  the  eyes.  Blindness  follows,  and  I 
have  seen  hapless  victims  groping  along 
the  branch  upon  which  they  stood,  ap- 
parently in  a  vain  search  for  food. 

Under  the  rigors  of  the  disease,  with 
gradual  starvation  sapping  their  strength, 
and  with  the  relentless  elements  making 
suffering  more  intense,  these  unfortu- 
nates may  succumb  by  the  thousands  in 
the  course  of  a  few  weeks  (see  p.  330). 

HOW  THE  MIGHTY  FLOCK  ASSEMB'LES 

The  assemblage  of  one  of  these  mighty 
concourses  is  a  sight  that  will  move  even 
the  least  impressionable,  and  it  never 
loses  its  grandeur  by  repetition.  Scores 
of  times  have  I  watched  the  gathering 
hosts  at  the  Woodridge  roost ;  but  the 
sight  is  no  less  appealing  today  than  it 
was  on  the  occasion  when  I  first  observed 
it.  Essentially  the  procedure  is  the  same 
from  day  to  day,  but,  like  a  crackling 


Photograph  from  H.  M.  Stowe 

"A  CROWS'  ROOST" 

As  a  pet  the  crow  provides  endless  enter- 
tainment and  not  a  little  worry,  for  the  bird  is 
mischievous,  ubiquitous,  and  resourceful, 

fire  or  the  battle  of  the  surf,  never  be- 
comes monotonous. 

Like  a  human  rabble,  these  mighty 
flocks  always  seem  to  have  their  moods. 
There  are  clear  days,  with  the  birds  fly- 
ing high,  when  all  appear  festive  bound ; 
there  are  short  days  with  leaden  skies, 
when  sullenness  pervades ;  and  there  are 
tragic  days — days  with  deep  snow  and 
high  winds,  when  the  spirit  of  grim  de- 
termination alone  brings  back  to  the  roost 
those  that  the  elements  have  spared. 

The  battle  for  existence  in  the  short 
days  of  January  and  February  is  indeed 
a  cruel  one  for  the  crow ;  and  when  I 
see  it  in  endless  thousands  engaged  in  a 
life-and-death  struggle  against  the  ele- 
ments, starvation,  disease,  and  even  man 
himself,  and  it  persists  in  fighting  the 
battle  on  the  same  lines  as  its  ancestors 


328 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Official  photograph  U.  S.  Biological  Survey 
ROOSTING  CROWS   (SEE  PAGE  325) 

Few  sights  in  the  bird  world  equal  in  impressiveness  the  assem- 
blage of  a  large  crow  roost.  This  photograph  was  taken  after  sun- 
down, with  an  exposure  of  several  minutes,  at  the  Wopdridge  roost, 
near  Washington,  D.  C.  The  air  was  filled  with  flying  birds,  but 
only  those  that  remained  stationary  for  the  greater  part  of  the  ex- 
posure made  a  conspicuous  photographic  impression. 


fought  centuries  before,  that  black  specter 
ceases  to  be  a  mere  bird.  It  becomes  the 
embodiment  of  a  courageous  spirit,  living 
true  to  a  cherished  tradition.  It  is  then 
that  I  admire  the  bird. 

THE  PERSONALITY  OF  THE  CROW 

The  old  adage,  that  familarity  breeds 
contempt,  has  no  place  in  a  consideration 
of  the  relation  between  the  crow  and 
man.  Undue  familiarity  with  crops,  wild 
birds,  and  poultry  on  the  part  of  the 


crow  has  resulted  in 
opinions  regarding  it 
that  are  far  from  com- 
plimentary ;  but  I  have 
never  heard  any  one, 
even  a  confirmed  ene- 
my of  the  bird,  refer 
to  it  in  words  of  utter 
contempt.  More  inti- 
mate acquaintance 
may  increase  antago- 
nism, but  with  it 
grows  apace  a  greater 
appreciation  of  the 
crow's  resourceful- 
ness. 

Notwithstanding 
that  in  the  wild  state 
it  constantly  avoids 
close  association  with 
man,  the  crow,  when 
captured  as  a  nestling, 
readily  lends  itself  to 
domestication  and,  as 
a  pet,  reveals  many 
fascinating  traits. 

I  know  of  no  bird 
that  will  furnish  such 
an  endless  variety  of 
entertainment,  and,  I 
may  add,  as  much 
trouble,  as  a  pet  crow. 
They  may  be  taught 
to  utter  a  few  words 
of  articulate  speech, 
but  this  is  frequently 
interspersed  with  a 
choice  assortment  of 
ordinary  corvine  jar- 
gon that  at  times  bor- 
ders on  the  ridiculous. 
To  perfect  a  crow  in 
this  respect,  continu- 
ous association  with 
the  bird  and  infinite  patience  are  neces- 
sary. The  splitting  of  the  tongue,  so 
frequently  recommended,  adds  nothing  to 
the  crow's  ability  as  a  linguist. 

The  intensity  of  corvine  curiosity  is 
almost  feminine,  and,  if  given  a  few 
trinkets,  a  pet  crow  will  find  no  end  of 
amusement. 

Above  all,  crows  are  notorious  thieves 
and  hoarders,  and  if  permitted  the  free- 
dom of  the  dooryard  will  establish  numer- 
ous caches  of  treasure. 


THE  CROW,  BIRD  CITIZEN  OF  EVERY  LAND 


329 


I  distinctly  recall  a 
friend's  pet  crow  that, 
by  its  confiding  na- 
ture, had  earned  an 
affectionate  place  in 
the  household.  The 
bird  was  always  in- 
terested in  garden  op- 
erations, and  when 
work  was  being  done 
in  the  flower  beds  was 
sure  to  be  present. 
One  summer  morning 
found  its  mistress 
busily  engaged  in 
weeding  an  aster  bed. 
The  refuse  had  been 
carefully  raked  into 
neat  piles  between  the 
rows  when  a  telephone 
call  took  her  away  for 
a  moment,  and  in  the 
brief  absence  the  crow, 
that  no  doubt  had  been 
paying  some  attention 
to  the  operations,  com- 
pleted the  job  by  pull- 
ing up  the  asters  and 
depositing  them  in 
equally  neat  piles  be- 
side the  refuse. 

Another  crow, 
whose  plant-pulling 
proclivities  had  been 
developed  almost  to 
the  point  of  an  ob- 
session with  respect 
to  a  certain  potted  ge- 
ranium, is  the  subject 
of  a  story  once  told 
by  Mr.  Robert  Ridg- 
way,  the  eminent  or- 
nithologist. This  crow 


Official  photograph  U.  S.  Biological  Survey 

THE  GAUNT  SPECTEJR  OF  DISEASE  AT  TIMES  STALKS  THROUGH 
THE   RANKS   OF   CROW   ASSEMBLAGES 

This  disease,  affecting  the  mucous  membranes  of  the  throat  and 
nostrils,  also  causes  a  whitish,  translucent  film  to  form  over  the 
eyes.  Blindness  follows ;  then  these  hapless  creatures  may  be  seen 
groping  along  the  branches  of  trees,  apparently  in  a  vain  search  for 
food  (see  page  330). 


persisted  in  removing  a  particular  plant, 
despite  all  that  Mrs.  Ridgway  could  do 
to  keep  it  growing. 

On  one  occasion  the  bird  was  observed 
busily  engaged  in  grubbing  for  insects 
in  the  garden.  It  suddenly  ceased  its 
diligent  search,  paused  for  a  moment 
with  its  head  alert,  then  proceeded,  half 
hopping,  half  flying,  through  the  garden, 
the  gate,  and  up  the  back  stairs,  di- 
rectly to  the  doomed  geranium,  which 
was  straightway  pulled  up  and  deposited 
neatly  beside  the  pot.  This  done,  the 


bird  returned  to  its  place  in  the  garden 
and  continued  its  methodical  search  for 
grubs. 

DOG  AND   CROW,   BOON   PLAYMATES 

Dr.  Ned  Dearborn  has  related  an  in- 
teresting story  of  a  crow  and  a  farmer's 
dog  that  grew  up  together.  The  dog  en- 
joyed chasing  sticks  and  stones,  and  it 
remained  for  the  observant  *  crow  to 
evolve  a  plan  for  mutual  amusement. 
The  fracas  would  usually  start  whenever 
the  crow  found  the  dog  enjoying  a  noon- 


330 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Prof.  E.  H.  Eaton 
THE  DEATH  TOLL  OF  A  SINGLE  NIGHT  AT  A  CROW'S  ROOST 

In  December,  1901,  the  crows  of  Ontario  County,  New  York,  suffered  severely  from  a 
malady  erroneously  termed  roup.  In  the  illustration  are  the  bodies  of  73  dead  crows,  photo- 
graphed where  they  fell,  in  an  area  about  150  feet  in  diameter  (see  page  327). 


day  snooze.  Finding  a  stick  of  con- 
venient size,  the  bird  would  approach  the 
dog,  lay  it  down  within  easy  reach,  and 
then  give  its  canine  friend  a  nip  or  two 
on  the  heels. 

As  the  startled  dog  awoke,  the  crow 
would  grasp  the  stick  in  its  bill  and,  fly- 
ing about  four  feet  from  the  ground, 
would  start  across  the  fields  with  the  dog 
in  hot  pursuit.  This  continued  until  both 
had  reached  the  point  of  exhaustion ; 
whereupon  each  would  return  to  its 
respective  place  of  rest,  the  dog  on  the 
door-step  and  the  bird  on  a  nearby  shed. 

Mr.  Nelson  Wood,  of  the  U.  S.  Na- 
tional Museum,  who  has  had  extensive 
experience  with  domesticated  crows,  sev- 
eral of  which  developed  the  power  of 
speech  to  a  remarkable  degree,  tells  many 
interesting  anecdotes  of  these  birds.  One, 
whose  cage  extended  over  the  top  of  an 
inclined  cellar  door,  once  discovered  that 
the  cover  of  a  baking-powder  can  with 
which  it  had  been  playing  would  readily 
slide  down  this  incline.  After  experi- 


menting with  this  toy  for  some  time  in 
various  ways,  it  accidentally  stepped  into 
it  while  at  the  top  of  the  incline.  That 
was  enough.  Thereafter  this  avian 
"shoot-the-chute"  furnished  no  end  of 
amusement  for  both  bird  and  spectators. 

A   CROW'S   REVENGE 

Another  pet,  whose  linguistic  powers 
were  above  the  average,  would  increase 
its  range  of  tone  by  thrusting  its  head 
into  a  tin  can  and  there  give  vent  to  its 
thoughts.  The  activities  of  this  same 
bird  form  the  basis  of  an  incident  which 
I  hesitate  to  construe  as  a  manifestation 
of  corvine  strategy  and  desire  for  re- 
venge, but  an  imaginative  mind  might  so 
interpret  the  circumstances.  It  neverthe- 
less makes  a  good  story. 

"Jack"  had  been  severely  reprimanded 
and,  I  believe,  punished  for  alleged  of- 
fenses in  a  neighbor's  cabbage  patch. 
These  cabbages  were  choice  plants — a 
fact  that  even  "Jack"  seemed  to  appreci- 
ate after  he  had  been  taken  to  task,  as 


THE  CROW,  BIRD  CITIZEN  OF  EVERY  LAXD 


331 


thereafter  an  overhanging  tree  was  his 
nearest  approach  to  the  patch. 

For  a  week  or  more  the  cabbages  pros- 
pered wonderfully,  but  one  day,  as  the 
neighbor  was  busily  engaged  in  his  cellar, 
he  heard  coming  from  the  patch  a  "swish, 
swish"  that  strongly  suggested  the  tear- 
ing of  cabbage  leaves.  On  rushing  to  the 
door  he  beheld  "Jack,"  flying  a  few  feet 
from  the  ground  and  with  leisurely  wing 
beats  traveling  up  and  down  the  rows. 
Behind  him,  in  mad  pursuit  and  with 
utter  disregard  for  his  master's  prize  cab- 
bages, was  the  neighbor's  own  dog. 

Another  exasperating  trick,  but  one 
that  seems  to  reveal  the  crow's  love  of 
pure  devilment,  is  related  by  Mr.  Wood, 
and  I  believe  the  account  of  a  similar  in- 
cident has  appeared  in  literature.  In 
these  cases  the  crows  amused  themselves 
by  pulling  all  the  clothes-pins  off  the  line 
just  after  the  week's  washing  had  been 
put  out. 

THOUSANDS  OF  BIRDS'  STOMACHS  MUST  BE 
STUDIED 

Two  underlying  factors  make  the  crow, 
economically  speaking,  one  of  our  most 
important  birds.  It  is  abundant  and  it  is 
large.  Birds,  on  the  whole,  require  a  vol- 
ume of  food  in  direct  ratio  to  the  size  of 
their  bodies,  and  no  one  has  yet  advanced 
the  theory  that  crows  are  modest  or  re- 
strained when  dining.  It  follows,  then, 
that  what  facts  are  determined  regarding 
the  character  of  the  crow's  food  habits 
must  be  given  more  than  ordinary  con- 
sideration. Even  a  minor  food  habit  of 
a  bird  so  voracious  and  numerous  as  the 
one  under  discussion  may  have  most  im- 
portant influences  for  good  or  harm. 

How,  then,  it  is  asked,  can  one  know  to 
the  point  of  exactness  the  food  prefer- 
ences of  the  crow?  This  is  a  most  log- 
ical question.  Ornithological  literature  is 
burdened  with  generalities  regarding  the 
food  of  birds — yes,  and,  I  may  add,  inac- 
curacies— copied  verbatim  from  some 
earlier  writer,  who  in  turn  has  simply 
served  to  pass  the  word  along,  so  that 
today  one  can  find  many  of  Audubon's 
statements  still  doing  overtime  duty. 

No  element  of  disparagement  of  Au- 
dubon's work,  which  when  published  was 
the  most  exact  of  its  kind,  is  implied  by 
this  statement ;  but  modern  necessity  de- 


mands, and  is  rapidly  securing,  results 
far  more  accurate  than  the  data  secured 
by  the  field  ornithologists  of  the  early 
days. 

The  method  employed  involves  exten- 
sive and  intensive  examination  of  the 
stomach  contents  of  the  birds  under  in- 
vestigation. In  this  work  the  United 
States,  through  the  agency  of  the  U.  S. 
Biological  Survey,  now  leads  the  world. 

Xo  one,  however,  has  ever  looked  upon 
economic  ornithology,  even  in  its  most 
modern  form,  as  one  of  the  exact  sci- 
ences. In  dealing  with  birds  we  are  deal- 
ing with  living  creatures  —  vivacious, 
whimsical,  often  erratic  creatures — that 
sometimes  seem  never  to  do  the  same 
thing  twice.  But  experience  has  shown 
that  the  benevolent  law  of  averages,  when 
applied  even  to  a  series  of  examined  bird 
stomachs,  produces  results  that  are  so 
close  an  approximation  to  the  truth  that 
the  addition  of  large  quantities  of  ma- 
terial fails  to  affect  appreciably  the  result. 
Thus  the  greater  the  material,  the  more 
accurate  the  result. 

In  the  case  of  the  crow  2,118  stomachs, 
collected  in  39  of  our  States,  the  District 
of  Columbia,  and  some  of  the  Canadian 
provinces,  were  available,  and  of  these 
778  were  of  nestling  birds.  This  is  the 
third  largest  quantity  of  stomach  material 
ever  used  in  the  study  of  the  food  habits 
of  a  single  species  of  bird. 

THE   CROW  ENJOYS   A  VARIED    MENU 

The  crow  is  primarily  a  terrestrial 
feeder  and  a  most  resourceful  one.  More 
than  625  specifically  different  items  are 
at  present  known  to  furnish  it  sustenance. 
Herein  lies  the  reason  that  it  can  survive 
the  rigors  of  winter,  and,  when  the  hal- 
cyon days  of  early  summer  arrive,  it 
knows  also  how  to  live  and  rear  its  young 
in  true  avian  opulence.  And  the  young, 
let  me  assure  you,  never  languish  for 
want  of  proper  food,  either  in  kind  or 
quantity. 

About  28  per  cent  of  the  animal  food 
of  the  adult  crow  is  secured  from  the 
animal  kingdom  and  from  fully  a  dozen 
different  groups  in  that  kingdom.  In  ad- 
dition to  such  lowly  organized  creatures 
as  earthworms,  it  secures  nourishment 
also  from  crustaceans,  all  the  common 
orders  of  insects,  spiders,  snails,  and 


332 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Chart  from  E.  R.  Kalmbach 
A  GRAPHIC  PICTURE  OF  THE  CROW'S  FOOD,   MONTH   BY  MONTH 

The  relative  proportions  of  the  principal  food  items  are  shown  throughout  the  yearly 
cycle.  The  varying  width  of  the  bands  representing  the  several  items  corresponds  to  the 
quantity  of  each  food  taken  in  successive  months.  The  crow,  like  most  birds,  eats  that  which 
is  most  abundant  and  hence  easiest  to  get.  May  beetles  are  taken  mainly  in  May  and  June, 
grasshoppers  from  July  to  November,  and  other  insect  life  is  present  throughout  the  warmer 
months.  Corn  constitutes  the  largest  part  of  the  crow's  annual  sustenance,  but  most  of  this 
is  waste  grain.  The  broken  line  dividing  the  corn  sector  separates  that  which  is  secured 
from  the  sprouting  crop,  in  April,  May,  and  June,  and  the  ripening  crop,  in  September,  Octo- 
ber, and  November,  from  corn  which  is  evidently  waste. 


numerous  vertebrates,  including  fish,  am- 
phibians, reptiles,  birds,  and  mammals. 

It  is  in  the  consumption  of  certain  of 
its  animal  food  items  that  the  crow  ren- 
ders man  its  greatest  service,  and  in  feed- 
ing on  others  has  brought  upon  its  head 
condemnation  without  end. 

In  its  choice  of  insect  food,  which  forms 
a  little  less  than  a  fifth  of  the  yearly  sus- 
tenance, the  crow  leaves  little  to  be  de- 
sired. In  this  portion  of  the  diet  are 
found  some  of  the  worst  pests  with  which 
the  farmer  has  to  contend — wireworms, 
cutworms,  white  grubs,  and  grasshoppers. 

From  the  beginning  of  May  until  well 
into  September,  over  a  third  of  the  crow's 


food  is  derived  from  insects  alone,  and 
were  these  creatures  available  the  year 
around,  the  crow  would  be  found  doing 
yeoman  duty  throughout  the  seasons. 

AN  ENVIOUS  RECORD  IN  THE  DESTRUCTION 
OF   INSECTS 

As  an  effective  enemy  of  May  beetles, 
the  parents  of  the  destructive  white  grub, 
and  of  grasshoppers,  no  bird  in  the  east- 
ern United  States  is  the  equal  of  the  crow 
in  the  point  of  numbers  consumed.  In 
May  the  beetles  mentioned  above  consti- 
tute more  than  a  fifth  of  the  food  of  adult 
crows,  while  in  August  and  September 
grasshoppers  constitute  nearly  an  equal 


THE  CROW,  BIRD  CITIZEN  OF  EVERY  LAND 


333 


portion.  Nestling  crows  also  are  fed 
large  quantities  of  each  of  these  insects. 

A  better  idea  of  the  avidity  with  which 
crows  seek  and  devour  such  insect  prey 
can  be  gained  from  the  following  presen- 
tation : 

Of  197  adult  crows  collected  in  the 
month  of  May  in  many  different  States, 
156  had  fed  to  some  extent  on  May  bee- 
tles, and  in  several  of  the  stomachs  these 
pests  formed  more  than  90  per  cent  of 
the  contents. 

A  brood  of  three  partly  grown  nestlings 
secured  in  Wisconsin  had  been  fed  on 
nothing  else.  Another  brood  of  five  from 
the  District  of  Columbia  had  subsisted  to 
the  extent  of  nearly  three-fourths  of  their 
food  on  these  insects,  an  aggregate  of 
about  70  individuals  being  consumed. 

It  remained,  however,  for  12  nestlings 
(three  broods)  raised  in  Kansas  to  carry 
off  the  honors  as  destroyers  of  May  bee- 
tles. These  12  birds  had  at  their  last 
meal  cared  for  301  individuals,  one  tak- 
ing as  high  as  53. 

As  grasshopper  destroyers  crows  do 
even  better.  One  wise  old  bird  from 
southern  Indiana  had  reduced  the  grass- 
hopper population  by  123,  but  among  the 
young  crows  the  laurel  must  again  be  be- 
stowed upon  the  Kansas  delegation.  The 
most  noteworthy  work  of  grasshopper 
destruction  by  crows  of  which  I  have 
knowledge  was  performed  by  a  half- 
grown  brood  of  four  secured  at  Onaga. 
These  birds  had  consumed  133,  106,  105, 
and  74  respectively — a  total  of  418,  or  an 
average  of  about  104  apiece.  Another 
nestling  had  eaten  the  surprisingly  large 
number  of  143 ! 

It  is  noteworthy  that  these  birds  were 
all  collected  in  years  of  normal  grasshop- 
per abundance,  and  what  the  crows  would 
do  during  periods  of  grasshopper  out- 
break is  an  interesting  subject  for  con- 
jecture. 

Aside  from  their  war  on  May  beetles 
and  grasshoppers,  the  latter  of  which 
alone  is  charged  with  inflicting  damage  to 
the  crops  of  American  farmers  totaling 
$50,000,000  annually,  the  crow  renders 
invaluable  service  in  other  directions. 
The  cotton-worm,  the  army-worm,  the 
fall  army-worm,  the  tussock  moth,  the 
spring  canker-worm,  the  tent  caterpillar, 
the  gypsy  and  brown-tail  moths,  and  the 


chinch-bug  —  what  a  rogues'  gallery  of 
the  insect,  world!  —  all  must  attribute  a 
part  of  their  struggle  for  existence  to  the 
vigilance  of  the  crow. 


HOW   MUCH  DO   CROWS 

Some  experiments  have  been  made  to 
determine  the  quantity  of  insect  and  other 
food  required  to  sustain  a  crow.  Mr. 
E.  A.  Samuels  has  stated  that  captive 
birds  in  his  possession  ate  as  much  as 
eight  ounces  of  animal  food  daily,  while 
Forbush  in  working  on  young  crows 
found  "that  when  they  were  fed  less  than 
eight  ounces  per  day  they  either  did  not 
increase  in  weight  or  fell  off,  and  it  was 
not  until  each  crow  was  fed  ten  or  more 
ounces  that  their  weight  increased."  Dr. 
Ned  Dearborn  informs  me  that  an  adult 
crow  in  his  possession  ate  an  average  of 
4.83  ounces  of  animal  food  in  a  day. 

Consider  for  a  moment,  then,  the  daily 
grasshopper  consumption  of  a  family  of 
six  crows,  two  old  and  four  young,  lo- 
cated, we  will  say,  at  Onaga,  Kans., 
where  in  1913  crows  were  found  subsist- 
ing on  grasshoppers  to  the  extent  of 
about  42  per  cent  of  their  food. 

Allowing  each  of  the  young  ten  ounces 
of  food  a  day  and  each  of  the  adults  five, 
it  would  take  a  daily  ration  of  50  ounces 
to  supply  their  wants.  Interpreting  42 
per  cent  of  this  into  terms  of  medium- 
sized  grasshoppers,  at  the  rate  of  about 
87  per  ounce,  we  find  that  such  a  corvine 
household  under  normal  conditions  would 
destroy  over  1,827  of  these  pests  every 
day  the  young  were  in  the  nest,  and  for 
the  entire  nestling  period  of  about  three 
weeks  the  surprising  total  of  38,367  hop- 
pers would  have  been  cared  for  ! 

AS  A  PREDACIOUS  BIRD 

Bird-lovers  generally  and  sportsmen, 
game-keepers,  and  poultrymen  in  par- 
ticular are  vitally  concerned  with  the 
crow's  relation  to  other  wild  or  domestic 
birds.  There  is  no  question  that  in  part, 
at  least,  their  apprehension,  frequently 
expressed,  is  warranted.  While  the  crea- 
tion of  game  farms  and  preserves  has 
served  to  bring  this  subject  to  the  fore  in 
recent  years,  the  predatory  habits  of  the 
crow  are  by  no  means  recently  acquired. 
The  egg-stealing  and  bird-killing  crow 
was  present  under  primeval  conditions, 


334 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


and  today  is  simply  living  true  to  its  in- 
herited instincts. 

In  the  heronries  along  the  out-of-the- 
way  watercourses  of  Louisiana,  under 
conditions  wholly  unaltered  by  the  hand 
of  man,  I  have  seen  these  black  marau- 
ders taking  their  toll ;  and  again  among 
the  herons  of  the  lower  Santee,  in  South 
Carolina. 

The  anhingas  and  egrets  of  central 
Florida,  the  gulls  and  other  waterfowl 
at  Stump  Lake,  N.  Dak.,  the  sharp-tailed 
grouse  of  Manitoba,  and  the  ducks  of 
Saskatchewan  are  in  these  years  fighting 
the  same  battles  their  ancestors  fought 
centuries  before.  Are  they  fighting  a  los- 
ing battle,  and  does  all  of  this  mean  that 
in  the  end  the  crow,  not  man,  shall  decree 
which  of  our  birds  posterity  shall  enjoy 
and  which  are  to  go? 

Stomach  examination  in  this  case  lends 
valuable  but  not  complete  information. 
The  albumen  of  an  egg  or  the  soft  body 
of  a  nestling  bird  soon  disappears  under 
the  powerful  digestive  juices,  and,  even 
with  the  most  careful  work,  items  of  this 
kind  may  be  overlooked.  The  laboratory, 
however,  has  indicted  the  egg-stealing 
and  bird-killing  crow,  but  at  the  same 
time  it  conclusively  refutes  the  exagger- 
ated statements  of  extremists. 

THE;  CROW  is  NOT  OFTEN  A  CANNIBAL 

Wild  birds  and  their  eggs  constitute 
only  about  one-third  of  i  per  cent  of  the 
annual  food  of  the  1,340  adult  crows  ex- 
amined. This  resort  to  cannibalism  oc- 
curred chiefly  in  the  months  of  May, 
June,  and  July,  the  period  in  which  the 
crow  has  to  provide  a  copious  animal  diet 
for  its  young. 

Under  normal  conditions  about  \y2  per 
cent  of  the  food  given  to  nestling  crows 
also  is  secured  at  the  expense  of  other 
birds.  About  I  in  every  28  adult  crows 
and  i  in  every  u  of  the  nestlings  ex- 
amined had  partaken  of  the  forbidden 
food. 

Such  incriminating  evidence  cannot  be 
turned  aside  lightly.  But  there  are  miti- 
gating circumstances  that  must  be  taken 
in  consideration.  In  the  first  place,  most 
of  this  destruction  takes  place  during  the 
nesting  season  of  the  crow,  sufficiently 
early  in  the  year  to  permit  those  species 
that  have  lost  a  first  setting  of  eggs  to 


lay  and  incubate  a  second  clutch  at  a  time 
when  they  will  be  little  molested  by  the 
crow. 

A  goodly  portion  of  the  adult  birds 
which  the  crow  secures  no  doubt  are 
cripples  or  weaklings,  their  elimination 
increasing  the  virility  of  the  species 
preyed  upon.  And  then,  too,  it  must  be 
borne  in  mind  that  crows  habitually  pass 
to  each  of  their  nestlings  a  portion  of  so 
dainty  a  meal  as  another  bird's  egg  or 
young,  with  the  result  that,  when  stom- 
achs are  examined,  a  single  act  of  vandal- 
ism may  be  recorded  in  each  of  four  or 
five  stomachs. 

Distinction  also  should  be  made  be- 
tween the  common  crow  and  the  fish- 
crow,  which  is  notoriously  a  worse  pil- 
ferer of  nests. 

In  summing  up  the  evidence  that  has 
come  to  hand,  I  am  forced  to  the  con- 
clusion that  in  the  vicinity  of  game  farms 
and  preserves,  where  it  is  the  desire  to 
foster  certain  species  in  an  abundance 
greater  than  that  decreed  by  Nature,  the 
crow  must  be  held  in  check. 

Under  natural  conditions,  game  and 
insectivorous  birds  will  hold  their  own, 
regardless  of  the  crow,  if  furnished  the 
necessary  cover  and  not  shot  too  close. 
Consequently,  I  doubt  the  wisdom  of  ex- 
tensive crow  campaigns,  conducted  with 
the  sole  object  of  improving  game  con- 
ditions over  a  large  area. 

Poultry  furnishes  about  as  much  food 
for  the  crow  as  does  wild-bird  life;  but 
most  of  this  loss  can  be  prevented  by 
more  careful  housing.  The  shift-for- 
itself  method  of  poultry-raising  will  al- 
ways pay  its  toll  to  crows,  hawks,  and 
owls. 

Chicken-stealing  appears  to  be  largely 
the  trait  of  individual  birds,  which,  by 
reason  of  the  proximity  of  their  nests  or 
the  accessibility  of  the  poultry  yard,  have 
been  afforded  an  easy  means  of  getting 
a  plentiful  supply  of  nourishing  food. 
The  killing  of  one  or  two  engaged  in  the 
practice  will  usually  put  a  stop  to  such 
raids. 

As  a  ravager  of  certain  other  forms 
of  animal  life,  the  crow  exerts  influences, 
some  good  and  some  bad.  In  feeding  on 
mollusks  and  fish,  nothing  of  great  eco- 
nomic significance  is  involved.  The  frogs, 
salamanders,  and  toads  it  consumes  are 


THE  CROW,  BIRD  CITIZEN  OF  EVERY  LAND 


335 


From  E.  R.  Kalmbach 


WHAT    IT   TAKES   TO    RAISE   A    CROW 


The  nestling  crow  requires  about  10  ounces  of  food  per  day,  or  about  13^5  pounds  for  its 
nestling  life  of  three  weeks.  At  the  end  of  that  time  it  will  weigh  about  a  pound.  During 
this  period  it  will  have  eaten  two  and  a  quarter  times  its  own  weight  of  May  beetles.  The 
grasshoppers  it  has  eaten  would,  if  combined,  form  a  mammoth  insect  about  twice  the  size  of 
the  bird.  Wild  birds  and  poultry  would  each  form  a  mass  about  a  fifth  of  the  crow's  weight 
and  corn  about  one  and  one-half  times  its  mass.  Here  are  pictured  a  fully  fledged  young 
crow  and  its  principal  food  items.  These  include  small  mammals,  spiders,  caterpillars,  May 
beetles,  poultry,  wild  birds,  miscellaneous  beetles,  carrion,  corn,  amphibians,  crustaceans,  and 
grasshoppers.  These  are  all  drawn  to  a  scale  that  approximately  represents  the  aggregate 
mass  of  the  different  items  consumed  during  the  nestling  life,  compared  with  the  bird  that  ate 
them. 


mainly  insectivorous,  and  their  loss  is  to 
be  deplored,  but  in  the  destruction  of 
mice  of  various  kinds  the  crow  serves 
the  best  interests  of  the  farmer. 

THE  CROW  IN  THE  CORN-FIELD 

The  crow  and  the  corn  crop  are  in- 
separable. Corn  is  the  crow's  staff  of 
life,  though  much  of  what  it  takes  is 
eaten  more  from  dire  necessity  than  from 


choice.  Corn  forms  over  38  per  cent  of 
the  adult  crow's  food;  but  by  far  the 
largest  portion  is  consumed  from  the 
middle  of  November  to  the  end  of  March, 
a  time  when  there  is  no  sprouting  grain 
to  be  had  and  when  the  crop  of  the  year 
should  be  securely  housed.  It  appears, 
then,  that  waste  grain  forms  the  greater 
portion  of  the  crow's  corn  diet. 

This  fact,  however,  does  not  absolve  the 


336 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  Dr.  J.  B.  Pardoe 

BLACK  AND  WHITE,  A  STUDY  IN  CONTRASTS 

A  dog  and  a  crow  would  seem  to  be  strange  playmates,  but  a  student  of  bird  life  tells  of 
two  such  comrades  who  were  raised  on  a  farm.  The  chief  sport  of  the  crow  consisted  in 
laying  a  stick  within  easy  reach  of  the  dog  while  the  latter  slept,  then  waking  him  with  a  nip 
on  the  heels.  Whereupon,  the  bird  would  seize  the  stick  and  fly  across  the  field  with  the  dog 
in  hot  pursuit.  The  chase  would  continue  until  both  play-fellows  were  exhausted  (see  text, 
page  329). 


crow  from  all  blame  in  connection  with 
the  damage  inflicted  on  sprouting  corn 
or  on  the  harvest  before  it  has  been  re- 
moved from  the  fields.  It  is  one  case 
where  stomach  examination  is  hardly 
necessary;  but  stomach  examination  has 
been  made  and  it  has  convicted  the  bird. 
The  court  of  last  appeal  has  returned  an 
adverse  verdict,  with,  however,  a  recom- 
mendation for  clemency. 

In  the  Middle  West,  where  fields  of 
corn  reach  to  the  horizon  and  beyond,  the 
crow  is  an  unimportant  factor,  though  it 
is  present  in  considerable  numbers.  The 
birds,  no  doubt,  take  their  toll,  but  the 
crop  is  so  great  that  their  depredations 
are  insignificant. 

In  smaller  fields — for  instance,  in  the 
hilly  sections  of  northern  New  Jersey — 
damage  is  often  severe.  But  even  here 
one  can  resort  to  measures  that  in  the 


main  will  frustrate  the  crow's  intentions. 
That  same  shrewdness  that  stands  the 
crow  in  such  good  stead  in  its  struggle 
for  existence  may  be  used  by  man  to  ac- 
complish his  own  ends.  No  bird  detects 
danger  and  remembers  unfortunate  ad- 
ventures more  readily  than  the  crow.' 
Even  the  use  of  coal-tar,  with  its  gassy 
smell,  applied  to  seed  grain  has  brought 
relief  from  the  corn-pulling  crow,  and 
the  killing  of  a  few  birds,  either  by  shoot- 
ing or  by  the  use  of  poisoned  grain,  will 
usually  secure  immunity  for  small  fields. 

THE;  CROW  LEARNS  HIS  LESSON  IN  WASH- 
INGTON STATE; 

While  poison  should  be  used  spar- 
ingly and  judiciously,  so  as  not  seriously 
to  endanger  other  wild  life,  there  is  no 
question  of  its  efficacy  against  crows. 

This  fact  was  never  more  forcefully 


THE  CROW,  BIRD  CITIZEN  OF  EVERY  LAND 


337 


demonstrated  than  during  the  past  sea- 
son, when  the  crows  of  Klickitat  County, 
Washington,  were  attempting  to  repeat 
their  annual  feast  in  the  groves  of  green 
almonds  at  Goodnoe  Hills.  For  several 
years  these  birds,  roosting  in  thousands 
in  the  hilly  country  bordering  the  Colum- 
bia River,  had  been  growing  increasingly 
bold  in  their  sorties. 

The  loss  to  some  growers  was  .100  per 
cent,  for  when  a  flock  of  10,000  or  more 
crows  settled  in  a  grove  of  fifteen  acres 
a  few  hours'  feast  would  strip  the  trees. 

Scare-crows  had  availed  nothing  and 
shooting  brought  only  temporary  relief. 
Even  sporadic  efforts  at  poisoning,  in 
which  carcasses  and  grain  had  been  used 
as  bait,  failed  to  serve  the  purpose.  A 
few  crows  were  killed,  with  the  result 
that  the  rest  studiously  avoided  the  car- 
casses and  the  grain,  but  kept  on  eating 
the  nuts. 

It  was  not  until  some  one  conceived  the 
idea  of  feeding  the  marauders  poisoned 
almonds  that  relief  was  gained.  Only  a 
few  crows  were  killed  by  this  method, 
but  their  comrades  had  witnessed  their 
fall.  Abject  despair  seemed  to  seize  the 
mighty  host.  The  flock  rose  from  the 
grove  as  a  monstrous  black  cloud,  and, 
with  a  deafening  roar  of  protesting 
voices  that  could  be  heard  for  miles,  it 
left  Goodnoe  Hills.  Some  almond  groves 
of  the  Hills  were  severely  damaged,  even 
this  year,  but  in  those  where  a  few 
poisoned  almonds  had  been  placed  crow 
damage  had  been  reduced  from  a  possible 
loo  to  about  2  per  cent. 

A  WAR  OF  CROW  EXTERMINATION   NOT 
WARRANTED 

Our  enormous  corn  crop  has  greatly 
simplified  the  crow's  winter  task  of  mak- 
ing a  living,  as  the  other  vegetable  food 
items  of  the  crow  constitute  by  no  means 
a  highly  nutritious  assortment. 

The  hardened  fruits  of  dogwood,  sour- 
gum,  greenbrier,  smilax,  Virginia  creeper, 
sumac,  poke-weed,  a  few  acorns,  and  the 
wax-covered  seeds  of  bayberry,  poison 
ivy,  and  poison  oak  constituted  the  chief 
sources  of  food  for  the  North  American 
crows  in  pre-Columbian  times.  Today 
they  still  get  a  portion  of  their  suste- 


nance from  these  sources,  and  at  their 
winter  roosts  may  be  found  heavy  de- 
posits of  the  indigestible  portions  of 
these  fruits. 

When  all  is  said  and  done,  one  is  forced 
to  the  conclusion  that  legislation  which 
permits  the  killing  of  crows  whenever 
they  are  doing  damage  is  necessary.  Such 
permission  is  now  granted  under  the  laws 
of  all  States  in  which  crows  are  numer- 
ous. 

On  the  other  hand,  bounty  laws  that 
result  in  the  killing  of  crows  in  places  and 
at  times  when  they  may  be  doing  great 
good  are  reactionary.  Only  in  rare  cases 
is  it  conceivable  that  drastic  control  meas- 
ures for  the  protection  of  crops  are  war- 
ranted for  areas  as  large  as  an  average 
State.  Misguided  efforts  that  at  times 
gain  impetus  for  nation-wide  crow  cam- 
paigns on  the  pretext  that  a  near  or  com- 
plete extermination  of  the  bird  would 
benefit  the  American  farmer  cannot  be 
justified  if  all  the  evidence  is  fairly  pre- 
sented. 

THE    HUMAN    ATTRIBUTES    OF    THE    ROBIN 
HOODS  OF  THE  BIRD  WORLD 

Aside  from  any  economic  considera- 
tions which  are  sufficient  in  themselves, 
the  passing  of  the  crow  would  leave  a  dis- 
tinct void  in  our  attractive  bird  life.  Its 
crimes  are  many,  but  its  virtues  must  not 
be  overlooked  (see  also  page  334). 

Who  can  deny  that  our  Robin  Hoods 
and  other  adventurous  spirits  have  left 
us  in  the  story  of  their  lives,  though 
checkered,  much  that  is  good  and  much 
to  be  admired?  The  world  would  have 
been  poorer  without  them.  To  one  whose 
association  with  the  crow  has  been  at  all 
intimate,  there  comes  a  bit  of  the  same 
feeling. 

There  is  much  of  human  character — 
fear  and  boldness,  affection  and  hate,  in- 
genuity, perseverence,  and  revenge — to  be 
found  in  the  life  habits  of  this  interesting 
bird.  Let  those  who  would  actually  ex- 
terminate it  pause  long  enough  in  their 
efforts  to  learn  more  of  the  crow's  real 
and  potential  powers  in  the  control  of 
certain  pests.  Then,  and  only  then,  will 
the  general  attitude  toward  the  bird  be- 
come an  intelligent  one. 


THE    NATIONAL   GEOGRAPHIC    SOCIETY'S 
NOTABLE   YEAR 


NOTABLE  advance  in  usefulness 
and  growth  in  membership  have 
marked  the  history  of  the  Na- 
tional Geographic  Society  during  the 
past  year.  Its  accomplishments  in  the 
increase  and  diffusion  of  geographic 
knowledge  are  the  occasion  for  cordial 
congratulation  of  the  more  than  750,000 
individual  members ;  it  is  their  faith  and 
their  support  of  the  organization's  aims 
that  have  heartened  and  encouraged  those 
to  whom  has  been  entrusted  the  direction 
of  The  Society's  activities. 

In  recognition  of  The  Society's  service 
to  geography,  and  particularly  in  appre- 
ciation of  its  grant  of  funds  which  saved 
some  of  the  Big  Trees  of  the  Sequoia 
National  Park,  California,  from  destruc- 
tion at  the  hands  of  commercial  interests, 
James  C.  Horgan,  of  Los  Angeles,  made 
a  bequest  during  the  year  of  $8,000,  the 
income  from  which  is  to  be  used  for  The 
Society's  work. 

THE    SOCIETY    ADDS    TO    THE)    WORLD'S 
KNOWLEDGE  OF  VOLCANIC  ACTION 

Foremost  among  the  achievements  of 
The  Society  during  the  past  few  months 
was  the  splendid  success  of  the  sixth 
expedition  dispatched  to  the  region  of 
Mount  Katmai,  the  world's  largest  active 
volcano.  There  an  exhaustive  study  was 
made  of  the  now  famous  "Valley  of  Ten 
Thousand  Smokes,"  discovered  by  an 
earlier  Geographic  expedition  and  recog- 
nized today  as  perhaps  the  most  remark- 
able natural  phenomenon  on  the  face 
of  the  globe — an  area  where  chemists, 
physicists,  geologists,  and  petrographers 
may  actually  study  the  processes  by 
which  the  earth  has  evolved  through  the 
ages  from  a  seething  mass  of  matter 
into  a  habitable  planet. 

A   SPLENDID    HARBOR  DISCOVERED 

The  1919  expedition,  which  sailed  from 
Seattle  eleven  months  ago  and  which 
completed  its  work  late  in  the  autumn, 
was  equipped  at  a  cost  of  more  than 
$30,000,  but  the  treasure  of  knowledge 
which  it  brought  back  to  The  Society's 
members  and  which  is  to  be  given  to 
the  scientific  world  represents  inestimable 
dividends  in  the  form  of  facts. 


One  of  the  most  significant  accomplish- 
ments of  this  expedition  was  the  dis- 
covery of  a  magnificent  harbor,  christ- 
ened Geographic  Harbor  in  honor  of 
The  Society,  near  the  entrance  to  the 
valley.  This  find  will  result  inevitably 
in  the  opening  of  this  region  to  tourist 
travel,  and  it  requires  no  prophetic  vision 
to  see  Mount  Katmai  and  its  surround- 
ing wonderland,  already  a  national  monu- 
ment by  presidential  proclamation,  ele- 
vated in  the  near  future  to  the  impor- 
tance of  a  national  park,  in  which  all 
America  may  enjoy  the  marvels  of  its 
awesome  majesty,  the  beauty  of  its  fairy 
flowerland  in  summer,  the  charm  of  its 
woodlands,  and  the  fascination  of  its 
wild  life. 

The  findings  of  the  sixth  expedition 
were  recorded  by  both  motion  picture 
and  color  photography.  The  films  of 
the  former  have  been  shown  to  the  mem- 
bers in  the  National  Capital,  and  it  is 
hoped  that  arrangements  can  be  made  to 
exhibit  them  to  Geographic  members 
throughout  the  United  States.  The  offi- 
cial report  of  the  leader  of  the  expedi- 
tion, Prof.  R.  F.  Griggs,  will,  as  in  the 
case  of  all  previous  expeditions  organized 
by  The  Society,  be  told,  with  a  wealth  of 
illustrations,  in  an  early  number  of  the 
NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE. 

HUBBARD  MEDAL  AWARDED  TO 
STEFANSSON 

Supplementing  its  own  achievements 
in  the  world  of  exploration,  the  National 
Geographic  Society  saw  fit  to  pay  tribute 
to  the  services  of  a  distinguished  ex- 
plorer who  has  added  more  than  100,000 
square  miles  to  the  mapped  area  of  the 
Western  Hemisphere.  This  explorer, 
Vilhjalmur  Stefansson,  was  awarded  the 
Hubbard  Gold  Medal  of  The  Society, 
and  upon  that  occasion  the  recipient  of 
the  honor  was  introduced  to  the  members 
present  by  two  of  the  foremost  figures 
in  the  history  of  Polar  exploration — 
Rear  Admiral  Robert  E.  Peary,  dis- 
coverer of  the  North  Pole,  and  Major- 
General  A.  W.  Greely,  leader  of  the 
Greely  International  Polar  Expedition  of 
i88i-'84,  and  for  14  years  holder  of  the 
record  for  the  Farthest  North. 


338 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY'S   NOTABLE  YEAR 


339 


ADMIRAL    PEARY S    LAST    PUBLIC    APPEAR- 
ANCE; 

It  was  at  this  meeting  of  The  Society 
that  Admiral  Peary  made  his  last  public 
appearance  to  pay  the  following  tribute 
to  his  fellow-explorer: 

"Fellow-members  of  the  National  Geo- 
graphic Society: 

"Today  we  add  another  to  the  long  list 
of  Polar  explorers,  both  north  and  south, 
whom  our  Society  has  welcomed  and  to 
whom  our  members  have  listened  with 
absorbing  interest. 

"Six  years  ago,  in  the  parlor  of  a  hotel 
in  Rome,  I  said  good-bye  to  another  con- 
fident young  friend  of  mine  who  was 
starting  then  for  home  in  order  to  begin 
one  of  our  latest  Polar  quests.  I  met 
him  here  today  for  the  first  time  since 
then.  How  much  has  happened  to  him 
in  those  six  years  I  need  not  attempt  to 
relate.  Five  and  one-half  years  of  those 
six  this  man  has  been  there  in  the  Arctic 
regions  adding  to  the  sum  of  the  world's 
knowledge.  Five  and  one-half  years  ! 

A   NEW   TYPE  OF  EXPLORER  COMING 

"It  is  not  my  intent  to  go  into  a  resume 
of  his  work.  He  is  going  to  tell  you  that 
himself,  but  I  can  note  very  briefly  that 
within  that  time  Stefansson  has  added 
more  than  100,000  square  miles  to  the 
maps  of  that  region — the  greatest  single 
addition  made  for  years  in  Arctic  regions. 
He  has  outlined  three  islands  that  were 
entirely  unknown  before,  and  his  obser- 
vations in  other  directions,  the  elimina- 
tion of  the  continental  shelf,  filling  in  of 
unknown  gaps  in  the  Arctic  archipelago, 
and  his  help  in  summing  up  our  knowl- 
edge of  those  regions  are  in  fact  invalu- 
able. 

"Stefansson  is  perhaps  the  last  of  the 
old  school,  the  old  regime  of  Arctic  and 
Antarctic  explorers,  the  worker  with  the 
dog  and  the  sledge,  among  whom  he 
easily  holds  a  place  in  the  first  rank. 
Coming  Polar  explorers,  both  north  and 
south,  are  quite  likely  to  use  modern 
means  which  have  sprung  into  existence 
within  the  last  few  years. 

"According  to  my  own  personal  im- 
pressions— aerial  flights ;  according  to 
Stefansson,  he  would  like  to  try  his 


chances  with  a  submarine ;  but  whether 
it  be  aeroplane  or  submarine,  it  will  mean 
the  end  of  the  old-time  method  with  the 
dog  and  the  sledge  and  man  trudging 
alongside  or  behind  them. 

"What  Stefansson  stands  for  is  this: 
he  has  grasped  the  meaning  of  Polar 
work  and  has  pursued  his  task  in  the 
Arctic  regions  section  by  section.  He 
has  profited  by  experience  piled  upon 
experience  until  he  knows  how  to  face 
and  overcome  every  problem  of  the 
North.  His  method  of  work  is  to  take 
the  white  man's  brains  and  intelligence 
and  the  white  man's  persistence  and 
will-power  into  the  Arctic,  and  sup- 
plement these  forces  with  the  wood-craft, 
or,  I  should  say,  polar-craft,  of  the 
Eskimo — the  ability  to  live  off  the  land 
itself,  the  ability  to  use  every  one  of 
the  few  possibilities  of  those  frozen 
regions — and  concentrate  on  his  work. 

"Stefansson  has  evolved  a  way  to  make 
himself  absolutely  self-sustaining.  He 
could  have  lived  in  the  Arctic  fifteen  and 
a  half  years  just  as  easily  as  five  and  a 
half  years.  By  combining  great  natural, 
physical,  and  mental  ability  with  hard, 
practical,  common  sense,  he  has  made  an 
absolute  record. 

"Stefansson  has  not  only  fought  and 
overcome  those  ever-present  contingen- 
cies of  the  Arctic  region — cold  and  hun- 
ger, wet  and  starvation,  and  all  that  goes 
with  them — but  he  has  fought  and  over- 
come sickness — first,  typhoid  ;  then  pneu- 
monia, and  then  pleurisy — up  in  those 
forbidding  regions,  and  then  has  been 
obliged  to  go  by  sled  four  hundred  miles 
before  finding  the  shelter  of  a  hospital 
and  the  care  of  a  physician." 

GENERAL  GREELY'S  TRIBUTE  TO 
STEEANSSON     - 

Major  General  Greely  likewise  paid  a 
memorable  tribute  to  the  Hubbard  Gold 
Medalist : 

"At  this  meeting  of  the  members  of 
the  National  Geographic  Society  to  do 
honor  to  an  American  explorer,  there 
rises  in  my  mind  a  throng  of  memories 
of  that  three  years  of  Arctic  service,  so 
far  buried  in  the  past,  when  it  was  ac- 
tion, action,  always  action,  and  not,  as 
now,  the  uttering  of  a  word. 

"The  Bible  tells  us  that  Isaiah  saw  a 


340 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


word — that  is,  a  vision  over  the  Holy 
Land  centering  in  known  Jerusalem. 
We,  too,  had  visions  which  were  over  the 
vast  expanse  of  the  white  north,  unseen 
by  human  eye  since  the  dawn  of  creation. 
Though  barren,  desolate,  unknown,  and 
strangely  mysterious,  it  has  been  a  goal 
for  the  adventurous  of  all  nations. 

"Among  such  seekers  we  are  honored 
tonight  by  the  presence  of  two  officers  of 
the  Russian  navy,  Lieutenants  Nikolsky 
and  Evgenoff.  With  Captain  Vilkitsky, 
they  were  the  first  to  navigate  from  east 
to  west  the  Siberian  ocean,  from  Bering 
Strait  to  the  North  Sea.  They  also  gave 
to  the  world  a  new  Arctic  archipelago, 
Nicholas  II  Land,  north  of  Cape  Chely- 
uskin, the  promontory  that  projects  far- 
thest into  that  ice-encumbered  sea.  They 
were  brought  near  in  sympathy  and  help- 
fulness to  the  speaker  of  the  evening,  for 
they  tried,  though  in  vain,  defeated  by  the 
pack,  to  rescue  the  survivors  of  the  Kar- 
luk,  then  marooned  on  Wrangell  Land. 

"We  come  together  especially  to  wel- 
come back  Vilhjalmur  Stefansson,  whose 
published  obituary  you  have  read,  but 
who  insists  with  Mark  Twain  that  the 
account  of  his  death  has  been  greatly  ex- 
aggerated. However,  it  told  indirectly 
the  tale  of  his  dangers  and  hardships. 

"THE  WORLD'S  RECORD  FOR  CONTINUOUS 
POLAR  SERVICE" 

"Stefansson  has  several  unique  Arctic 
records.  His  five  and  a  half  years  is  the 
world's  record  for  continuous  Polar  serv- 
ice. A  pioneer  in  living  on  the  game  of 
the  region,  whether  on  the  ice-covered 
sea  or  on  the  northern  lands,  he  also 
initiated  distant  journeys  on  the  ice-floes 
of  an  unknown  sea,  which  carried  him 
hundreds  of  miles  from  the  nearest  land. 

"The  contributions  of  his  expeditions 
are  important  and  extensive.  Besides  the 
natural  history  and  geologic  knowledge, 
he  has  made  inroads  into  the  million 
square  miles  of  unknown  Arctic  regions, 
the  largest  for  many  years.  His  hydro- 
graphic  work  is  specially  important,  in 
surveys  and  in  magnetic  declinations. 
His  numerous  soundings  not  only  outline 
the  continental  shelf  from  Alaska  to 
Prince  Patrick  Island,  but  also  disclose 
the  submarine  mountains  and  valleys  of 
the  bed  of  Beaufort  Sea. 


"From  the  unknown  regions  of  Arctic 
land  and  sea  he  has  withdrawn  areas 
amounting  to  approximately  100,000 
square  miles.  These  discoveries  com- 
prise about  65,000  square  miles  of  Beau- 
fort Sea  to  the  north  of  the  Mackenzie 
basin,  10,000  square  miles  of  the  Arctic 
Ocean  west  of  Prince  Patrick  Island, 
over  3,000  square  miles  along  the  north- 
east coast  of  Victoria  Island,  and  over 
15,000  square  miles  of  land  and  sea  to 
the  northeast  of  Prince  Patrick  Island. 
In  the  last-named  region  three  large  and 
other  small  islands  were  discovered  be- 
tween latitude  73  degrees  and  80.2  de- 
grees north  and  between  longitude  98  de- 
grees west  and  115  degrees  west. 

"These  new  islands  unquestionably  fill 
in  the  last  gap  in  the  hitherto-unknown 
seaward  limits  of  the  great  Arctic  archi- 
pelago to  the  north  of  the  continent  of 
America. 

"The  spirit  as  well  as  the  material  re- 
sults of  exploration  should  be  recognized. 
Tonight  the  borderland  of  the  White  Sea 
is  in  the  thoughts  and  hearts  of  many, 
for  there,  in  the  gloom  of  Arctic  twilight, 
and  in  the  cold  of  a  Polar  winter,  the 
heroic  men  of  this  great  nation  are  en- 
during fearful  hardships  and  periling 
their  young  lives  to  restore  peace  and 
give  freedom  to  unfortunate  Russia. 

"Recall  that  in  the  dawn  of  that  na- 
tion's history,  through  this  sea  and  the 
port  of  Archangel  only  could  Russia  be 
reached.  More  than  three  and  a  half  cen- 
turies ago,  the  first  great  maritime  expe- 
dition of  England  sailed  to  the  White 
Sea,  and  Chancellor's  visit  had  potent 
results  in  the  development  of  both  Eng- 
land and  Russia. 

"Of  this  great  voyage  Milton  said:  'It 
was  an  enterprise  almost  heroic  were  it 
not  for  gain.'  Stefansson's  explorations 
are  untainted  by  motives  of  materialism. 

"WE  WHO  ARE  ABOUT  TO  DIE  SALUTE  HIM" 

"In  recognition  both  of  the  idealistic 
spirit  and  of  the  geographic  importance 
of  the  discoveries  made  by  Vilhjalmur 
Stefansson,  the  Board  of  Managers  of 
the  National  Geographic  Society  unani- 
mously direct  me  to  present  to  him  the 
Hubbard  Medal. 

"It  is  to  be  added  that  the  three  sur- 
vivors of  the  so-called  Greely  Interna- 


©  Harris  &  Ewing 

REAR  ADMIRAL  JOHN  ELLIOTT  PILLSBURY,  U.  S.   N.,  LATE  PRESIDENT  OF  THE 
NATIONAL    GEOGRAPHIC    SOCIETY 

The  distinguished  naval  officer  and  authority  on  the  Gulf  Stream,  who  died  December 
30,  1919,  had  been  a  member  of  the  National  Geographic  Society's  Board  of  Managers  for 
more  than  ten  years,  and  had  served  as  its  Vice-President  from  1915  until  his  election  to  the 
Presidency  of  the  organization,  April  16,  1919. 

341 


342 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


tional  Polar  Expedition  are  too  far  ad- 
vanced in  years  again  to  hazard  Polar 
work;  but  as  explorers  of  the  igth  cen- 
tury who  first  wrested  from  England  a 
record  held  for  three  hundred  years — 
that  of  the  farthest  north — they  wish  to 
honor  the  explorer  of  the  2Oth  century 
who  surpasses  them. 

"Appreciative  of  Stefansson's  endur- 
ance of  hardships,  recognizing  his  ability 
in  devising  new  methods,  his  courage  in 
testing  such  methods,  and  his  standing 
as  a  typical  Arctic  explorer,  the  members 
of  the  Greely  Expedition,  who  are  about 
to  die,  salute  him."  * 

EIGHT    GEOGRAPHERS    AWARDED    JANE    M. 
SMITH  LIFE  MEMBERSHIPS 

The  Society  also  recognized  the  achieve- 
ments of  eight  other  distinguished  geog- 
raphers by  electing  them  to  life  member- 
ship under  the  terms  governing  the  en- 
dowment fund  of  $5,000  bequeathed  by 
the  late  Miss  Jane  M.  Smith,  of  Pitts- 
burgh. The  men  thus  honored  were : 

Rear  Admiral  Joseph  Strauss,  U.  S.  N. ; 
E.  W.  Nelson,  Frank  G.  Carpenter,  Prof. 
Robert  F.  Griggs,  Walter  T.  Swingle, 
O.  F.  Cook,  William  H.  Holmes,  and 
Stephen  T.  Mather.f 

Reasons  underlying  the  choice  of  these 
men  of  science  reveal  a  fascinating  story 
of  geographic  achievement. 

Checking  Germany's  U-boat  warfare 
by  the  North  Sea  mine  barrage  is  univer- 
sally accounted  to  have  been  a  major 
factor  in  the  Allied  victory.  Preliminary 
to  this  gigantic  task  a  needful  element  to 
the  success  of  the  operation  was  a  study 
of  the  geography  of  the  North  Sea  re- 
gion— a  study  made  by  Rear  Admiral 
Joseph  Strauss,  who  was  in  command  of 
the  expeditions  that  laid  and  removed  the 
mines.J 

*A  most  interesting  article,  "The  Develop- 
ment of  Northern  Canada,"  by  Mr.  Stefansson, 
will  appear  in  an  early  number  of  THE  GEO- 
GRAPHIC. 

t  Only  five  other  life  memberships  have  been 
awarded  previously  under  the  provisions  of 
Miss  Smith's  bequest,  those  being  to  Colonel 
Hiram  Bingham,  Colonel  Alfred  H.  Brooks, 
Dr.  William  H.  Dall,  George  Kennan,  explorer 
and  first  Secretary  of  the  National  Geographic 
Society,  and  Henry  Pittier. 

$  See  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE,  Feb- 
ruary, 1920,  and  February,  1919. 


Beside  this  recent  mark  of  distinction, 
Admiral  Strauss  already  was  known  for 
his  invention  of  the  superposed  turret 
system  of  mounting  guns  on  battleships, 
for  his  part  in  the  blockade  of  the  Cuban 
coast,  for  his  experimental  work  in  tor- 
pedoes, and  for  his  writings  on  ordnance 
and  ballistics. 

Walter  T.  Swingle's  name  is  associ- 
ated with  the  American  raising  of 
Smyrna  figs;  for  until  he  introduced  the 
insect  necessary  for  fertilization  of  this 
variety,  at  Fresno,  California,  in  1899, 
the  imported  fig  trees  grew,  but  bore  no 
fruit.  Mr.  Swingle  has  also  devised 
numerous  improvements  to  microscopes, 
made  agricultural  explorations  in  many 
lands,  originated  "citranges"  by  hybridi- 
zation, in  Florida,  and  introduced  the 
date  palm,  pistachio  nut,  and  other  plants 
of  Mediterranean  origin  into  the  United 
States. 

Known  to  every  student  of  animal  life 
is  the  work  of  Edward  W.  Nelson,  Chief 
of  the  U.  S.  Biological  Survey,  who  has 
contributed  notably  to  the  information 
concerning  animal  life  of  North  America, 
from  the  time  when  he  conducted  pioneer 
scientific  explorations  in  Alaska,  forty 
years  ago,  to  his  more  recent  expeditions 
to  examine  the  zoology  and  botany  of 
Mexico.  Results  of  a  major  line  of  his 
investigations  have  been  published  by  the 
NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE  and 
later  by  the  Society  in  a  volume  entitled 
"Wild  Animals  of  North  America." 


No  less  important  than  the  increase 
of  geographic  knowledge,  the  National 
Geographic  Society  has  always  held,  is 
its  diffusion,  and  on  this  basis,  especially, 
recognition  was  accorded  Frank  G.  Car- 
penter. First  as  a  newspaper  corre- 
spondent, later  as  a  travel  writer,  and 
also  as  an  author  of  some  admirable 
school  geographies,  Mr.  Carpenter  has 
stimulated  interest  in  geographic  knowl- 
edge and  made  intelligible  to  the  general 
public  a  vast  amount  of  informative 
data. 

O.  F.  Cook  was  honored  for  his  studies 
of  Machu  Picchu,  the  lost  city  of  the 
Incas,  which  was  found  by  Colonel  Hiram 
Bingham,  leader  of  the  National  Geo- 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY'S  NOTABLE  YEAR 


343 


graphic  Society's  Peruvian  expeditions. 
In  the  vicinity  of  Machu  Picchu  were 
discovered  many  remarkable  ruins  of  a 
pre-Columbian  civilization,  including  the 
wonderful  hanging  gardens,  where  it  is 
thought  that  great  food  resource,  the 
potato,  originated.* 

Prof.  Robert  F.  Griggs  was  honored 
for  service  rendered  to  science  while  at 
the  head  of  National  Geographic  Society 
expeditions  to  Mount  Katmai  (see  page 

338),   . 

William  Henry  Holmes,  now  Head 
Curator  of  Anthropology,  National  Mu- 
seum, has  left  his  impress  both  in  science 
and  art.  In  the  former  field  his  original 
work  in  ethnology,  archeology,  and  geol- 
ogy have  valuable  geographic  significance. 

In  recognition  of  his  substantial  serv- 
ice in  the  upbuilding  of  the  national  park 
system,  of  the  marked  impetus  he  has 
given  to  interest  in  America's  natural 
beauties  and  wonders,  and  his  success  in 
making  these  national  play  places  acces- 
sible, Stephen  T.  Mather,  Director  of  the 
National  Park  Service,  was  elected  a 
Jane  M.  Smith  life  member. 

THE   GEOGRAPHIC    MAGAZINE   GOES   TO 
75O,OOO   HOMES 

Month  by  month  The  Society's  official 
organ,  the  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGA- 
ZINE, with  a  steadily  increasing  number 
of  readers,  has  been  instrumental  in 
diffusing  geographic  information  in  75<V 
ooo  homes  by  removing  the  padlock  of 
technicality  from  the  most  inclusive  of 
all  sciences — that  which  "treats  of  the 
earth  and  its  life,  the  description  of  land, 
sea,  and  air,  the  distribution  of  plant  and 
animal  life,  including  man  and  his  in- 
dustries, with  reference  to  the  mutual 
relations  of  these  diverse  elements." 

The  Society  has  a  warehouse  full  of 
map  paper,  representing  an  investment 
of  $50,000,  and  as  soon  as  the  various 
commissions  have  defined  the  new  fron- 
tiers of  Europe,  Asia,  and  Africa,  it  is 
the  intention  of  the  Magazine  to  print  a 
complete  set  of  maps. 

Two  recent  numbers  have  been  espe- 
cially noteworthy  contributions  to  knowl- 
edge— the  Dog  Number,  with  color  por- 

*  See  "Staircase  Farms  of  the  Ancients"  by 
O.  F.  Cook,  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE, 
May,  1916. 


traits  of  73  species  of  man's  historic  and 
best-loved  animal  friend,  and  the  Mili- 
tary Insignia  Number,  of  special  value 
and  interest  to  the  4,000,000  Americans 
who  were  in  the  uniformed  service  of 
their  country  during  the  World  War, 
and  to  their  relatives  and  friends.  The 
latter  number,  superbly  illustrated  in 
colors,  gave  an  epitomized  history  of  the 
medals,  decorations,  ribbons,  and  organi- 
zation shoulder  insignia  authorized  by 
the  United  States  Government,  and 
proved  an  especially  valuable  sequel  to 
The  Society's  famous  Flag  Number  of 
October,  1917. 

GEOGRAPHIC  BULLETINS  REACH  TWELVE 
MILLION    READERS 

Through  the  columns  of  more  than 
550  of  the  leading  American  newspapers, 
The  Society's  daily  Geographic  News 
Bulletins  are  reaching  twelve  million 
readers.  By  means  of  these  bulletins, 
which  are  furnished  to  the  daily  press 
without  charge,  The  Society  is  enabled 
to  interpret  the  historic  and  geographic 
backgrounds  which  give  significance  to 
news  dispatches  from  every  corner  of 
the  globe. 

So  important  have  these  bulletins 
proved  as  an  educational  force,  that 
through  the  co-operation  of  the  United 
States  Department  of  the  Interior,  Bu- 
reau of  Education,  the  urgent  appeals  of 
more  than  60.000  school  teachers  have 
been  met  and  this  geographic  informa- 
tion, in  attractive  illustrated  form,  is 
now  being  issued  weekly  for  class-room 
use.  Thus  educators  in  every  State  of 
the  Union  are  receiving  the  assistance  of 
The  Society  in  vivifying  and  vitalizing 
for  their  pupils  the  mere  names  of  places 
into  communities  where  human  beings 
live  and  move  and  have  their  being. 

A  further  educational  activity  inaugu- 
rated by  The  Society  in  recent  months  is 
its  PICTORIAL  GEOGRAPHY.  By  means  of 
this  series  of  loose-leaf  geographic  text 
and  pictures,  the  bewildering  "dots  and 
dashes"  of  the  average  map  and  the  tech- 
nical phraseology  of  physical  geography 
are  deciphered  into  mental  pictures  of 
busy  places,  living  peoples,  beautiful 
landscapes.  Nature's  moods  and  proc- 
esses, for  America's  millions  of  school 
children. 


344 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY'S   NOTABLE  YEAR 


345 


DEATH  REMOVES  THREE  DISTINGUISHED 
LEADERS 

Unhappily,  The  Society's  most  success- 
ful year  has  been  saddened  by  the  death 
of  three  of  its  leaders — Brigadier-Gen- 
eral John  M.  Wilson,  Rear  Admiral 
John  E.  Pillsbury,  and  Rear  Admiral 
Robert  E.  Peary. 

General  Wilson,  who  had  been  a  mem- 
ber of  The  Society's  Board  of  Managers 
for  fourteen  years,  had  a  distinguished 
military  career.  He  was  at  one  time 
Superintendent  of  the  United  States 
Military  Academy  at  West  Point,  was 
Chief  of  Engineers  of  the  Army  during 
the  Spanish-American  War,  and,  to  quote 
from  the  resolutions  passed  by  his  col- 
leagues on  The  Society's  Board,  follow- 
ing his  death,  "It  is  a  noteworthy'  co- 
incidence that  the  Washington  Monu- 
ment, ideal  symbol  of  the  character  of 
the  first  President  of  the  Republic,  was 
completed  under  the  direction  of  General 
Wilson,  thus  serving  as  a  memorial  to  an 
officer  and  public  servant  of  similar  in- 
tegrity of  character  and  unselfish  service 
to  his  fellow-men." 

THE  LATE  PRESIDENT  ADMIRAL  PILLSBURY 

In  the  death  of  Admiral  Pillsbury,  on 
December  30,  1919,  The  Society  lost  its 
President  and  a  distinguished  contributor 
to  its  magazine.  As  a  naval  officer  he 
served  with  distinction  during  the  Span- 
ish-American War,  being  in  command  of 
the  dynamite  cruiser  Vesuvius  at  the 
siege  of  Santiago,  but  it  is  on  account 
of  his  notable  work  in  studying  the  Gulf 
Stream  that  Admiral  Pillsbury's  name 
is  written  largest  in  the  history  of  his 
country. 

As  commander  of  the  Coast  Survey 
steamer  Blake,  he  employed  a  device  of 
his  own  invention  to  anchor  that  vessel 
in  depths  of  more  than  two  miles,  and 
studied  currents  there  by  means  of  con- 
trivances also  of  his  own  making.  Thus, 
after  seven  years  of  study,  he  established 
the  position  of  the  axis  of  the  Gulf 
Stream  and  determined  many  of  the  laws 
by  which  its  flow  is  governed. 

A  digest  of  his  work  in  this  important 
field  of  oceanography  was  written  for 
the  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 
and  published  in  August,  1912.  Admiral 


Pillsbury  became  a  member  of  The  So- 
ciety's Board  of  Managers  in  1909,  was 
elected  Vice-President  in  1915,  and  be- 
came President  April  16,  1919. 

An  outline  of  the  career  of  Rear 
Admiral  Peary,  the  third  member  of  the 
Board  of  Managers  to  be  removed  by 
death  within  recent  months  (February 
19,  1920),  is  given  in  the  preceding  pages 
of  this  number  of  THE  GEOGRAPHIC. 

THE    NEW    PRESIDENT 

Upon  the  death  of  Admiral  Pillsbury, 
the  Board  of  Managers  of  The  Society 
elected  as  his  successor  to  the  Presidency 
Gilbert  Grosvenor,  for  twenty-one  years 
the  Editor  of  THE  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGA- 
ZINE and  the  Director  of  The  Society. 
Under  Mr.  Grosvenor's  direction,  the 
membership  of  The  Society  has  increased 
from  900,  in  1899,  to  more  than  750,000. 
Mr.  Grosvenor  continues  as  the  Editor. 

John  Oliver  La  Gorce,  Vice-Director 
of  The  Society  and  Associate  Editor  of 
the  magazine,  was  elected  to  succeed  to 
the  place  on  the  Board  of  Managers  left 
vacant  by  Admiral  Pillsbury's  death. 

In  the  history  of  civilization,  there  is 
no  other  instance  of  a  vast  cooperative 
educational  and  scientific  association  or- 
ganized and  developed  like  the  National 
Geographic  Society  and  commanding  such 
widespread  public  support. 

It  is  not  a  commercial  enterprise  but 
an  altruistic  institution,  and  the  only 
dividend  which  it  pays  is  the  geographic 
knowledge  it  disburses  primarily  to  all 
its  members  and  secondarily  to  the  world 
at  large. 

In  The  Society's  constructive  service 
to  humanity  in  a  wounded  and  distrust- 
ful world,  its  members  have  cause  for 
pride  and  personal  satisfaction.  As  their 
agency,  The  Society  is  one  of  the  most 
effective  forces  in  bringing  about  a  better 
understanding  among  the  nations  of  the 
world.  To  millions  of  Americans,  The 
Society's  pictures  and  descriptive  articles 
have  made  foreign  races  and  their  lands 
human  realities  rather  than  mere  dots 
on  maps  or  political  boundary  lines. 

The  Society  has  grown  because  it 
ministers  to  the  basic  desire  of  intelligent 
citizens  to  understand  other  peoples  and 
to  know  better  the  earth  whence  they 
derive  their  livelihood. 


<  -- 
B 


O    !_ 

O 

•S  o 


£     « 


bo 
BO 

5     CO 

n  E 

<u^l 


A 

o 
•« 


O 

O 


j 


346 


BY    EVANGELINE    BOOTH 

COMMANDER  SALVATION  ARMY 


FOR  more  than  half  a  century  the 
historic    banner    of   the    Salvation 
Army  has  been  raised  over  the  bat- 
tered towers  and  broken  gates  of  despair- 
ing, wounded  humanity,  but  half  of  the 
world  never  knew  about  it.     It  took  the 
blood  and  agony  of  a  great  war  to  dem- 
onstrate the   fire   of  a   faith   which  has 
planted  its  standards  in  every  country  on 
the  earth. 

"Around  the  world  with  the  Salvation 
Army"  is  not  a  challenge  or  a  prophecy; 
it  is  an  accomplished  fact. 

The  Army  is  working  in  sixty-three 
countries  and  colonies,  preaching  the 
gospel  in  forty  languages.  Our  periodi- 
cals, printed  in  thirty-nine  different  lan- 
guages, reach  a  circulation  of  1,184,000 
a  week.  More  than  23,000  officers  and 
cadets  plan  and  execute  our  strategy 
against  insidious  foes — poverty,  sin,  sick- 
ness, and  despair.  It  was  for  that  we 
were  called  an  army. 

Wherever  there  is  an  earthquake,  a 
fire,  a  world  war,  or  any  great  human 
need,  there  you  will  find  the  Salvation 
Army.  It  seems  quite  natural  to  report 
that  more  than  105,000  Salvationists 
fought  in  the  different  armies  on  the  Al- 
lied fronts. 

So,  step  by  step,  the  Army  is  marching 
on.  It  has  crossed  lances  with  Buddha 
and  Confucius.  Offering  ministration  to 
the  forgotten  ones  in  desolate  places, 
Salvation  Army  lassies  and  men  have 
gone  into  leper  colonies  and  planted  the 
Cross  on  pagan  soil. 

INTENSIVE   TRAINING   FOR   SALVATION 
ARMY  OFFICERS 

Few  have  even  a  remote  idea  of  the 
extensive  training  given  to  all  Salvation 
Army  officers  by  our  military  system  of 
education,  that  covers  all  the  tactics  of 
the  particular  warfare  to  which  they 
have  consecrated  their  lives — the  service 
of  humanity.  We  have  in  the  Salvation 
Army  thirty-nine  training  schools  in 


which  our  men  and  women,  both  for  our 
missionary  and  home  fields,  receive  intel- 
ligent tuition  and  practical  training  in  the 
minutest  details  of  their  service. 

They  are  trained  in  the  finest  and  most 
intricate  of  all  the  arts,  the  art  of  dealing 
ably  with  human  life. 

It  is  a  wonderful  art  which  transfig- 
ures a  sheet  of  cold,  gray  canvas  into  a 
throbbing  vitality,  and  on  its  inanimate 
spread  visualizes  a  living  picture. 

It  is  a  wonderful  art  which  takes  a 
rugged  block  of  marble,  standing  upon  a 
wooden  bench,  and  cuts  out  of  its  un- 
comely crudeness — as  I  saw  it  done — the 
face  of  my  father,  \vith  its  every  feature 
illumined  with  prophetic  light,  so  true  to 
life  that  I  felt  that  to  my  touch  it  surely 
must  respond. 

But  even  such  arts  as  these  crumble: 
they  are  as  dust  under  our  feet  compared 
with  that  much  greater  art,  the  art  of 
dealing  ably  until  human  life  in  all  its 
varying  conditions  and  phases. 

It  is  in  this  art  that  we  seek  by  a  most 
careful  culture  and  training  to  perfect 
our  officers. 

They  are  trained  in  those  expert  meas- 
ures which  enable  them  to  handle  satis- 
factorily those  who  cannot  handle  them- 
selves ;  those  who  have  lost  their  grip  on 
things,  and  who,  if  unaided,  go  down 
under  the  high,  rough  tides. 

Trained  to  meet  emergencies  of  every 
character ;  to  leap  into  the  breach  ;  to  span 
the  gulf;  to  do  it  without  waiting  to  be 
told  how. 

Trained  to  press  at  every  cost  for  the 
desired  end. 

Trained  to  obey  orders  willingly  and 
gladly  and  wholly,  not  in  part. 

Trained  to  give  no  quarter  to  the 
enemy,  no  matter  what  the  character,  nor 
in  what  form  he  may  present  himself. 

Trained  in  the  art  of  the  winsome,  at- 
tractive coquetries  of  the  round,  brown 
doughnut !  And  all  her  kindred. 


347 


348 


fa  S 

fa  T3 

O  •£ 

P! 

<  * 

fe  cT 

2£ 

en  ^3 


o    -2  w 

-  E 
S,  9-J 

I  §5 

C    'J 

r^  CQ  o 
S  *^ 
«  ,«.= 

P   o 


>    '*J 

t/i    "rt 
•      W 


•4  ^ 

«  I 

O  u. 

U  OS 

to  S 


M          ° 


co 


349 


350 


THE  SALVATION  ARMY 


351 


Trained,  if  needs-be,  to  seal  their  serv- 
ices with  their  life  blood. 

One  of  our  women  officers  on  being 
told  by  the  colonel  of  a  regiment  that 
she  would  be  killed  if  she  persisted  in 
serving  her  doughnuts  and  cocoa  to  the 
men  while  under  heavy  fire,  and  that  she 
must  get  back  to  safety,  replied :  "Colo- 
nel, we  can  die  with  the  men,  but  we 
cannot  leave  them." 

SEVENTY-ONE:  NATIONALITIES  UNDER  ONE 

BANNER 

By  imperial  decree  the  Emperor  of 
Japan  recently  granted  an  annual  fund 
for  the  work  of  the  Salvation  Army  in 
his  kingdom.  India  has  turned  over  to 
the  Army  the  management  of  its  great 
criminal  tribes  and  the  problems  of  its 
poor. 

As  the  work  has  grown,  it  has  been  in- 
creasingly apparent  that  the  faith  which 
regenerates  men  recognizes  no  barrier  of 
nationality  or  geographical  limitation. 
Seventy-one  nationalities  are  now  mar- 
shaled under  the  banner  of  blood  and  fire, 
working  to  destroy  old  idols  of  wood  and 
stone  and  turning  the  temples  of  the 
gods,  after  due  cleansing,  into  Christian 
meeting-places. 

The  work  in  India  will  be  forever 
linked  with  the  name  of  its  pioneer  com- 
missioner, F.  de  Latour  Booth  Tucker. 
Judge  Tucker  was  greatly  interested  in 
the  Salvation  Army  while  in  the  service 
of  the  British  Crown  in  India  in  the  early 
days  of  the  movement.  There  came  a 
time  when  he  gladly  resigned  his  govern- 
ment position,  with  all  that  it  meant  to 
him  personally  in  the  way  of  official  suc- 
cess, and  came  into  the  Army  to  wear  the 
flowing  robes  of  the  natives  and  to  ex- 
tend the  work  in  the  very  heart  of  the 
continent. 

Salvation  Army  settlements  for  crim- 
inal tribes  are  unique  in  the  annals  of 
social  work  throughout  the  world.  Out 
in  the  hill  country  there  are  entire  tribes 
of  criminals  for  which  the  prevailing 
caste  system  is  largely  responsible.  They 
marry  and  intermarry,  and  their  children, 
born  outcasts,  are  doomed  to  go  through 
life  branded  as  criminals. 

For  years  these  Ishmaelites  have  been 
a  source  of  constant  worry  to  the  British 


Government.  Finally,  in  an  effort  to 
reach  a  practical  solution  and  meet  the 
growing  need,  the  government  turned 
over  the  management  of  these  tribes  to 
the  Salvation  Army. 

Sir  John  Hewett  came  to  terms  with 
General  Booth.  The  British  Govern- 
ment agreed  to  provide  the  territory  and 
the  Salvation  Army  undertook  to  pro- 
vide the  men.  The  criminal  tribes  were 
to  be  brought  into  a  certain  territory  and 
the  Salvationists  were  to  be  responsible 
for  their  regeneration. 

It  was  Harold  Begbie  who  first  re- 
ported the  historic  meeting  of  Sir  John 
Hewett,  then  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the 
United  (Indian)  Provinces,  with  my 
father,  the  late  General  and  founder  of 
our  organization. 

Sir  John  had  heard  of  the  Army's 
work  in  salvaging  men,  and  it  struck  him 
at  once  that  similar  methods  might  be 
successful  with  the  wandering  tribes 
which  roamed  the  hills,  a  menace  to  the 
people  and  a  vexing  political  problem. 
He  visited  General  Booth  and  together 
these  two,  so  unlike  in  many  ways,  dis- 
cussed methods  of  reclaiming  men,  of 
making  them  over  into  useful  citizens. 

"YOU  CANNOT  MAKE  A  MAN  CLEAN  BY 
WASHING  HIS  SHIRT" 

The  old  patriarch  brought  to  the  mind 
of  the  statesman  one  of  the  great  funda- 
mental truths  of  human  experience,  too 
often  neglected  by  legislators  and  some- 
times conveniently  ignored  by  the  ene- 
mies of  religion: 

"You  cannot  make  a  man  clean  by 
washing  his  shirt,"  General  Booth  ex- 
claimed. "If  you  have  a  bad  man  to  deal 
with,  you  must  first  seek  to  alter  the  set 
and  current  of  his  soul.  I  will  tell  you 
the  secret  of  governing  tribes  and  nations 
of  evil-doers.  It  is  religion. 

"Give  them  religion.  If  you  alter  the 
circumstances  of  a  man's  life,  and  set 
him  in  conditions  where  his  liability  to 
vice  is  small,  and  where  he  knows  his 
sins  will  be  most  surely  punished,  you 
will  not  go  far,  if  that  is  all  you  have  to 
give  him. 

"You  cannot  deal  with  the  body  of  a 
man  when  it  is  his  soul  that  is  the  cause 
of  all  the  trouble ;  that  is  to  encounter 


352 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


HINDU   RECRUITS  OF  THE   SALVATION   ARMY   IN   INDIA 

Note  the  Mohammedan  woman,  who,  despite  her  adoption  of  the  Christian  faith,  adheres  to 
the  practice  of  her  people  in  shielding  her  face  from  the  eye  of  the  camera. 


A   HOME-MADE   SALVATION   ARMY   BAND  IN   INDIA 

The  Salvation  Army  workers  in  the  Far  East  are  no  respecters  of  the  man-created  caste 
system  which  has  blighted  oriental  life  for  centuries. 


THE  SALVATION  ARMY 


353 


ZULU  WARDS  OF  THE  SOUTH  AFRICAN  BRANCH  OF  THE  SALVATION  ARMY 

'We  look  through  the  exterior,  look  through  the  shell,  look  through  the  coat,  and 

find  the  man." 


A  SALVATION  ARMY   HOME)  FOR   NATIVE   BOYS  IN   JAVA 

This  organization  now  has  21,000  commanding  officers  who  voice  their  doctrine  of  deeds  in 

forty  tongues. 


354 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


WITH   THE  SALVATION  ARMY   IN   JAVA 
The  man  at  the  reader's  right  is  wearing  the  regulation  Salvation  Army  uniform  of  the 


Javanese  branch  of  this  world-wide  organization. 


inevitable  failure.  Only  one  power  is 
known  in  all  the  long  experience  of  hu- 
man history  by  which  a  bad  man  can  be- 
come a  good  man,  and  that  power  is 
religion." 

Years  passed  and  the  work  of  the  Sal- 
vation Army  strengthened  and  grew. 
There  was  just  one  way  to  success,  and 
that  was  to  remake  men  into  some  sem- 
blance of  law-abiding,  useful  citizens.  It 
was  the  human  equation  which  counted 
and  by  this  test  must  the  work  of  the 
Salvation  Army  be  gauged  in  India,  as 
elsewhere. 

"Boom  marches"  constitute  a  phase  of 
the  work  conducted  in  India.  Groups  of 
four  or  five  Salvationists  in  native  dress 
tramp  the  roads  that  lead  into  the  in- 
terior. From  the  roadside  in  heathen 
villages  and  towns  they  proclaim  with 
simplicity  and  force  the  unsearchable 
riches  of  Christianity.  In  careful  detail 


to  the 


they  explain   what  it  all  means 
head  man  of  the  village  tribe. 

Very  often  the  villagers  keep  the 
marchers  with  them  and  ask  them  for 
songs  and  music,  and  very  frequently 
they  ask  for  instruction  in  the  Christian 
religion. 

These  marchers  go  far  afield,  reaching 
out  to  all  classes  in  India,  irrespective  of 
the  man-created  caste  system  which  has 
brought  about  conditions  in  the  Far  East 
not  easy  to  overcome. 

THE  SALVATIONISTS  AMONG  THE  CHINESE 

Long  before  Christian  missionaries 
went  forth  to  fulfill  the  divine  behest, 
"Preach  the  gospel  to  every  creature," 
there  existed  a  Chinese  nation,  with  its 
vast  possibilities  for  happiness  and  for 
good.  Only  the  Egyptians,  the  Assyrians, 
and  the  Jews  were  their  contemporaries. 

Three  and  a  half  centuries  have  passed 


THE  SALVATION  ARMY 


355 


f 


ORGANIZATION'S  HEADQUARTERS  IN  TOKYO:  THE  SALVATIONIST'S  COUNTRY  is 

THE  WORLD 

"We  recognize  our  brother  in  all  the  families  of  the  earth." 


since  Saint  Francis  Xavier,  in  his  dying 
hour,  exclaimed  in  an  agony  of  despair 
over  his  supreme  discouragement  in  try- 
ing to  evangelize  China,  "Oh,  rock,  rock, 
when  wilt  thou  open  ?" 

Years  have  passed  since  Napoleon,  with 
far  different  motives,  looked  on  the  an- 
cient century-defying  nation  and  said, 
"The  giant  is  asleep.  Do  not  awake 
him." 

But  now  the  rock  has  opened,  the  giant 
is  awake. 

For  years  these  people  lay  heavily  on 
my  father's  heart.  Their  needs  were  con- 
tinually discussed ;  they  were  the  founda- 
tion of  some  of  his  most  burning  public 
utterances.  He  saw  them  in  his  dreams 
by  night  and  thought  and  planned  for 
them  by  day.  Somehow  I  feel  he  still 
waits  and  watches  for  their  salvation 
from  the  battlements  of  glory. 

Our  present  General's  deep  and  pas- 
sionate interest  in  China  is  well  known. 


All  during  the  war  the  Army's  blood-and- 
fire  flag  was  raised  beside  that  of  the  new 
Chinese  Republic,  while  the  work  was 
steadily  carried  on  by  heroic  men  and 
women  who  labored  as  pioneers. 

A  new  corps  was  recently  opened  in 
Peking.  The  hall  is  situated  in  the  north- 
eastern part  of  the  South  City,  in  the 
busiest  commercial  district.  The  build- 
ing was  formerly  used  as  an  old  food 
shop.  It  has  been  remodeled  until  it  can 
now  care  for  about  250  people. 

A  VENTURE  OP  FAITH 

Beyond  the  great  wall,  to  the  north  of 
Tatungfu,  lies  Fengchen.  Back  in  this 
robber-infested  district  the  Army  made 
its  first  venture  of  faith  into  the  interior 
of  China.  No  part  of  the  earth  is  too 
far .  removed  for  the  truth  to  reach  it, 
and  the  Salvationists,  unarmed  and  unes- 
corted, trailed  their  way  into  the  moun- 
tains to  preach  to  brigands  and  robbers. 


w 

p 
5 


O 


~ 

<  t: 

c«      rt 

tl         Ul 

M      "** 

£-|      C 

' 


o   2 


o  3 

O  O. 

pq 

N 

§  "c 

s  1 

3  1 

^  o 

^  t/2 


PS 

w 


o 


356 


358 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


One  of  the  few  policewomen 
in  China  lives  at  Tatungfu, 
in  the  northern  part  of  the 
Shansi  Province.  The  Salva- 
tion Army  made  its  first  visit 
to  Tatungfu  a  year  ago,  and 
now  the  town  boasts  this  very 
progressive  guardian  of  the 
peace,  who  delights  in  wear- 
ing a  brass  badge  on  her  arm 
and  in  carrying  a  cane.  It  is 
her  duty  to  see  that  small 
girls  in  the  vicinity  are  not 
subiected  to  foot-binding. 

Fifteen  or  twenty  young 
girls  from  a  near-by  govern- 
ment school  recently  called 
upon  the  Salvation  Army  offi- 
cers, who  sang  for  them  and 
tiught  them  to  sing  a  few 
choruses  of  simple  hymns. 
They  were  greatly  impressed. 
One  of  the  girls  admitted  that 
she  was  interested,  but  she 
had  alwavs  imagined  that  God 
loved  only  foreigners ! 

The  territorial  leader  for 
northern  China  arrived  in 
Peking  early  in  1918.  He 
found  30  officers,  who  had 
been  wrestling  with  the  diffi- 
culties of  the  Chinese  lan- 
guage for  nearly  a  year,  able 
to  lead  meetings  and  to  give 
simple  talks  which  could  be 
understood  by  the  people. 
They  were  eagerly  waiting 
their  appointments  in  the 
country  of  their  adoption. 

Very  often  our  officers  and 
cadets  carry  their  beds  with 
them,  as  the  Chinese  do  when 
traveling.  A  thin  mattress 
filled  with  cotton  and  a  small 
coverlet  and  pillow  are  rolled 
into  a  case  and  carried  as  lug- 
gage. 

Tientsin,  the  commercial 
capital  of  North  China,  re- 
cently opened  three  corps, 
with  a  contingent  of  nine  offi- 
cers, while  Chengtingfu,  a 
large  walled  city,  and  Men 
Lou,  in  the  Shantung  Prov- 
ince, have  received  officers 
and  cadets. 


THE  SALVATION  ARMY 


359 


The  War  Cry,  issued  by  the  Army 
press  in  China,  is  as  popular  over  there 
as  it  is  here.  A  song  book  has  also  been 
published  containing  translations  of  well- 
known  popular  Army  songs. 

THE   ARMY  TEACHES  THE   CHINESE 
TO   SING 

According  to  Western  standards,  the 
Chinese  are  not  musical,  but  the  Salva- 
tion Army  has  found  a  way  to  teach 
them  to  sing.  A  beginning  is  made  by 
teaching  songs  to  the  children  when  a 
congregation  does  not  seem  to  get  the 
idea.  Very  soon  the  little  ones  are  heard 
singing  the  favorite  tunes  of  the  Salva- 
tionists in  the  streets  and  lanes,  and  in 
this  way  they  eventually  have  their  elders 
singing  with  them. 

During  the  winter  of  1918  the  Army 
did  trencher  duty  for  flood  sufferers  at 
Tientsin. 

Korea  is  now  receiving  assistance  from 
Salvationists  sent  especially  for  work  in 
that  country.  Last  winter  rice  was  very 
high  and  the  poor  suffered  greatly.  The 
Army  immediately  established  a  free 
meal  department  and  a  station  where  rice 
and  fuel  could  be  purchased  cheaply. 

On  account  of  the  conversion  of  men 
who  were  formerly  great  drunkards,  the 
wine  shops  in  some  of  the  villages  of 
Korea  lost  so  much  trade  that  they  were 
compelled  to  move  to  other  places. 

We  started  our  operations  in  Korea  in 
1908.  There  are  now  69  corps  and  out- 
posts in  that  country,  106  officers,  cadets 
and  employees,  and  175  local  officers.  At 
Seoul,  in  addition  to  the  headquarters, 
there  is  a  training  garrison,  citadel,  and 
a  school  for  girls. 

In  the  East  the  translation  of  Salvation 
Army  is  "Army  to  Save  the  World." 

LENDING  A  HAND  TO  THE  LEPERS 

It  has  often  been  said  that  the  mass  of 
men  lead  lives  of  quiet  desperation ;  that 
what  is  called  resignation  is  in  reality 
"confirmed  desperation."  In  its  work 
around  the  world  the  Salvation  Army 
has  always  thought  first  of  the  men  who 
go  about  the  day's  business  lost  in  the 
hopelessness  of  confirmed  desperation. 

There  are  men  like  that  in  the  leper 
colony  in  Java,  men  who  wait  with  grim 


certainty  for  the  dark,  dreadful,  still 
years  to  pass.  We  have  gone  out  to  help 
them  in  order  that  these  years  may  not 
be  full  of  pitiful  things.  The  men  and 
lassies  who  go  to  these  Jeper  colonies  can 
never  come  out. 

They  lay  down  their  lives  for  those 
they  go  out  to  save. 

Recently  I  received  a  report  from  a 
Salvation  Army  lassie  who  has  spent 
four  years  in  Java.  The  institution  main- 
tained by  the  Army  at  Boegangan  cares 
for  more  than  360  patients,  all  native 
Javanese. 

One  Salvationist  has  already  been  smit- 
ten with  the  dread  disease.  Only  by  per- 
sonal report  can  one  visualize  the  need 
of  these  people.  Last  Christmas  time  we 
received  this  message  from  the  officer  in 
charge : 

"We  had  a  Christmas  tree  for  them 
and  they  all  received  presents.  Clothing 
was  especially  needed,  as  most  of  them 
have  only  one  set  of  clothes,  and  when 
they  wash  these  few  rags  they  must  wait 
for  them  to  dry  before  dressing.  Many 
of  their  clothes  are  in  such  a  condition 
they  are  afraid  to  wash  them,  for  fear 
there  will  be  nothing  left  to  put  on. 

"Of  course,  we  have  the  poorest  of  the 
poor  here  at  Boegangan ;  yet,  with  it  all, 
I  love  my  work." 

When  a  lassie  can  face  the  world  with 
such  courage  as  that,  in  the  midst  of  the 
greatest  grief  and  loneliness  human 
hearts  can  bear,  where  men  live  as  out- 
casts, alone  and  forgotten  by  the  world, 
we  feel  that  our  efforts  are  bearing  fruit 
of  untold  value. 

Even  the  Red  Terror  and  Bolshevism 
could  not  keep  the  Salvation  Army  out 
of  Russia. 

Within  three  months  after  the  open- 
ing of  our  work  twelve  outposts  were 
established  in  various  cities  in  Russia  and 
several  hundred  soldiers  and  recruits,  as 
well  as  thirty  officers,  were  enlisted. 

A  training  center  for  officers  was 
started,  two  homes  for. refugee  women  and 
children  were  established,  and  a  shelter 
for  aged  women  opened.  Since  then  our 
workers  have  installed  five  more  corps. 

Captain  Larson,  a  Swedish  officer, 
working  from  headquarters  in  Finland, 
was  instrumental  in  forming  the  nucleus 


360 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


WAITING  AND  WATCHING  AT  THE  FRONT 

Two  Salvation  Army  girls  standing  at  the  door  of  their  hut  ready  to  cheer  and  minister  to 
the  World  War  soldier,  whether  wounded,  weary,  or  homesick. 


THE  SALVATION  ARMY 


361 


DOUGH   FOR  THE  DOUGHBOY 

It  was  not  the  Salvation  Army  doughnuts  and  pies  themselves  which  won  the  hearts  of 
American  soldiers  in  France,  but  the  spirit  of  geod  cheer  with  which  the  Salvation  Army 
lassies  rendered  their  every  service. 


of  the  Salvation  Army  in  Russia  at  the 
time  when  its  very  existence  was  out- 
lawed by  the  authorities. 

In  Petrograd  our  people  are  free  to 
conduct  meetings  at  the  corners  of  the 
streets  and  in  the  parks. 

FACING  BOLSHEVISM  IN  RUSSIA 

Unafraid  of  flying  bullets,  the  Girl 
with  the  Tambourine  sings  and  prays  in 
the  midst  of  street-fighting  in  Russia 
today. 

One  of  our  chief  difficulties  is  that  of 
traveling.  Train  service  is  unspeakable. 
Much  of  our  work  has  been  accomplished 
by  traveling  in  sleighs  in  the  winter  time. 
Recently  one  of  the  lassies  wrote  to  our 
headquarters  in  this  country  that  a  sleigh- 
driver  informed  her  on  one  of  these  trips 
that  all  town  lights  must  be  out  at  10.30, 
as  that  was  the  time  set  for  the  plunder- 
ing to  begin. 

Trains  so  crowded  that  passengers  had 
to  cling  to  car  couplings  and  precarious 


footholds  on  locomotives  were  a  com- 
mon sight.  To  spend  the  night  thus, 
traveling  in  the  bitter  cold,  in  addition  to 
other  dangers,  gives  one  some  idea  of  the 
divine  courage  which  it  takes  to  carry  the 
message  through  Russia  during  these 
dark  days  of  fear  and  wild  revolution. 

In  the  early  days  of  the  Army  in  Japan, 
Colonel  Gunpei  Yamamuro,  a  native 
Japanese,  wrote  a  book  entitled  "The 
Common  People's  Gospel."  It  was  printed 
in  native  characters  and  had  a  phenom- 
enal circulation  among  the  masses,  who 
thus  learned,  in  the  most  direct  sort  of 
way,  the  first  news  of  the  gospel. 

THE  ARMY'S  CRUSADE  IN  JAPAN 

This  book  simply  brought  out  once 
again  the  truth  of  Abraham  Lincoln's 
assertion,  that  the  Lord  must  have  had  a 
great  love  for  the  common  people  of  the 
earth,  otherwise  He  would  not  have 
created  so  many  of  them. 

One  of  the  first  important  accomplish- 


c  rt 

O  o 

"=  £ 

rt  S 


cl 


362 


THE  SALVATION  ARMY 


363 


ments  in  the  land  of  cherry  blossoms  was 
the  definite  crusade  against  prostitution 
in  Tokyo. 

In  the  ultra-conservative  Orient,  for 
years  prostitution  had  been  looked  upon 
as  a  social  necessity.  When  Colonel 
Yamamuro  understood  what  the  Army 
had  been  doing  for  the  protection  of 
women  all  around  the  world,  he  decided 
that  he  would  enlist  its  aid  for  the  women 
of  his  own  country. 

He  made  a  special  appeal  to  the  moral 
sense  of  the  community.  Then  he  pre- 
pared a  special  Rescue  Edition  of  the 
Japanese  War  Cry  and  secured  its  entree 
by  thousands  of  copies  into  the  segre- 
gated districts  of  the  city.  In  the  mean- 
time homes  were  prepared  for  girls  who 
might  wish  to  change  their  mode  of 
living. 

A  BITTER   STRUGGLE   AGAINST  TRADITIONS 
OF  THE  EAST 

Then  began  that  long  and  bitter  strug- 
gle against  the  traditions  and  customs  of 
the  East;  but  in  the  end  the  Army  tri- 
umphed, with  the  help  of  the  best  ele- 
ments in  the  ancient  city.  Today  what- 
ever of  the  "social  evil"  exists  in  Tokyo 
certainly  exists  as  a  voluntary  and  not  a 
compulsory  system. 

Many  of  the  prominent  men  in  Japan 
are  sponsoring  the  Army  and  all  that  it 
stands  for. 

For  a  period  of  ten  years  the  Emperor 
has  promised  annual  funds  as  an  im- 
perial contribution  to  further  the  work 
of  the  Army. 

Relief-work  was  organized  by  the  Sal- 
vation Army  in  Switzerland  and  in  Italy 
for  the  benefit  of  the  thousands  of  ref- 
ugees who  fled  before  the  invading  Aus- 
trians  during  the  World  War. 

Officers  were  dispatched  to  Serbia  to 
conduct  relief-work,  and  when  the  Ser- 
bians began  streaming  into  Italy,  as  early 
as  January,  1916,  the  Army  homes  were 
crowded  to  their  capacity.  In  connection 
with  other  work  in  the  war  zone,  the 
Army  organized  to  care  for  interned 
prisoners  of  war  in  Holland.  This  work 
later  received  special  mention  by  the 
Dutch  Government. 

A  new  field  recently  entered  by  the 
Salvation  Army  is  that  opened  in  Portu- 
guese East  Africa. 


At  Bandoenig,  Java,  a  new  children's 
home  has  just  been  opened  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Governor  General's  wife. 

In  connection  with  the  Memorial  Train- 
ing College  in  Sweden,  Commissioner 
Ogrim  was  successful  in  raising  an  en- 
dowment fund,  to  which  the  King  of 
Sweden  and  Prince  Bernadotte  were 
among  the  principal  contributors. 

A    WORLD   CONGRESS   OF   SALVATION   ARMY 
WORKERS 

It  was  in  1883  that  the  Salvation  Army 
first  opened  fire  in  South  Africa.  Now 
our  organization  is  working  in  Zambesi, 
Rhodesia,  and  the  desolate  island  of  St. 
Helena.  Seven  industrial  homes  for 
women  are  now  in  operation  in  South 
Africa. 

The  story  of  the  Salvation  Army  must 
be  told  as  the  history  of  a  world-wide 
organization.  Upon  its  flag  the  sun  never 
goes  down.  There  is  a  picture  in  my 
memory  which  illustrates  this  in  a  mar- 
velous way.  It  is  a  picture  full  of  won- 
derful color  and  brings  back  the  gather- 
ing of  our  last  international  congress  in 
Albert  Hall,  London. 

There,  under  one  great  roof,  14,000 
people  were  gathered  from  the  ends  of 
the  earth,  dressed  as  they  were  when  the 
Salvation  Army  found  them.  The  Zulu 
was  there,  with  his  shining  brown  shoul- 
ders and  his  loins  girded\with  the  skin 
of  some  wild  beast  of  the  snake-infested 
jungles;  there  was  the  yellow-skinned 
Chinaman,  \vith  the  colors  of  his  univer- 
sity, royal  blue  and  dark  yellow ;  there 
were  the  glossy-haired  East  Indians,  with 
their  scarlet  cotton  coats  and  yellow  tur- 
bans ;  and  Maori  girls  dressed  in  rainbow 
colors.  The  East  Indians  expressed  all 
the  Anglo-Saxon  language  they  knew  in 
the  three  words,  "Salvation  Army,  halle- 
luiah !" 

DELEGATES  IN  WHITE  FROM  JAVA'S  LEPER 
COLONY 

In  this  picturesque  gathering  there 
were  one  or  two  who  wore  clinging  snow- 
white  garments.  They  came  from  the 
sad  little  island  of  Java,  where  Salvation 
•Army  men  and  lassies  give  their  lives  to 
help  the  lepers. 

There  were  picturesque  mountain- 
climbers  from  the  Alps,  with  their  staffs 


N: 


w   "E 


-1-1  o 

l/l 


O    C 


364 


o  _ 

<  s 
>  *. 

— '  <f> 

<  '2 

C/2  ,H 

g  J 


-r  « 

i-T  C   p 

•<  w  S 

u  c^ 


O 

«  *H 

<      rt 
i-J 

a     c1 
fc    £ 

W        t/); 

»  ."2, 

W       O 


PU 


365 


36G 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A  SALVATION  ARMY  JENNY  LIND  LEADING  A  STREET  MEETING  IN  A  SWEDISH  CITY 
No  organization  believes  more  strongly  in  the  potency  of  song  than  the  Salvation  Army. 


THE  SALVATION  ARMY 


367 


A  SALVATION  ARMY  OFFICER  OF  PERU  IN  HIS  PICTURESQUE  UNIFORM 
"Trained  to  obey  orders  willingly  and  gladly  and  wholly,  not  in  part." 


368 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


MEMBERS  OF  THE  SALVATION  ARMY  IN  SOUTH  AMERICA  WEAR  RESPLENDENT  REGALIA 

But  their  service  to  their  fellow-men  is  as  simple,  as  earnest,  and  as  self-sacrificing  as  is 
that  of  their  brother  workers  in  the  slums  of  Shanghai  and  in  the  hills  of  Hindustan.  The 
Salvation  Army  has  been  picturesquely  described  as  a  great  empire — an  empire  without  a 
frontier,  an  empire  composed  of  fragments  separated  by  vast  stretches  of  land  and  immense 
sweeps  of  sea,  but  all  bound  together  by  the  common  cause  of  service  to  mankind. 


and  horns  and  their  yodels,  mingling 
their  songs  with  the  Germans,  French, 
Italians,  Scandinavians,  South  Ameri- 
cans, Canadians,  Britishers,  and  850 
Americans. 

Delegates  were  in  that  hall  who  came 
from  Celebes,  Sumatra,  Costa  Rica,  Ar- 
gentina, Cuba,  Malta,  Uruguay,  Panama, 
Chile,  Peru,  Saint  Lucia,  Finland,  and 
Antigua. 

Out  of  this  great  mass  of  humanity  our 
beloved  General  called  to  the  front  six 
little  girls  from  the  Criminal  Tribes  of 


India.  They  made  a  pathetic  picture, 
with  their  little  feet  and  legs  bare,  their 
slender  forms  wrapped  in  pieces  of  yel- 
low cotton.  As  they  stood  before  that 
vast  audience  they  lifted  up  their  dusky 
little  faces  and  told  the  reason  for  it  all 
in  the  song  which  they  sang  in  broken 
English : 

"Tell  it  again,  tell  it  again, 

Salvation's  story  repeat  o'er  and  o'er, 
Till  none  can  say  of  the  children  of  men, 
Nobody  ever  has  told  it  before." 


WHEN   THE   FATHER   OF   WATERS   GOES 
ON   A   RAMPAGE 

An  Account  of  the  Salvaging  of  Food-fishes  from  the 
Overflowed  Lands  of  the  Mississippi  River 

BY  HUGH  M.  SMITH 


UNITED  STATES  COMMISSIONER  OP  FISHERIES 


Photographs  from  the  Bureau  of  Fisheries 


ONE  of  the  most  important  of  the 
varied  functions  of  the  United 
States  Bureau  of  Fisheries  is  a 
mighty  effort  to  undo  one  of  Nature's 
apparent  blunders  and  mitigate  the  dam- 
age done  annually  to  the  prospective  food 
supply  of  the  country  by  a  cataclysm  in- 
volving untold  millions  of  the  best  fishes 
in  the  Mississippi  River  and  its  tribu- 
taries. 

This  effort,  yielding  large  practical  re- 
sults and  coming  at  a  period  when  there 
is  most  urgent  demand  for  the  preven- 
tion of  waste  and  the  maintenance  of  re- 
sources, must  be  rated  as  of  great  public 
importance  and  as  worthy  of  general 
recognition  and  support. 

The  Father  of  Waters  is  a  serious 
offender  against  the  host  of  food  and 
game  fishes  which  populate  its  turbulent 
course,  and  exhibits  marked  disregard 
for  the  welfare  of  the  entire  fish  tribe. 
Every  year,  and  several  times  a  year,  it 
overflows  its  banks,  wanders  far  from  its 
proper  haunts,  and  then  subsides,  leaving 
behind  temporary  pools,  ponds,  and  lakes 
in  which  are  myriads  of  young  fishes 
whose  destruction  is  inevitable  unless 
human  agency  comes  to  their  aid.  Inas- 
much as  these  fishes  represent  a  large 
part  of  the  future  adult  supply  of  all  the 
leading  species,  their  rescue  and  return 
to  the  main  stream  is  a  matter  of  the 
utmost  importance. 

For  many  years  there  has  been  a  reali- 
zation of  this  stupendous  annual  waste 
of  food-fishes,  and  steps  have  been  taken 
to  repair  some  of  that  waste.  It  was  only 
recently,  however,  that  the  efforts  bore 
an  adequate  ratio  to  the  magnitude  of 
the  task,  and  it  was  not  until  1919  that 
the  operations  assumed  a  scope  and 


yielded  results  that  could  be  regarded  as 
fairly  commensurate  with  the  need. 

The  annual  freshet  in  the  Mississippi 
River  of  greatest  importance  to  the  fish- 
eries is  the  one  known  as  the  "June  rise," 
which  usually  occurs  about  the  time  when 
most  of  the  river  fishes  are  ready  to 
spawn.  It  is  somewhat  later  than  the 
freshet  caused  by  the  melting  snows,  but 
is  usually  of  equal  volume  and  represents 
surplus  rainfall  that  is  seeking  a  south- 
ern outlet. 

PREHISTORIC  GLACIERS  CUT  A  WIDE 
VALLEY 

In  prehistoric  times  great  glaciers, 
moving  down  from  the  north,  seem  to 
have  cut  a  wide,  deep  valley  through  the 
upper  reaches  of  the  river,  and  through 
this  passage  frequent  floods  have  for 
ages  brought  down  and  deposited  silt  and 
drift  in  such  quantities  that  the  main 
channel  has  been  crowded  from  the  cen- 
ter toward  one  of  the  precipitous  banks 
on  either  side,  while  the  remainder  of 
what  formerly  constituted  the  river  bed 
is  now  a  low  table-land,  with  a  gradual 
ascent  toward  the  hills. 

It  would  appear  that  at  one  time  the 
main  river  flowed  unhindered  through 
what  is  nowr  wooded,  lake-covered  terri- 
tory, and  that  great  drifts  graduallv 
formed  and  divided  the  old  bed  into  land- 
locked ponds,  many  parts  of  it  with  the 
lapse  of  time  becoming  so  completely 
filled  in  as  to  provide  secure  anchorage 
for  trees  and  other  vegetation. 

As  the  river  rises  it  first  submerges  the 
adjacent  lowlands,  making  ponds  and 
lakes  on  the  nearest  levels ;  with  its  con- 
tinued rise,  lakes  are  formed  at  higher 
levels,  and  so  on  until  the  flood  stage  has 


360 


86 

F,  > 


w 


W    •£ 
cj    ^j- 


60 
.t:«+H 


•a 

3 
O 


{•» 
-/. 

p* 

mm 

<"  o 

r-     O, 

3  rt 

& 

UH   ^ 

&! 

w 

bfijn 

^ 

w 

c  <« 
•^y= 

•  ^ 

< 

)_. 

^ 

a 

•0   aj 

<"  S 

1$ 

iii 
o 

0    rt 
2   <« 

--< 

s- 

^>^ 

j 

o  -^ 

,  f* 

^ 
o 

2S 

C8   ^ 

r-     '-. 

v  • 

u 

P4 
.  O 

S    0 

a.** 

^ 

&^2 

' 

W 

5  <" 

O' 

w 

•w  ^ 

<L)    _ 

s 

•o.ti 

S5     2^ 

0  M^ 

i-r  .EJI 


2      1>  u 

.    J3S 


•oJ 

S    rt 


,  u 

•0.5 


_Q  JJ 

|i 
rt  O 

£3 
°  2 
""  > 

O   C8 

•P.S 


S  a. 


371 


>, 

CM      Ctf 

o  E 


frt    °-j= 


f>  i* 

rt      O 

.•o 


rt 


i£  £ 
•^:  c3 


tn.X 

o 
S 


WHEN*  THE  FATHER  OF  WATERS  GOES  OX  A  RAMPAGE 


been  reached,  when  depressions  are  often 
filled  quite  remote  from  the  main  channel. 

Pursuing  their  natural  instincts,  the 
adult  fishes  at  flood  time  leave  the  main 
channel  and  seek  quiet  back-waters  in 
which  to  deposit  their  eggs.  The  eggs 
are  laid  under  conditions  that  appear  to 
be  favorable  for  their  development  and 
for  the  hatching  and  growth  of  the 
young,  and  the  latter  may  attain  a  length 
of  several  inches  before  the  freshet  be- 
gins to  subside.  With  the  recession  of 
the  flood  waters,  the  adults  turn  their 
noses  in  the  direction  of  safety  and  most 
of  them  ultimately  reach  the  main  stream. 
The  young,  however,  fail  to  react 
promptly  to  the  falling  waters,  and  a  very 
large  proportion  of  them  sooner  or  later 
are  cut  off  and  become  permanently 
landlocked. 

The  temporary  pools,  ponds,  lakes,  and 
canals  left  by  the  subsiding  flood  waters 
are  of  various  shapes,  sizes,  and  depths. 
Some  of  them  become  dry  in  a  few  days ; 
others  may  persist  for  weeks  or  months, 
while  their  water  is  gradually  lost  by 
evaporation  and  seepage ;  others,  in 
smaller  number,  continue  until  winter, 
when  they  soon  become  solidly  frozen. 

YOUNG  FISHES  DOOMED  TO  DIE 

The  larger  pools  that  survive  the  sum- 
mer are  often  rich  feeding  grounds  for 
the  young  fish,  which  grow  with  such 
amazing  rapidity  that  many  of  them  may 
attain  a  length  of  8  to  10  inches  by  early 
November. 

In  any  event,  the  fish  contained  in  the 
landlocked  waters  necessarily  die.  The 
mortality  may  ensue  quickly,  as  when  a 
small  pool  becomes  completely  dry  in  a 
few  days,  or  it  may  be  gradual  and  long 
drawn  .out,  as  in  a  pond  or  lake  of  some 
acres  area. 

The  frightful  conditions  that  prevail 
as  the  water  becomes  reduced  and  the 
fishes  more  and  more  concentrated  can 
well  be  imagined.  The  fishes'  suffering 
from  lack  of  water  and  air  is  usually 
aggravated  by  starvation,  by  the  daily 
heating  of  the  water  by  the  sun's  rays  to 
a  point  that  is  almost  intolerable  and 
often  fatal,  by  cannibalism,  and  by  wad- 
ing birds,  snakes,  turtles,  mammals,  and 
other  fish-eating  creatures  from  which 
there  is  no  escape.  The  pools  that  per- 


sist until  winter  are  so  shallow  that  the 
fishes  are  killed  by  smothering,  even  if 
the  water  does  not  freeze  to  the  bottom. 

HOW   THE   FISHES   ARE    RESCUED 

The  work  of  salvaging  food-fishes  is 
simple,  direct,  and  effective.  It  consists 
of  netting  the  fishes  from  their  unfavor- 
able environment  and  depositing  them  in 
the  open  water  of  the  Mississippi,  and  is 
accomplished  by  properly  equipped  res- 
cue parties  dispatched  to  the  flooded  dis- 
tricts from  conveniently  located  bases  or 
headquarters. 

A  government  fish  rescue  crew  con- 
sists of  six  to  eight  men,  who  employ  a 
small  launch  in  going  to  their  field  of 
operations  and  in  returning  to  their  base. 
The  necessary  equipment  comprises  fine- 
mesh  seines  of  various  lengths,  small  dip- 
nets,  galvanized  iron  washtubs  of  one- 
and-a-half  bushels  capacity,  tin  dippers, 
and  a  flat-bottom  rowboat. 

The  seining  crews  begin  their  work 
each  season  as  soon  as  the  floods  subside 
sufficiently  to  disclose  conditions.  The 
active  operations,  as  a  rule,  begin  in  July 
and  continue  in  a  given  section  until  the 
allotted  task  is  accomplished  or  the 
waters  freeze,  usually  early  in  December. 

The  size  and  depth  of  given  waters  de- 
termine whether  the  men  shall  set  their 
seines  by  wading  or  from  a  boat.  As  the 
net  is  carefully  hauled  and  bunted,  the 
fish  are  sorted  into  tubs,  then  carried  as 
soon  as  practicable  to  the  nearest  point 
at  which  open  water  may  be  reached  and 
there  liberated. 

The  cut-off  waters  are  for  the  most 
part  in  the  bottom  lands  on  both  banks, 
usually  within  a  few  hundred  yards  of 
the  river.  In  some  sections,  however, 
where  the  surface  configuration  permits 
a  wide  lateral  dispersal  of  the  flood 
waters,  the  temporary  ponds  that  demand 
attention  may  be  several  miles  back.  It 
therefore  happens  that,  while  under  ordi- 
nary circumstances  the  seining  crew  can 
easily  carry  the  tubs  of  fish  to  the  place 
of  deposit,  sometimes  teams  and  motor 
trucks  are  employed. 

Some  of  the  landlocked  waters  are 
veritable  lakes  in  which  many  seine  hauls 
may  be  required  to  secure  all  or  most  of 
the  fishes ;  others  are  so  small  that  they 
may  be  thoroughly  fished  with  a  single 


374 


WHEN  THE  FATHER  OF  WATERS  GOES  ON  A  RAMPAGE 


375 


haul  of  a  short  seine;  and  others  are  so 
extensive  at  the  time  of  the  first  visit  that 
they  may  properly  be  left  for  future  at- 
tention when  their  size  shall  have  become 
reduced  to  a  point  where  thorough  sein- 
ing is  possible. 

156,657,000  FOOD-FISHES  WERE  RESCUED 

LAST  SEASON 

It  may  not  appear  to  be  a  matter  of 
great  practical  importance  to  know  how 
many  fishes  of  the  different  species  are 
saved  in  the  course  of  a  season's  work, 
but  it  is  at  least  a  matter  of  considerable 
interest  to  have,  such  a  record  for  each 
of  the  various  sections  of  the  river  and 
for  a  series  of  years.  Accordingly,  the 
seining  parties  are  under  orders  to  make 
a  count  of  the  number  of  each  species 
taken  from  each  body  of  water. 

The  counting  is  done  at  the  time  the 
fish  are  lifted  from  the  seines  into  the 
tubs  with  dip-nets.  The  tubs  are  half- 
filled  with  pure  water,  and  fish  of  given 
sizes  and  species  are  counted  into  the 
tubs  until  the  water  level  rises  to  a  ring 
six  inches  below  the  top. 

Subsequently,  actual  counting  may  not 
be  necessary,  but  the  number  may  be  de- 
termined with  sufficient  accuracy  by  not- 
ing the  water  displacement.  Frequent 
test  countings  are  made  in  the  course  of 
the  season,  and  a  definite  ratio  of  num- 
ber to  bulk  is  established  for  each  aver- 
age size  of  fish  and  each  species. 

When  the  weather  is  warm  or  the  dis- 
tance to  the  planting  place  is  consider- 
able, the  welfare  of  the  fishes  densely 
crowded  in  the  tubs  requires  that  the 
water  be  kept  well  aerated.  This  is  ac- 
complished by  dipping  up  a  little  water 
at  a  time  and  letting  it  fall  back  from  a 
height  of  several  feet,  and  is  always  aided 
by  the  squirming  of  the  mass  of  fish, 
which  keeps  the  surface  water  agitated 
and  often  frothy.  Under  the  care  of  the 
vigilant  and  skilled  fish  men,  the  mor- 
tality among  the  rescued  waifs  while  in 
transit  is  negligible,  and  when  released 
the  fish  are  healthy  and  active. 

Throughout  the  entire  length  of  the 
Mississippi  River,  except  where  the 
banks  are  protected  by  levees  or  where 
bluffs  occur  in  proximity  to  the  shores, 
the  annual  floods  leave  temporary  lakes, 


ponds,  and  pools  that  contain  food-fishes 
whose  salvage  is  demanded. 

The  territory  covered  by  the  govern- 
ment's rescue  operations  in  1919  ex- 
tended from  Minnesota  and  Wisconsin 
to  Arkansas  and  Mississippi.  The  places 
that  were  headquarters  for  rescue  parties 
were  Homer,  Minn. ;  La  Crosse,  Wis. ; 
Bellevue  and  North  McGregor,  Iowa; 
Quincy  and  Cairo,  111. :  Clarksville  and 
Canton,  Mo. ;  and  Friars  Point,  Miss. 

The  record-making  efforts  in  1919  re- 
sulted in  the  saving  of  about  156,657,000 
food-fishes.  All  parts  of  the  river  are 
not  equally  productive  and  all  sections 
were  not  covered  with  the  same  degree 
of  thoroughness.  The  territory  reached 
from  the  base  stations  in  Minnesota, 
Wisconsin,  and  Iowa  yielded  by  far  the 
largest  returns  in  rescued  fishes.  There 
the  conditions  are  especially  favorable  for 
an  enormous  annual  destruction,  and  .the 
need  for  salvage  work  is  most  pressing. 

All  the  major  and  many  of  the  minor 
food-fishes  of  the  river  are  represented 
on  the  lists  of  those  saved.  Predominat- 
ing in  numbers  are  the  staple  fishes, 
which  support  commercial  fishing  and 
contribute  largely  to  the  food  supply  of 
the  region,  notably  the  buffalo-fishes, 
carps,  catfishes,  pikes,  crappies,  sunfishes, 
and  perches. 

Among  the  rescued  game  fishes  the 
large-mouth  black  bass  holds  an  impor- 
tant position,  and  with  it  may  be  classed 
also  the  crappies,  rock  bass,  white  bass, 
and  various  other  excellent  fishes  which, 
while  taken  for  market,  are  much  sought 
by  anglers  throughout  the  Mississippi 
Valley. 

THE  FOOD-FISHES  SAVED  ARE  WORTH  MIL- 
LIONS OF  DOLLARS 

The  young  fishes  that  are  salvaged  and 
replanted  in  the  parent  stream  are  of 
rapid  growth.  A  few  of  them  may  at- 
tain marketable  size  in  the  year  after 
their  rescue,  and  all  of  them  are  likely  to 
be  available  for  human  use  in  two  or 
three  years. 

The  most  critical  period  in  the  life  of 
fishes  is  during  a  few  weeks  immediately 
after  hatching.  For  most  of  the  fishes 
rescued  the  principal  danger  from  nat- 
ural enemies  and  physical  catastrophes 


376 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


CLEANING    UP    A    SMALL    POND 

Just  as  millions  of  dollars  of  taxes  are  made  up  of  the  pennies  collected  on  small  pur- 
chases of  soda  water  and  movie  tickets,  so  156,657,000  fishes  were  rescued  from  landlocked 
ponds,  many  of  them,  like  this  one,  little  more  than  puddles  after  the  waters  subside.  Thrift 
in  such  little  things  makes  national  wealth. 


SEINING  A  SMALL  POOL,  POSSIBLY  SIXTY  FEET  WIDE;  FOUR   MONTHS  BEFORE   IT 
COVERED  ABOUT   TWELVE  ACRES 

When  visited  by  a  rescue  party  in  November  the  pond  had  seeped  and  evaporated  until  it 
was  14  inches  deep,  and  was  easily  handled  with  a  25-foot  seine.  Ten  kinds  of  fish,  aggre- 
gating 150,000,  were  saved.  (See  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE  for  June,  1916,  page  572.) 


WHEN  THE  FATHER  OF  WATERS  GOES  OX  A  RAMPAGE 


377 


' 


WASHING  A  MUD-CLOGGED  SEINE  IN  A  SHALLOW  BAYOU 

Some  of  the  landlocked  pools  and  bayous  have  soft,  muddy  bottoms,  and  when  the  seine 
is  hauled  in,  fish  and  mud  are  mingled  in  a  dense  mass.  By  lifting  the  lead  line  and  moving 
the  seine  away  from  the  shore,  a  gentle  rocking  motion  of  the  net  easily  rids  the  seine  of  mud 


has  passed,  the  degree  of  safety  depend- 
ing largely  on  the  size  attained. 

In  the  opinion  of  State  and  Federal 
fish  culturists  familiar  with  conditions  in 
the  Mississippi  Valley  and  experienced 
in  the  rearing  of  the  local  fishes,  at  least 
25  per  cent  of  the  fishes  rescued  may  be 
expected  to  survive  to  a  marketable  or 
legal  size,  and  will  reach  an  average 
weight  of  not  less  than  one  and  a  half 
pounds  in  two  or  three  years.  Assuming 
that  all  the  surviving  fishes  will  then  be 


caught  for  market  and  sold  by  the  fisher- 
men at  the  prices  prevailing  for  the  re- 
spective species  in  the  local  markets  in 
December,  1919,  the  fishes  salvaged  by 
the  Bureau  in  1919  are  estimated  to  have 
a  prospective  value  of  $6,527,000. 

THE  COST  OE  THE  WORK  IS  SURPRISINGLY 
SMALL 

The  fish-rescue  work,  however  bene- 
ficial from  the  standpoint  of  fish  conser- 
vation, would  hardly  be  justified  if  the 


378 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


SORTING  AND  COUNTING  A   SMALL   S3INIC   HAUL 

It  is  a  matter  of  interest  to  know  the  relative  abundance  of  the  different  kinds  of  food- 
fishes  in  different  parts  of  the  Mississippi  Valley  and  to  be  able  to  determine  the  unit  cost  of 
operations.  In  1919  the  actual  outlay  for  saving  this  valuable  food  supply  was  about  1/50  of 
a  cent  per  fish. 


expense  were  disproportionate  to  the 
value  of  the  results.  It  is  therefore 
proper  to  note  that  the  unit  cost  is  only 
nominal,  and  even  the  total  money  outlay 
for  operations  of  the  magnitude  of  those 
in  1919  is  surprisingly  small. 

Five  years  ago,  when  this  work  was 
undertaken  on  a  limited  scale  and  in- 
volved the  salvaging  of  less  than  2,500,- 
ooo  fishes,  the  average  cost  per  thousand 
fish  saved  was  $3.18.  In  1919,  owing 


partly  to  the  magnitude  of  the  operations 
and  partly  to  increased  efficiency  and 
better  organization,  the  average  cost  per 
thousand  was  reduced  to  less  than  20 
cents.  The  cost  in  some  of  the  less  pro- 
ductive fields,  where  fixed  overhead 
charges  were  applied  to  a  comparatively 
small  output,  was  somewhat  higher,  but 
75  to  80  per  cent  of  the  fish  were  rescued 
and  replanted  at  a  cost  of  only  13  cents 
per  thousand. 


WHEN  THE  FATHER  OF  WATERS  GOES  ON  A  RAMPAGE 


379 


PLANTING   RESCUED  FISHES   IN   THE  RIVER 

At  least  one-fourth  of  the  fishes  rescued  may  be  expected  to  survive  to  a  marketable  or 
legal  size,  and  will  reach  an  average  weight  of  not  less  than  one  and  a  half  pounds  in  two 
or  three  years. 


IN   A    MISSISSIPPI    RIVER   JUNGLE 

A  government  fishing  crew  going  through  a  dense  section  of  Mississippi  River  bottom 
land  with  their  tubs  full  of  rescued  fishes,  to  be  planted  as  soon  as  the  river  is  reached. 
Only  six  of  these  rescued  fish  in  a  thousand  are  planted  outside  of  the  Mississippi  basin. 


380 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


^dKUKV*!  v 

V^!3fc>»t   '•  :     • 


A    SEINING    CREW    ON    THE    MARCH 

The  party  is  proceeding  in  late  autumn  between  two  isolated  lakes  in  a  wooded  bottom 
In  summer  the  small  ditch  was  full  of  water  and  the  lakes  were  connected  with  the  river. 
The  crew  is  here  seen  hauling  a  small  boat  from  one  lake  to  another. 


Throughout  the  Mississippi  Valley — 
in  the  States  of  Minnesota,  Iowa,  Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee,  Missouri,  Arkansas, 
and  Mississippi — as  well  as  in  various 
other  States,  there  are  Federal  establish- 
ments known  as  pond-culture  stations,  at 
which  are  reared  some  of  the  same  fishes 
that  are  rescued  in  the  salvage  operations 
along  the  river,  the  principal  species 
handled  being  the  black  basses,  crappies, 
sunfishes,  and  catfishes. 


The  peculiarity  which  distinguishes 
these  stations  from  the  ordinary  hatch- 
eries is  that  the  ripe  eggs  are  not  taken 
"from  the  fishes  by  the  fish-culturist,  as  in 
the  case  of  trout,  salmon,  whitefish,  shad, 
etc.,  but  the  fishes  are  allowed  to  spawn 
naturally. 

Most  of  the  pond  fishes  make  nests 
and  guard  their  eggs  and  young.  It  is 
therefore  usually  the  case  at  these  sta- 
tions that  a  relatively  large  proportion 


WHEN  THE  FATHER  OF  WATERS  GOES  ON  A  RAMPAGE 


381 


RETAINING   STATION   AT   LA   CROSSE,    WISCONSIN 


At  this  little  adjunct  of  the  rescue  work,  on  the  Mississippi  River  in  southwestern  Wis- 
consin, 150,000  salvaged  fishes  may  be  held  for  hardening,  pending  shipment  to  interior  waters. 
When  first  rescued  from  landlocked  waters  the  young  fish  cannot  undergo  the  strain  of  a 
long  railway  journey. 


of  the  progeny  of  a  given  pair  of  fishes 
is  reared  to  a  stage  where  the  young  are 
able  to  take  fairly  good  care  of  them- 
selves, although  the  actual  number  pro- 
duced is  small. 

The  results  of  the  operation  of  pond 
stations  are  of  interest  because  of  their 
bearing  on  the  value  of  the  rescue  work. 
It  may  therefore  be  noted  that  the  com- 
mon practice  among  both  Federal  and 
State  fish-culturists  is  to  distribute  pond 
fishes  after  they  have  been  reared  to  a 
"fingerling"  size.  A  fingerling  is  less 
than  one  year  old,  and  may  be  from  one 
to  six  inches  long  when  planted. 

The  average  length  of  the  pond  fishes 
sent  out  from  the  nurseries  is  two  to 
three  inches.  A  government  pond  sta- 
tion may  produce,  rear,  and  plant  from 
250,000  to  1,000,000  such  fishes  in  a  sea- 
son, and  the  combined  output  of  six 
typical  stations  in  1919  may  be  placed  at 
2,725,000 — a  cost  of  $5.50  per  thousand. 

From  these  figures  it  appears  that  the 
number  of  fishes  rescued  in  1919,  if  they 
had  been  produced  and  reared  in  the 
ordinary  way  at  established  plants,  would 
have  required  345  pond  stations  and  the 
actual  cost  of  production  would  have 


been  about  $860,000.  To  this  sum,  how- 
ever, should  be  added  the  year's  cost  of 
the  regular  station  staffs  and  general 
charges  for  maintenance,  which  would 
have  been  over  $2,000,000. 

There  should  also  be  taken  into  con- 
sideration the  initial  cost  of  construction 
of  the  pond  stations,  estimated  at  not 
less  than  $12,000,000.  Against  these 
large  hypothetical  charges  is  to  be  placed 
the  actual  aggregate  cost  of  the  salvage 
operations  in  1919,  namely,  $31,000. 

THE    PEARL    BUTTON    INDUSTRY    EMPLOYS 
2O,OOO  PEOPLE 

The  perpetuation  of  the  fish  supply  in 
the  Mississippi  and  its  tributaries  in- 
volves a  very  important  industry  besides 
fishing.  Investigations  conducted  for  the 
Bureau  of  Fisheries  years  ago  showed  an 
intimate  relation  between  certain  kinds 
of  fishes  and  the  mussels,  which  yield 
valuable  pearls  and  support  a  pearl-but- 
ton industry  which  gives  employment  to 
about  20,000  persons  and  has  a  product 
worth  from  $5,000,000  to  $6,000,000  an- 
nually. 

The  young  mussels,  of  microscopic 
size  when  thrown  off  by  their  parents  in 


382 


WHEN  THE  FATHER  OF  WATERS  GOES  ON  A  RAMPAGE 


383 


myriads,  need  to  pass  the  first  few  weeks 
of  their  independent  existence  on  the 
gills  of  fishes.  If  the  fishes  are  not  pres- 
ent at  the  proper  time,  the  mussels  can- 
not survive.  Furthermore — and  this  is 
a  most  interesting  feature  of  the  co-rela- 
tion of  fishes  and  mussels — the  young  of 
particular  kinds  of  mussels  require  the 
gills  of  particular  kinds  of  fishes  as 
nurseries. 

The  black  bass  is  host  for  several  sorts 
of  mussels,  the  crappies  for  several 
others,  the  catfishes  for  others.  The 
skip-jack,  a  kind  of  herring,  is  the  only 
known  host  for  the  best  of  all  mussels; 
and  as  this  fish  is  not  by  any  means  abun- 
dant, its  maintenance  is  of  prime  impor- 
tance to  the  welfare  of  the  button  indus- 
try. In  1919  more  than  one  and  a  half 
million  skip- jacks  were  rescued. 

AN   IMPROVEMENT  ON   NATURE 

The  peculiar  requirements  of  the 
young  mussels  having  been  carefully  de- 
termined, the  Bureau  of  Fisheries  has 
gone  extensively  into  the  business  of  arti- 
ficial propagation  of  pearly  mussels  by  a 
method  which  is  a  vast  improvement  on 
nature.  The  spawning  mussels,  held  in 
ponds,  are  at  the  critical  period  provided 
with  the  special  fishes  needed  for  the  at- 
tachment of  the  young.  The  fishes  ob- 
tained in  the  rescue  operations  are  turned 
into  the  ponds  at  the  time  the  mussels 
are  spawning  and  become  thickly  inocu- 
lated. They  are  then  liberated  in  the 
open  water  and  distribute  themselves  and 
the  mussels  throughout  a  wide  stretch 
of  river.  Thus  two  important  branches 
of  the  Bureau's  work  go  hand  in  hand. 

The  artificial  propagation  of  fresh- 
water mussels  is  one  of  the  functions  of 
the  United  States  Fisheries  Biological 
Laboratory  located  on  the  Mississippi 
River  near  Fairport,  Iowa.  Each  year 
from  200,000,000  to  300,000,000  young 
mussels  are  thus  brought  in  contact  with 
the  gills  of  rescued  fishes  and  given  a 
proper  start  in  life.  The  maintenance 
of  the  mussel  supply  is  thus  being  greatly 
aided. 

That  this  work  is  not  a  mere  experi- 
ment, but  is  yielding  practical  results,  is 
shown  by  various  pieces  of  evidence.  For 
instance,  pearl  buttons  have  been  made 
from  Mississippi  River  mussels  grown 


from  larvae  that  had  been  artificially  im- 
planted on  the  gills  of  a  black  bass  less 
than  two  years  before  and  had  been 
under  constant  observation.  These  mus- 
sels would  have  attained  full  commercial 
size  at  the  age  of  four  and  a  half  years. 

DISTRIBUTION  OF  FISHES  TO  OUTSIDE 
WATERS 

This,  account  of  the  rescue  work  would 
be  incomplete  if  no  reference  were  made 
to  the  sending  of  small  numbers  of 
salvaged  fishes  to  waters  more  or  less  re- 
mote from  the  Mississippi.  These  fishes 
serve  the  same  purpose  as  do  the  product 
of  the  hatcheries.  They  are  intended  for 
replenishing  depleted  waters  or  for  stock- 
ing newly  formed  lakes  and  ponds  that 
may  have  no  fish  life  or  no  suitable  sup- 
ply of  food  or  game  fishes. 

Fishes  as  taken  from  the  landlocked 
waters  of  the  Mississippi  Valley  are  not 
in  a  condition  to  stand  distant  shipment. 
It  is  therefore  necessary  to  subject  them 
to  a  hardening  process  before  it  is  :safe 
or  wise  to  send  them  on  a  long  railway 
journey.  The  hardening  is  done  at  sev- 
eral depots  along  the  river,  notably  at 
La  Crosse,  Wis.,  and  Bellevue,  Iowa. 
At  these  and  several  other  points  are 
small  buildings  containing  tanks  in  which 
the  fish  are  kept,  without  food,  in  cool, 
clear,  running  water  for  several  days. 

The  fish,  then  ready  for  shipment,  are 
placed  in  large  cans  and  loaded  into 
railway  cars,  in  which  they  make  their 
journey  in  safety  and  comfort.  Minor 
shipments  for  short  distances  may  be 
made  in  baggage  cars,  with  an  attendant. 

The  new  all-steel  distributing  cars  of 
the  Bureau  of  Fisheries  embody  the  very 
latest  ideas  in  fish  transportation.  These 
cars,  with  their  permanent  crews  and 
with  all  modern  improvements  for  keep- 
ing fish  supplied  with  water  and  air,  are 
hauled  on  fast  passenger  trains  and  have 
been  used  for  forwarding  from  the  Mis- 
sissippi the  special  lots  of  rescued  fishes 
designed  for  planting  in  adjoining  States. 

Sometimes  a  car-load  of  fish  may  be 
taken  in  its  entirety  to  a  single  point  of 
deposit,  but  more  frequently  detachments 
are  delivered  en  route  to  applicants  who 
have  been  notified  in  advance,  by  mail 
or  telegraph,  to  meet  a  given  train  with 
receptacles  for  taking  their  fish  away. 


384 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


A  BROKEN  MISSISSIPPI  RIVER  LEVEE  AT  LUCCA,  ARKANSAS 

Not  only  Holland  and  the  Acadian  home  of  Evangeline  have  protected  themselves  by  dikes, 
but  scores  of  the  great  rivers  of  the  world  are  paralleled  by  earthen  or  stone  embankments. 


Photograph  from  H.  C.  Frankenfield 
REFUGEES  ON  LOG  RAFT   AT  NEBLETT,    MISSISSIPPI,  WAITING  FOR  A  STEAMER 

Face  to  face  with  a  common  peril,  the  people  of  the  flooded  districts  unite  in  building 
log  rafts  that,  with  the  arrival  of  more  refugees,  come  to  have  as  many  necessaries  and  such 
luxuries  as  the  Swiss  Family  Robinson  salvaged  from  the  wreck. 


WHEN  THE  FATHER  OF  WATERS  GOES  ON  A  RAMPAGE 


385 


Photograph  from  H.  C.  Frankenfield 

FAMILY  ARKS  IN  WHICH  REFUGEES  FROM  A  MISSISSIPPI  RIVER  FLOOD  SEEK  SAFETY 
AFTER  THE  DESTRUCTION  OF  THEIR  HOME:  MODOC,  ARKANSAS 


Lest  there  may  be  created  the  impres- 
sion that  large  numbers  of  salvaged 
fishes  that  should  be  returned  to  the 
parent  stream  are  being  diverted  to  out- 
side waters,  it  may  be  stated  that  in  1919 
less  than  six-tenths  of  I  per  cent  of  the 
fishes  saved  from  the  Mississippi  floods 
were  consigned  to  outside  waters.  This 
altogether  negligible  number  consisted 
chiefly  of  catfishes,  sunfishes,  crappies, 
and  basses. 

From  what  has  already  been  stated,  it 
must  be  apparent  that  this  work  on  which 
the  fisheries  service  of  the  Federal  Gov- 
ernment has  voluntarily  embarked  is  of 
very  great  value,  not  only  to  the  States 


immediately  concerned,  but  also  to  dis- 
tant parts  of  the  country,  for  the  food- 
fishes  of  the  Mississippi  basin  receive  a 
wide  distribution  in  the  trade.  As  a 
matter  of  fact,  the  importance  of  this 
effort  as  a  means  of  maintaining  and  in- 
creasing the  food  supply  of  the  country 
can  hardly  be  equaled  in  any  other  field 
when  cost,  certain  results,  and  quick  re- 
turns are  taken  into  consideration. 

In  most  of  the  States  bordering  on  the 
Mississippi  there  is  a  growing  public  in- 
terest in  and  urgent  demand  for  a  con- 
tinuation and  extension  of  the  rescue 
work ;  and  along  the  Ohio,  Missouri,  and 
other  tributaries  of  the  Mississippi, 


386 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  from  H.  C.  Frankenfield 


REFUGEES  ON   A   MOUND  AT  MODOC,  ARKANSAS,   JUST   BELOW   THE  SCENE  OF   A 

CREVASSE  IN  GARDINER'S  LEVEE  ANGLE 


where  there  prevail  essentially  the  same 
conditions  as  in  the  main  stream,  the  de- 
sirability of  this  form  of  food  conserva- 
tion is  being-  seriously  considered. 

In  the  districts  now  only  partly  cov- 
ered and  in  the  sections  where  up  to  this 
time  it  has  been  impossible  to  undertake 
any  operations,  there  exists  an  opportu- 
nity for  very  productive  work.  There 
are  unbroken  stretches  of  river  500  miles 
in  length,  where  the  floods  are  yearly 
causing  large  sacrifice  of  food-fishes,  on 
which  no  attempts  at  rescue  have  here- 
tofore been  made  because  of  lack  of 
funds  and  personnel,  and  the  major  trib- 
utaries of  the  Mississippi  present  a  virgin 
field  of  unknown  possibilities. 


It  should  be  understood  that  Congress 
does  not  appropriate  funds  especially  for 
this  particular  Work,  and  that  the  money 
now  employed  is  in  reality  part  of  a  gen- 
eral appropriation  for  fish  culture,  and 
the  persons  and  equipment  detailed  for 
the  rescue  operations  are  temporarily 
drawn  from  other  branches  of  the  serv- 
ice. 

What  is  needed,  in  order  that  this  serv- 
ice may  be  conducted  in  a  manner  and  on 
a  scale  that  its  Importance  justifies,  is 
specific  recognition  by  Congress  through 
the  providing  of  special  funds  and  per- 
sonnel, so  that  the  work  may  not  be  con- 
tingent on  the'  necessities  of  other  duly 
established  activities. 


VOL.  XXXVII,  No.  5         WASHINGTON 


MAY,  1920 


COMMON    MUSHROOMS    OF  THE   UNITED 

STATES 

BY  Louis  C.   C.   KRIEGER 

Continuing  its  policy  of  presenting  to  its  readers  comprehensive  and  especially 
timely  articles  and  illustrations  in  color  which  stimulate  a  keener  interest  in  and 
a  more  satisfying  enjoyment  of  the  glories  and  wonders  of  Nature's  forests,  plains, 
and  hills,  the  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE  publishes  the  accompanying  series 
of  matchless  mushroom  paintings  and  intimate  descriptions  by  L.  C.  C.  Kriegcr, 
who  is  associated  with  Dr.  Hov:ard  A.  Kelly,  of  Baltimore. 

The  delicacy  of  coloring  and  variety  of  hues,  the  curious  forms  and  astound- 
ing fertility  of  mushrooms,  will  amaze  the  reader.  It  is  believed  that  Geographic 
members  will  take  the  same  delight  in  their  ''Mushrooms"  Number  that  they  have 
expressed  previously  in  such  Nature-study  numbers  as  "Birds  of  Town  and 
Country,"  "American  Game  Birds,"  "Mankind's  Best  Friend — The  Dog,"  "Our 
State  Flowers,''  "Wild  Animals  of  North  America"  etcetera. 

The  reader  is  especially  cautioned,  hoivever,  that  the  illustrations  and  text 
MUST  NOT  be  used  as  final  authority  in  deciding  whether  a  particular  specimen  is 
an  edible  or  a  poisonous  fungus,  because  no  treatise  within  the  limits  of  a  single 
number  of  even  THE  GEOGRAPHIC  could  be  sufficiently  detailed  and  complete  to 
protect  the  novice  against  the  deadly  species,  which  are  very  numerous.  For  those 
who  desire  more  detailed  description  of  mushrooms,  this  article  is  being  amplified 
with  much  technical  data  and  can  be  obtained  separately,  bound  in  cloth,  at  $3.00 
per  copy,  postpaid. 


MORE    than    thirty-eight    million 
pounds    of    edible    mushrooms 
were  imported  into  our  country 
during  the   five  years   immediately   pre- 
ceding the  World  War.     In  addition  to 
this  vast  amount,  we  consumed  not  only 
the  large  output  of  our  own  growers,  but 
quantities  of  wild  species  besides. 

The  species  imported  from  France 
comprise  the  cultivated  variety  of  the 
common  meadow  or  pasture  mushroom, 
Agaricus  cam  pester  (for  illustrations  see 
Plate  I  and  page  400)  ;  the  expensive 
truffle;  the  cepe  (B.  edulis,  illustrated 
in  Plate  IV  and  on  page  406). 


China  sends  us  certain  species  largely 
for  the  use  of  her  own  people  resident 
among  us.  Our  own  producers  limit 
themselves  to  the  cultivated  variety  of 
the  meadow  mushroom. 

The  names  of  the  wild  species  mar- 
keted cannot  be  ascertained  definitely, 
since  there  is  with  us  no  such  legal  con- 
trol of  the  sale  of  mushrooms  as  obtains 
in  most  cities  in  continental  Europe. 
Gatherers  in  the  United  States  either  eat 
their  finds  themselves  or  sell  them  pro- 
miscuously to  any  mushroom-hungry  in- 
dividual who  lias  the  temerity  or  the 
knowledge  to  venture  purchasing. 


388 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  A.  G.  and  B.  L,eeper 
ONE  OF  THE  POISONOUS  MEMBERS  OF  THE  AMANITA   MUSHROOM   FAMILY 

The  top  view  of  the  specimen  on  the  right  shows  that  the  deadly  Amanitas  peel  as  readily  as 
the  edible  mushrooms.    "Peeling"  is,  therefore,  no  sign  of  edibility. 


From  personal  observation,  however, 
and  from  a  perusal  of  the  popular  litera- 
ture which  advises  the  consumption  of 
certain  species,  we  may  judge  that  the 
following  species  most  frequently  find 
their  way  into  the  kitchen:  Agaricus 
campester,  Agaricus  arvensis  (see  Plate 
I),  the  Parasol  mushroom  (Lcpiota  pro- 
ccra,  see  Plate  XIV),  certain  species  that 
grow  on  trees  (Pleurotus  ostreatus,  etc., 
see  page  402),  ink-caps  (species  of  Cop- 
rinus,  see  Plates  VIII  and  XII),  "fairy- 
ring"  mushrooms  (see  page  397),  puff- 
balls  (pages  414-419),  and,  of  course, 
Morels  (Plate  VII  and  pages  420,  421). 

Since  the  establishment  of  mushroom 
or  mycological  clubs  in  some  of  our  large 
cities,  considerable  interest  has  been 
aroused,  with  the  result  that  members 
and  their  friends  have  learned  to  recog- 
nize many  of  the  lesser  known,  yet 
equally  safe  and  good  species.  The  war, 
too,  has  had  its  effect.  Food  is  scarce 
and  high-priced,  and  people,  following 
suggestions  offered  in  the  public  prints, 


are  turning  to  hitherto  unknown  or  dis- 
regarded sources  of  food  supply,  includ- 
ing the  spontaneously  growing  crop  of 
wild  mushrooms. 

RATTLESNAKE   DENS    VERSUS    POISONOUS 
MUSHROOMS 

But  those  who,  unadvised  or  ill-advised, 
would  gather  wild  species  for  the  table 
should  remember  that  they  are  embark- 
ing upon  an  adventure  that  may  lead  to 
a  sudden  and  horrible  death. 

To  ask  a  person  to  gather  his  own 
mushrooms  for  the  table,  without  previ- 
ous instruction  that  will  enable  him  to 
avoid  the  deadly  kinds,  is  equivalent  to, 
if  not  worse  than,  inviting  him  to  put  his 
unprotected  hand  into  a  den  of  rattle- 
snakes. Indeed,  of  the  two  risky  per- 
formances, the  latter  would  be  the  safer; 
for  there  are  at  least  two  known  anti- 
dotes for  rattlesnake  venom,  whereas 
there  is  none  for  the  poison  or  poisons 
of  the  exceedingly  common  Amanita 
phalloidcs  (see  Plates  X  and  XVI)  and 
its  multitudinous  forms-  and  varieties. 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


389 


SPRETA  PHALLOIDES 

.  VERNA 


PHALLO/DES 


THE;  DANGER  SIGNALS,  OR  DEATH-CUPS,  WHICH  NATURE  PLACES  ON  THE  BASES  OR 
UNDERGROUND  PORTIONS  OF  THE  AM  ANITA  SPECIES 

The  death-cup  is  technically  knowu  as  the  volva  and  at  first  encloses  the  entire  plant 
just  as  the  egg-shell  does  the  egg.  As  the  plant  grows  the  stem  lengthens,  and  in  doing  this 
ruptures  the  bag.  The  illustration  shows  how  the  death-cup,  or  volva,  differs  in  structure 
with  the  various  species  of  Amanita.  There  are  two  distinct  types  of  death-cups,  the  bag-like 
type  (Nos.  10  and  n),  and  the  more  or  less  fragile,  crumbling,  or  scaly  type  (Nos.  i,  2,  and 
3).  Both  types  are  subject  to  variation,  the  variations  being  characteristic  for  different 
species  or  groups  of  species.  Number  7  represents  a  diabolical  attempt  on  the  part  of  one 
Amanita  to  camouflage  its  identity,  both  bulb  and  bag-like  volva  being  difficult  to  discern. 
A  reduction  of  the  "friable"  (crumbling)  type  of  volva  is  seen  in  No.  I,  only  a  few  grains 
being  left  to  tell  the  tale,  and  sometimes  even  these  are  absent.  When  absent  from  the  bulb, 
however,  they  are  usually  to  be  found  on  the  ground,  leaves,  twigs,  or  needles  immediately 
surrounding  the  base,  or  on  top  of  the  cap,  where  they  form  warts,  provided  rain  has  not 
washed  them  away.  The  beautiful  Amanita  casarea,  Plate  IX,  and  the  Blusher  (page  390) 
are  two  exceptions  in  the  dangerous  Amanita  family,  being  edible  though  possessing  death-cups. 


In  this  connection  it  is  of  interest  to 
note  that  poisonous  serpents  and  fungi 
were  associated  in  the  mind  of  man  from 
early  times. 

Pliny  writes :  "Noxious  kinds  must  be 
entirely  condemned ;  for  if  there  be  near 
them  a  hobnail  or  a  bit  of  rusty  iron  or 
a  piece  of  rotten  cloth,  forthwith  the 
plant,  as  it  grows,  elaborates  the  foreign 
juice  and  flavors  into  poison ;  and  coun- 
try-folk and  those  who  gather  them  are 
alone  able  to  discern  the  different  kinds. 


"Moreover,  they  imbibe  other  noxious 
qualities  besides;  if,  for  instance,  the 
hole  of  a  venomous  serpent  be  near  and 
the  serpent  breathe  upon  them  as  they 
open,  from  their  natural  affinity  with  poi- 
sonous substances,  they  are  readily  dis- 
posed to  imbibe  such  poison.  Therefore 
one  must  notice  the  time  before  the  ser- 
pents have  retired  into  their  holes." 

Were  it  not  that  the  subject  is  such  a 
serious  one,  we  should  feel  inclined  to 
laugh  at  the  simplicity  of  the  ancients. 


390 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Leeper 

THE  BLUSHER  (Amanita  rubescens)  is  EDIBLE 

There  are  many  thousands  of  species  of  mushrooms  and  many  strange  forms,  as  the 
succeeding  photographs  show.  The  collector  observes  especially  variations  in  the  cap  (i), 
gills  (2),  ring  (3),  stem  (4),  volva  (see  page  389),  and  color  of  the  spores  (for  an  account 
of  these  marvelous  reproductive  bodies,  see  pages  392,  402,  415). 

Though  edible,  the  Blusher  is  a  member  of  the  dangerous  genus  Amanita,  and  should 
therefore  be  eaten  only  by  those  who  are  thoroughly  familiar  with  a  large  number  oi 
Amanitas.  Its  volva  has  disappeared  into  warts  on  the  cap,  see  description  of  figure  i, 
page  389.  It  may  be  yellowish,  entirely  white,  and  often  very  much  deformed  or  aborted  in 
shape,  and  quite  frequently  specimens  are  found  that  refuse  to  "blush."  The  Blusher  is 
found  in  thin  and  dense  woods,  solitary  or  scattered ;  time,  July  to  September ;  distribution, 
United  States,  east  of  the  Mississippi,  and  in  Europe.  About  natural  size.  For  color  figures 
of  Amanitas,  see  Plates- II,  V,  IX,  X,  XV,  and  XVI. 


COMMON*  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATICS 


391 


Curiously  enough,  some  of  the  ancient 
beliefs  as  to  the  origin  of  poisonous  fungi 
persist  at  the  present  time  in  Italy.  A 
Sicilian  laborer  whom  the  writer  inter- 
rogated on  the  "funghi,"  vouchsafed  the 
""information"  that  the  poisonous  kinds 
grow  from  rusty  iron  (nails,  etc.)  in  the 
ground,  but  that  they  are  easily  to  be  dis- 
tinguished from  the  wholesome  kinds  in 
the  process  of  cooking  by  simply  drop- 
ping a  piece  of  bright  silver  (a  new  coin 
or  the  like)  into  the  stew:  if  the  fungi 
.are  poisonous,  the  silver  will  blacken ;  if 
not,  it  will  retain  its  luster.  The  efficacy 
of  this  "test"  is  believed  in  by  an  aston- 
ishing number  of  people. 

But  not  only  tradition  is  active  in  pro- 
mulgating error  in  this  life-and-death 
matter.  Newspapers  occasionally  and  in- 
advertently publish  "general  rules"  that 
are  often  misleading.  For  example,  an 
article  in  a  representative  daily  in  one  of 
our  large  cities,  after  assuring  the  reader 
that  there  are  but  six  poisonous  kinds 
among  more  than  a  thousand,  adds : 

"No  poisonous  mushroom  is  ever  found 
growing  in  cluster  form." 

In  refutation  of  such  a  generality,  the 
reader  is  referred  to  the  symptom  pro- 
duced by  Olitocybe  illudens,  a  poisonous, 
though  not  a  deadly  poisonous,  agaric 
that  grows  in  dense  clusters  (see  Plate 
III  and  text,  page  403). 

GENERAL    RULES    FOR    BEGINNERS 

General  rules  for  the  guidance  of 
-mushroom-hunters  are  trustworthy  and 
serviceable  only  when  formulated  by  ex- 
perienced botanists.  The  following  six 
rules*  by  the  late  Dr.  W.  G.  Farlow,  Pro- 
fessor of  Cryptogamic  Botany  in  Har- 
vard University,  will  prevent,  if  scrupu- 
lously observed,  the  eating  of  notoriously 
-poisonous  species : 

"(i)  Avoid  fungi  when  in  the  button 
•or  unexpanded  stage  ;  also  those  in  which 
the  flesh  has  begun  to  decay,  even  if  only 
slightly. 

"(2)  Avofd  all  fungi  which  have  death 
cups,  stalks  with  a  swollen  base  sur- 
rounded by  a  sac-like  or  scaly  envelop, 
especially  if  the  gills  are  white.  (Study 
the  Amanitas  and  diagram,  page  389.) 

"(3)  Avoid  fungi  having  a  milky  juice, 
unless  the  milk  is  reddish. 

*  Published  in  Bulletin  No.  15,  U.  S.  Dept. 
of  Agriculture,  Washington,  D.  C. 


"(4)  Avoid  fungi  in  which  the  cap.  or 
pileus,  is  thin  in  proportion  to  the  gills, 
and  in  which  the  gills  are  nearly  all  of 
equal  length,  especially  if  the  pileus  is 
bright-colored. 

"(5)  Avoid  all  tube-bearing  fungi  in 
which  the  flesh  changes  color  when  cut 
or  broken  or  where  the  mouths  of  the 
tubes  are  reddish,  and  in  the  case  of 
other  tube-bearing  fungi  experiment  with 
caution. 

"(6)  Fungi  which  have  a  sort  of 
spider  web  or  flocculent  ring  round  the 
upper  part  of  the  stalk  should  in  general 
be  avoided." 

Professor  Farlow  adds  that  "Rules  I, 
2,  and  5  may  for  the  beginner  be  re- 
garded as  absolute,  with  the  exception  to 
Rule  2,  Amanita  Cfcsarca  (Plate  IX),  the 
gills  of  which  are  yellow.  Rules  3,  4, 
and  6  have  more  numerous  exceptions, 
but  these  rules  should  be  followed  in  all 
cases  unless  the  collector  is  content  to 
experiment  first  with  very  small  quanti- 
ties and  learn  the  practical  result." 

Other  rules  that  will  help  to  protect 
from  serious  poisoning  are  : 

Do  not  collect  mushrooms  in  or  near 
wooded  areas  except  for  study  purposes. 

This  rule  is  very  general,  as  it  does 
not  protect  against  the  green-gilled  Le- 
piota  (see  illustration  on  page  393),  nor 
against  an  occasional  Amanita  and  some 
others ;  but  it  does  prevent  the  beginner 
from  entering  the  very  "lair"  pf  the  man- 
killers. 

Do  not  accept  mushrooms  from  a  self- 
styled  expert,  even  if  you  have  to  dis- 
oblige a  dear  friend.  Learn  the  subject 
yourself. 

That  an  animal  (insect,  squirrel,  turtle, 
etc.)  has  eaten  of  a  mushroom  is  no  cri- 
terion of  the  edibility  of  that  mushroom 
for  man.  Insect  larvae  thrive  and  grow 
fat  on  the  violently  poisonous  Amanita 
phalloides  (Plates  X  and  XVI). 

Soaking  or  boiling  in  water  does  not 
render  a  poisonous  species  edible.*  The 
poisons  of  Amanita  phalloides  are  de- 
stroyed only  by  continued  boiling  in  pow- 
erful acids.  (Dr.  W.  W.  Ford.) 

*  J.  Henri  Fabre,  in  his  "The  Life  of  the  Fly," 
relates  that  the  peasants  of  Serignan,  in  the 
south  of  France,  render  such  notoriously 
poisonous  species  as  Amanita  fianthcrina  and 
Amanita  citrina  (Plate  V)  edible  by  parboiling 
in  water.  Other  reliable  evidence  speaks 
against  this  practice,  however. 


392 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


The  truth  is  that  inviting  any  one  to 
become  a  mushroom-eater  is  tantamount 
to  asking  that  person  to  become  some- 
what of  a  botanist,  assuming,  of  course, 
that  one  has  no  ulterior  motives  on  his 
or  her  life. 

HOW   WE;   MAY  ACQUIRE  THIS   KNOWLEDGE 

The  preceding  paragraphs  are  likely  to 
dampen  the  ardor  of  those  who  would 
be  pleased  to  learn  how  to  collect  and 
select  their  own  mushrooms,  but  who  are 
not  sufficiently  interested  to  go  to  the 
length  of  acquiring  the  necessary  knowl- 
edge that  will  enable  them  to  do  this  with 
safety.  Those  who  are  so  affected  had 
better  do  without  mushrooms  for  the  rest 
of  their  lives,  bearing  in  mind  that,  so 
far,  there  is  no  "player  attachment"  to 
the  study  of  mushrooms. 

The  most  expeditious  way  of  acquir- 
ing this  knowledge  is  to  join  a  mushroom 
club,  if  there  happens  to  be  such  an  or- 
ganization in  the  city  of  one's  residence. 
Boston,  Philadelphia,  Washington,  and 
Detroit  have,  or  have  had,  such  clubs. 

MUSHROOMS   ARE   THE   FRUIT   OF   FUNGI 

The  removal  of  the  bark  from  a  rotting 
tree-trunk  or  the  disturbance  of  the  dense 
mat  of  decaying  leaves  on  the  floor  of  the 
forest  will  reveal  fine  threads,  usually 
white  in  color.  These  threads  may  be 
loosely  scattered  and  mould-like,  com- 
pacted into  a  dense  meshwork  of  cords, 
or  spread  out  in  flat  sheets  of  the  texture 
of  white  kid  leather.  In  old  mines  the 
timbers  ,are  often  festooned  with  long 
streamers  of  this  soft  substance,  which 
to  botanists  is  known  as  "mycelium,"  to 
mushroom  growers  as  "spawn." 

As  every  one  who  has  cultivated  these 
plants  knows,  mushrooms  grow  from 
these  threads,  not,  however,  as  the  apple 
tree  grows  from  its  roots,  but  rather  as  the 
apple  grows  on  the  tree,  for  the  mycelium 
is  the  olant,  the  mushroom  the  fruit. 

THE  MARVELOUS  SPORES 

Every  mushroom  species  arises  from  a 
mycelium  of  its  own ;  yet,  to  distinguish 
between  species,  students  rely  exclusively 
on  the  forms,  colors,  and  microscopic 
characters  of  the  fruit-body  (the  mush- 
room), the  mycelium  rarely  presenting 
characters  sufficiently  distinct  for  identi- 
fication purposes. 


The  forms  of  mushrooms  are  ex- 
tremely varied,  but  all  have  in  common 
the  ripening  and  liberation  of  the  micro- 
scopic spores  ("seeds"  or  reproductive 
bodies),  by  means  of  which  the  species 
are  enabled  to  spread  over  wide  areas. 
Some  of  the  remarkable  qualities  of  these 
spores  are  told  on  pages  402  and  415. 

The  mushroom  collector  can  make 
some  interesting  experiments  with  the 
spores,  as  follows : 

If  the  expanded  cap  of  the  common 
pasture  mushroom  (Agaricus  campester} 
(see  Plate  I)  be  removed  from  its  stem 
and  placed  upon  a  sheet  of  white  paper, 
gill  side  downward,  and  left  there  under 
cover  of  a  finger-bowl  for  an  hour  or 
two,  there  will  be  formed  a  beautiful  de- 
posit ("spore-print")  of  the  microscopic, 
purple-brown  spores. 

If  an  Amanita  (Plates  II,  V,  IX,  X, 
XV,  and  XVI),  a  Lepiota  (Plate  XIV), 
a  Tricholoma  (Plate  VII),  a  Clitocybe 
(Plate  III),  or  an  Armillaria  (Plate  VI) 
be  treated  in  the  same  way,  a  white  spore- 
print  will  result.  With  a  Volvaria  (Plate 
V)  the  deposit  will  be  reddish  or  pink- 
ish. Pholiotas  (Plates  VIII  and  XIII) 
and  Cordnarii  (Plate  VII)  will  throw 
down  spores  of  some  shade  of  brownish 
yellow,  rusty  brown,  or  cinnamon.  Cop- 
rinus  (Plates  VIII  and  XII)  and  Panae- 
olus  (Plate  VIII)  species  precipitate 
black  or  blackish  spores. 

Similar  experiments  may  be  made  with 
other  varieties. 

FUNGI  IN  NATURE'S  ECONOMY 

The  Fungi,  a  class  of  plants  of  which 
mushrooms  are  the  most  familiar  exam- 
ples, play  an  important  role  in  their  influ- 
ence on  the  higher  forms  of  life.  As 
parasites  on  plants,  animals,  and  man, 
they  cause  destruction  on  an  almost  in- 
calculable scale.  As  scavengers  and  as 
rock-disintegrators,  on  the  other  hand, 
they  accomplish  work  that  is  basic  for 
the  very  existence  of  all  life. 

Rock  is  the  raw  material  of  the  farmer's 
soil ;  but  before  the  farmer  can  have  this 
soil  it  must  first  be  made.  How  is  it 
made  ? 

Violent  weather  changes — heat,  cold, 
rain,  snow,  and  ice — start  the  breaking- 
up  process.  Associated  with  these  agen- 
cies, the  lichens  begin  their  work.  Dry, 
crusty  things,  these  plants  produce  an 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


393 


Photograph  by  C.  Cramer 

THIS  GREEN-GILDED  LEPIOTA  (Lepiota  Jiwrgani)  is  POISONOUS 

Beware  of  this  false  Parasol  mushroom.  It  differs  from  the  true  edible  Parasol  mush- 
room (Plate  XIV  and  page  439)  in  its  greenish  gills,  coarser  scales,  and  larger  size.  These 
two  young  specimens  were  photographed  on  a  lawn  in  Washington,  D.  C.  Approximately 
natural  size.  This  Goliath  of  Mushrooms,  the  green-gilled  Lepiota,  is  especially  plentiful  in 
the  Mississippi  Valley,  but  it  also  occurs  in  the  Middle  and  South  Atlantic  States,  in  South 
America,  in  the  West  Indies,  and  probably  in  Bohemia  and  in  the  Philippines.  Its  habitat  is 
in  rich  pastures,  cultivated  ground,  in  open  woods,  and  on  lawns  in  cities;  time,  June  to 
October. 


394 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  George  Shiras,  3d 

THE;  EDIBLE  HONEY-MUSHROOM  (Armillaria  mellea)  "FINISHING"  A 

This  mushroom  is  the  bane  of  the  orchardist.  The  growth  extended  eight  feet  up  the 
maple  tree  and  four  feet  at  the  base  (see  text,  page  411,  and  Color  Plate  VI,  upper  figure, 
and  opposite  page). 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


395 


Photograph  by  George  Shiras,  3d 
"A  TRAGEDY  IN  THE  FOREST" 

Armillaria  mcllea  is  here  shown  at  its  destructive  work.  This  tree  is  doomed.  This 
species  of  fungus  is  also  shown  as  the  upper  figure  of  Color  Plate  VI  and  on  opposite  page. 
If  you  chop  off  the  mushrooms,  others  will  soon  replace  them,  for  they  are  simply  the  fruit 
of  a  parasite  infesting  the  tree  (see  page  392  and  the  bracket  fungus,  page  409). 


THE  ABORTIVE  CLITOPILUS   (Clltopilus  dbortiviis)   AND  ABORTIVE  FORMS,  THE  LATTER 
SHOWN   ON   THE   RIGHT.      EDIBLE.      ONE-HALF   NATURAL   SIZE 

The  eye  that  is  sensitive  to  subtle  color  arrangements  always  meets  with  pleasure  the 
unobtrusive  habitant  of  our  woodlands,  known  as  the  Abortive  Clitopilus.  When  specimens 
are  found,  they  are  almost  invariably  accompanied  by  the  odd,  puff-ball-like  masses,  1^4  to 
2^2  inches  in  diameter,  irregular  in  shape,  and  of  a  whitish  tint,  shown  in  the  right  of  the 
photograph.  It  would  be  interesting  to  ascertain  whether  these  queer  masses  are  caused  by 
insects  or  by  some  parasitic  fungus.  An  inspection  of  the  interior  will  show  that  there  is  no 
differentiation  of  tissues  into  cap,  stem,  and  gills.  Similar  masses  are  found  accompanying 
the  Honey  mushroom  (see  Color  Plate  VI)  and  other  species.  Both  the  perfectly  developed 
and  the  aborted  forms  are  edible.  They  should  be  thoroughly  cooked  to  bring  out  the  flavor. 


Photographs  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Leeper 

THE  GREENISH  RUSSULA  (Russula  vircscens) .    EDIBLE 

The  various  Russulas  are  difficult  to  distinguish  from  each  other.  This  species,  however, 
is  sufficiently  well  marked  to  be  recognized  by  the  layman.  Painted  with  the  hues  of  the 
rainbow,  the  Russulas  bring  a  touch  of  brightness  into  the  gloomy  depth  of  the  forest. 
Vivid  reds,  greens,  purples,  violets,  and  yellows  predominating,  these  conspicuously  colored 
agarics  are  at  the  same  time  the  joy  of  the  painter  and  the  despair  of  the  student  who  at- 
tempts their  classification.  The  Greenish  Russula  grows  in  thin  woods  and  in  grassy, 
open  places ;  time,  July  and  August :  distribution.  Maine  to  Virginia,  and  west  to  Ohio  and 
Michigan;  also  in  Europe.  About  one-half  natural  size. 


THE  FAIRY-RING  MUSHROOM  (Marasiimis  orcadcs).    EDIBLE 

The  specimens  shown  grew  in  the  grounds  of  the  White  House,  Washington,  D.  C.    Approxi- 
mately one-half  natural  size. 


Photographs  courtesy  of  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture 

A  "FAIRY-RING"  FORMED  BY  Marasmhts  or  cades,  ONE  OF  THE  BEST  EDIBLE 

MUSHROOMS 

The  beginning  of  a  "fairy-ring"  may  be  a  single  mushroom  which  drops  its  spores  or 
seeds  in  a  circle  about  the  base.  The  next  season  the  small  ring  of  mushrooms  drops  a 
larger  ring  of  spores,  and  so  the  circle  expands,  year  by  year,  exactly  as  the  ripples  spread 
out  on  the  surface  of  a  millponcl  when  a  rock  is  cast  into  the  water.  Fairy-rings,  formed  in 
Colorado,  have  been  estimated  to  be  about  600  years  old.  Legend  informs  us  that  these  rings 
are  the  magic  circles  within  which  elves  and  other  nimble  fairy  folk  hold  their  revels  at  mid- 
night on  our  lawns.  There  is  another  superstition  that  the  rings  mark  the  spots  where  bolts  of 
lightning  have  struck  the  ground.  Marasmius  oreades  is  found  in  grassy  places  (lawns, 
pastures,  and  by  the  roadside)  from  May  to  October,  being  widely  distributed  in  both  the 
Xorth  and  South  Temperate  zones. 


398 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE  VELVET-STEMMED  COLL YBIA  (Collybia  velutipes} .    EDIBLE 

In  winter  time  the  mushroom  lover  yearns  for  a  taste  of  wild  species.  This  he  may 
have  if  he  will  be  on  the  lookout  for  this  tree-inhabiting  Collybia.  About  one-half  natural 
size.  With  its  stem  encased  in  a  suit  of  dark-brown  velvet,  its  rich  yellow  cap  protected  by 
a  mucilaginous  covering,  the  plant  is  admirably  adapted  to  stand  the  rigors  of  the  boreal 
season.  This  mushroom  is  gathered  in  the  spring,  autumn,  and  winter;  distribution,  eastern 
United  States  as  far  west  as  Kansas  and  Iowa;  probably  in  the  Pacific  Coast  States;  also  in 
Europe  and  Mexico;  a  variety  (spongiosa)  in  Alaska. 


Photographs  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Leeper 

THE  ROOTED  COLLYBIA  (Collybia  radicata) .    EDIBLE 

With  its  yellow-brown,  wrinkled  caps  perched  on  a  tall  stem,  this  Collvbia  is  met  with  almost 
immediately  one  enters  a  beech  or  pine  forest.    About  one-half  natural  size. 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


399 


acid  that  crumbles  the  hardest  rock. 
Rains  wash  the  disintegrated  particles 
into  cracks,  crevices,  and  crannies  down  a 
slope.  The  remains  of  the  dead  lichens 
are  added  to  the  debris  to  form  the  first 
beginnings  of  soil  in  which  other  lichens, 
small  ferns,  and  seed  plants  find  a  place 
to  thrive  and  eventually  die,  each  plant 
leaving  behind  some  small  particles  of 
matter.  Gradually,  with  infinite  patience, 
Nature  thus  deposits  soil  in  the  valleys. 
Ages  of  this  slow  but  cumulative  work, 
in  which  soil  bacteria  and  other  fungi 
play  an  essential  role,  and  we  have  rich, 
virgin  soil  ready  to  receive  the  precious 
grains  of  wheat.  Then  the  eye  of  hungry 
man  is  gladdened  by  the  sight  of  acres 
of  the  golden  crop. 

FUNGI  RAISE  THE  DOUGH 

Bread  made  from  unleavened  dough  is 
not  to  the  taste  of  most  of  us.  It  must 
be  light  and  spongy  to  be  palatable.  To 
obtain  these  qualities  we  are  again  de- 
pendent on  the  fungi.  The  good  house- 
wife buys  yeast,  dissolves  it  in  water,  and 
adds  the  fluid  to  the  heavy  dough,  which 
is  then  thoroughly  kneaded  and  set  aside 
overnight  in  a  suitable  temperature.  The 
next  morning  she  is  pleased  to  note  that 
the  dough  has  risen.  After  further 
kneading,  it  is  placed  in  the  oven  and 
baked  into  appetizing  loaves.  On  being 
cut,  the  bread  exhibits  a  multitude  of 
small  bubbles  of  nearly  equal  size. 

The  little  Brownies  that  labored^while 
others  slept  are  microscopic  fungus  cells 
that  were  introduced  with  the  yeast. 
Given  sugar,  starch,  moisture,  and  warmth, 
these  cells  multiply  with  incredible  ra- 
pidity, at  the  same  time  giving  off  carbon- 
dioxide  and  another  product.  The  car- 
bon-dioxide gas  collects  in  bubbles,  and 
thus  distends  and  lightens  the  dough. 

If  bread  be  left  in  a  moist  place  it  will 
mould.     Here,  too,  we  have  fungous  ac-  - 
tion. 

Moulds,  like  bacteria  and  yeast  fungi, 
are  ever  present  and  ready  to  alight  and 
feed  upon  organic  substances  suitable  to 
their  taste.  Roquefort  cheese  owes  its 
flavor  to  a  certain  mould.  Another  is 
known  to  plug  up  the  human  ear. 

Some  of  the  industries  in  which  the 
action  of  the  ferment  fungi  is  essential 
are:  The  making  of  buttermilk  and 
cheese,  the  tanning  of  leather,  tobacco- 


curing,  the  fermentation  of  vegetables 
(sauerkraut,  fodder  in  silos,  etc.),  all 
bread-making  where  yeast  is  used,  and  all 
fermentation  processes  in  which  alcohol 
is  produced. 

FUNGI  DESTROY  WHEAT,  TREES,  AND  WOOD 

In  1916  the  black-stem  rust  destroyed 
in  the  United  States  and  Canada  280,- 
000,000  bushels  of  wheat.  Add*to  this  a 
15  to  25  per  cent  reduction  of  the  barley 
and  oats  crops,  and  we  become  aware  of 
the  appalling  destruction  that  a  single 
fungous  disease  can  cause. 

One  of  these,  Endothia  parasitica, 
threatens  with  extinction  the  glorious 
chestnut  trees  of  our  eastern  coast.  The 
disease  caused  by  this  fungus  fiend,  the 
chestnut  bark  disease,  starting  in  the  vi- 
cinity of  New  York  City  about  1904, 
spread  rapidly  as  far  north  as  New 
Hampshire  and  south  to  Virginia.  In  its 
devastating  march  it  has  destroyed  tim- 
ber valued  at  more  than  two  hundred 
million  dollars,  and  the  end  is  not  yet. 

Another  disease,  the  white  pine  blister 
rust,  though  not  yet  as  widely  known 
as  the  chestnut  disease,  is  likely  to  be- 
come so  unless  preventive  measures  are 
adopted  and  cooperatively  carried  out  by 
the  States  concerned. 

While  the  destruction  of  living  woody 
tissues  is  steadily  going  on  in  the  forests, 
dead  wood,  including  that  used  in  build- 
ings, railroad  ties,  etc.,  is  likewise  being 
destroyed  by  species  that  specialize  in 
saprophytism  or  scavenger-work. 

ANTS  "CULTIVATE"  MUSHROOMS 

The  almost  human  sagacity  of  the  ant 
has  interested  man  from  earliest  times. 
Isn't  it  possible  that  Homer  called  the 
Thessalian  legions  "myrmidons"  because 
they  swarmed  like  ants  and  fought  with 
the  cunning  and  bravery  of  these  insect 
warriors  ?  The  foresight  exhibited  by  the 
ant  in  storing  its  food,  furnished  ^sop 
with  the  theme  for  one  of  his  most  de- 
lightful fables.  Later,  upon  closer  obser- 
vation, we  were  startled  to  learn  that 
Mr.  Ant  is  also  a  good  "dairyman,"* 
milking  his  "cows"  whenever  he  wants 
"milk" ;  but  it  was  not  until  recently  that 

*  See  "Notes  About  Ants  and  Their  Resem- 
blance to  Man,"  by  Dr.  William  Morton 
Wheeler,  in  the  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGA- 
ZINE, August,  1912. 


400 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photographs  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Lecper 

THE  COMMON  MEADOW  MUSHROOM  (Agaricits  canipcstcr).    EDIBLE 

Brownish,  scaly  variety  above;  white,  smooth  variety  below.  Before  the  war  America 
imported  annually  millions  of  pounds  of  this  delicacy  from  France,  and  our  own  producers 
and  bountiful  Nature  have  assisted  materially  in  meeting  the  ever-increasing  demand.  Do 
not  attempt  to  gather  this  or  any  ether  mushroom  for  eating  purposes  unless  you  have  a 
competent  authority  with  you  (see  Color  Plate  I  and  text,  page  401).  When  picked  they  will 
fruit  again  as  a  continuous  crop  when  cultivated  in  special  mushroom  cellars,  and  out-of- 
doors  as  long  as  the  weather  is  propitious. 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


401 


Photograph  by  A.  G.  and  B.  keeper 

THE  BRICK-RED  HYPHOLOMA    (H\pholoina  sublateritium) .     EDIBILITY  DOUBTFUL 

Few  mushrooms  are  commoner  than  the  Brick-top.     It  grows  in  dense  clusters  at  the  base 
of  old  chestnut  and  oak  trees.    About  one-half  natural  size. 


we  were  apprised  of  the  fact  that  mush- 
room-growing" is  also  one  of  his  accom- 
plishments. 

Scientific  travelers  in  Java  and  South 
America  record  that  some  of  the  larger 
species,  the  termites,  construct  veritable 
mushroom-cellars,  in  which  they  "culti- 
vate" (on  the  mycelium  of  some  large 
fungi)  little  globular  bodies  as  food  for 
themse'ives. 

Mushroom-growing  is  a  most  uncertain 
business  unless  conditions  favorable  to 
the  growth  of  the  spawn  are  rigidly 
maintained.  The  ants  know  this,  too,  and 
take  precautions  necessary  to  insure  a 
good  "crop." 

THE    COMMON    MEADOW  MUSH- 
ROOM   (Agaricus   campester) 

(See  Color  Plate  I) 

When  the  average  person  uses  the  word 
"mushroom"  the  common  Meadow  mushroom, 
or  Pink  Gill  (Agaricus  campester)  is  meant 
(see  Color  Plate  I  and  photographs  on  page 
400).  Imported  from  France  in  enormous 
quantities  before  the  war ;  cultivated  by  our 
own  growers  with  ever-increasing  zeal,  and 
gathered  in  the  wild  state  as  soon  as  it  makes 


its  appearance  in  the  fall,  it  is  so  well  known 
that  even  the  most  timid  feel  no  hesitation  in 
ordering  their  juicy  tenderloin  "smothered 
with  mushrooms." 

The  records,  however,  show  that  not  infre- 
quently other  deleterious  species  are  eaten 
along  with,  or  in  the  place  of,  the  common 
mushroom.  It  therefore  behooves  the  eater  of 
mushrooms  to  be  as  cautious  with  this  species 
as  he  would  be  with  one  less  well  known. 

Of  course,  only  the  most  careless  or  unin- 
formed would  mistake  the  poisonous  Amanitas 
for  the  Agaricus;  but  there  are  other  poison- 
ous species,  not  necessarily  deadly,  that  are 
apt  to  get  by  the  eye  and  into  the  mouth  if  one 
is  unaware  of,  or  neglects  to  observe,  the 
botanical  characters  that  distinguish  the  good 
from  the  bad.  Species  that  are  likely  to  be 
mistaken  for  the  common  mushroom  are  dis- 
cussed further  on. 

Remarks  on  the  preparation  of  the  Meadow 
mushroom  for  the  table  are  superfluous,  as  any 
cook-book  will  give  full  directions. 

The  common  Meadow  mushroom  is  at  home 
in  grassy  places,  lawns,  pastures ;  never  in 
thick  woods;  also  (when  cultivated)  in  cellars, 
caves,  abandoned  mines,  and  in  other  places 
where  the  temperature  can  be  held  between 
50°  and  65°  F.  and  where  moisture  conditions 
can  be  controlled ;  time,  when  growing  wild,  in 
August  and  September,  occasionally  in  the 
spring;  when  cultivated  under  suitable  condi- 
tions, throughout  the  year;  distribution,  cos- 
mopolitan. 


402 


'    THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  A.  G.  and  B.  L,eeper 


THE  OYSTER  MUSHROOM    (PleUrOtltS  OStrCCltlls)  .      EDIBLE 

The  name  of  the  luscious  bivalve  was  given  this  species  because  of  a  fancied  similarity 
in  appearance.  The  plants  may  be  found  from  June  until  late  in  the  Autumn,  growing  on 
deciduous  trees.  About  one-third  natural  size. 

If  one  has  discovered  one  or  more  trees  that  bear  Pleuroti,  it  is  a  good  plan  to  water  the 
spots  from  which  specimens  have  been  taken.  In  this  way  the  plants  may  be  "cultivated,"  as 
new  "fruit"  will  appear  in  a  week  or  two. 

When  specimens  are  brought  indoors  and  placed  in  a  sunny  nook,  away  from  drafts,  the. 
interesting  phenomenon  of  spore-discharge  may  be  watched.  Like  twisting,  curling  spirals 
of  smoke  from  the  burning  end  of  a  cigar,  the  fine  spore-rain  drifts  off  into  space  in  quest 
of  tree  wounds  where  it  may  lodge  and  start  a  mycelium  that  in  turn  will  produce  more 
Pleuroti. 


Related  species  and  poisonous  species  are 
sometimes  eaten  in  place  of  it,  though  Agari- 
cus  campester  is  so  well  marked  that  it  is  in- 
conceivable how  poisonous  species,  especially 
Amanitas,  can  be  eaten  by  mistake. 

A  mere  glance  at  the  illustrations  of  the 
common  mushroom  and  those  of  the  Amanitas 
(see  Plates  II,  V,  X,  XV,  and  XVI)  ought  to 
prove  instructive,  even  to  the  most  superficially 
observing,  and,  if  in  addition  the  descriptions 
be  compared,  wide  differences  will  at  once  be- 
come apparent.  To  call  attention  to  a  few : 
Agaricus  camficster  has  a  squattier  appear- 
ance ;  lacks  a  bag,  or  volva ;  has  pink  gills  that 
turn  to  a  chocolate  brown,  and  never  grows 
in  woods  or  forests,  preferring  rich,  well-ma- 
nured ground,  such  as  old  pastures,  where 
horses  are  turned  loose. 

The  Amanitas  rarely  occur  anywhere  except 
in  woods,  or  in  places  where  woods  have  re- 
cently stood,  such  as  lawns  in  new  suburbs ; 
throw  down  from  their  gills  a  white  spore- 
powder,  and  have,  in  addition  to  the  ring,  a 
more  or  less  pronounced  volva  at  the  usually 


bulbous  base  of  the  stem  (for  figures  of  the 
various  forms  of  the  Volva,  or  Death-cup,  see 
Nature's  Danger  Signals,  page  389). 

THE  FIELD,  OR  HORSE  MUSHROOM 
(Agaricus  arvensis).     Edible 

(Sec   Color  Plate  I) 

This  coarse  and  heavy  species  is  edible  only 
when  young  and  tender.  Some  epicures  object 
to  its  anise-like  odor.  The  distinguishing  fea- 
tures are:  its  large  size  (breadth  of  cap  some- 
times more  than  a  foot)  ;  peculiar  ashy-pink 
tint  of  the  young  gills ;  large,  thick,  double 
ring  (the  lower  one  split  radiately)  ;  the  bulb- 
ous stem,  and  the  tendency  to  turn  yellow  on 
the  slightest  bruise. 

It  is  not  so  choice  in  its  habitats  as  the  com- 
mon mushroom,  growing  in  cultivated  fields, 
grassy  pastures,  in  waste  places,  under  old 
hedges,  and  occasionally  near  trees,  and  in 
the  borders  of  thin  woods.  It  should  be  sought 
from  July  to  September.  Occasionally  it  forms 
huge  fairy-rings  (see  page  397). 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


403 


THE  FLY  MUSHROOM  (Amanita 

muscaria  and  its  varieties). 

Deadly  poisonous ! 

(See  Color  Plate  II  for  mature  plant 
and  Color  Plate  XV  for 
young  specimens) 

Beauty,  though  attractive,  is  often 
deceptive.  This  is  admirably  illus- 
trated in  Amanita  muscaria,  the 
''most  splendid  chief  of  the  agaricoid 
tribe,"  as  Greville,  an  eminent  Scotch 
botanist,  describes  it. 

"In  the  highlands  of  Scotland,"  he 
continues,  "it  is  impossible  not  to  ad- 
mire it,  as  seen  in  long  perspective, 
between  the  trunks  of  the  straight  fir 
trees ;  and  should  a  sunbeam  pene- 
trate through  the  dark  and  dense  foli- 
age and  rest  on  its  vivid  surface,  an 
effect  is  produced  by  this  chief  of  a 
humble  race  which  might  lower  the 
pride  of  many  a  patrician  vegetable." 

Contrast  with  this  the  dire  effects 
of  its  .poisons  on  the  human  system. 
Very  shortly  after  eating  the  fungi 
(from  one  to  six  hours,  depending 
upon  the  amount  eaten)  the  victim 
exhibits  excessive  salivation,  perspira- 
tion, flow  of  tears,  nausea,  retching, 
vomiting,  and  diarrhea.  The  pulse  is 
irregular  and  respiration  accelerated. 
Giddiness  and  confusion  of  ideas  are 
also  present. 

Delirium,  violent  convulsions,  and 
loss  of  consciousness  develop  in  rapid 
succession  when  large  quantities  have 
been  eaten,  the  patient  sinking  into 
a  coma  that  is  followed  by  death. 
In  light  cases  the  patient,  after  an  at- 
tack of  vomiting  and  diarrhea,  falls 
into  a  deep  sleep,  from  which  he 
awakes  several  hours  later  profoundly 
prostrate,  but  on  the  road  to  recov- 
ery. Within  two  or  three  days,  in 
such  cases,  complete  recovery  takes 
place. 

Atropin  is  the  perfect  physiological 
antidote  for  muscarin,  one  of  the 
poisons  present.  However,  being  a 
poison  itself,  it  should  not  be  ad- 
ministered except  by  a  physician.  The 
early  appearance  of  the  symptoms  is 
characteristic  of  poisoning  by  this 
species,  those  caused  by  Amanita  phalloides 
presenting  themselves  much  later  (see  this 
species,  .Plates  V.  X,  and  XVI). 

The  AtiTanita  muscaria  is  very  common  in 
woods,  thickets,  in  open  places,  and  sometimes 
in  pastures,  from  June  until  the  first  frosts. 

THE  JACK-O'LANTERN   MUSHROOM, 

OR    FALSE    CHAJSITRELLE    (Clito- 

cybe  illudens).     Poisonous 

(See  Color  Plate  III) 

To  see  light  emanating  from  a  mushroom 
is  at  least  a  novel  experience  that  is  possible 
if  one  views  perfectly  fresh  specimens  of  the 


Photograph  by  George  Shiras,  3d 


A   SPECIES   OF   PLEUROTUS   MUSHROOM    GROWING 
FROM  A  FALLEN  LOG 

A  sight  such  as  this  is  calculated  to  make  the  mush- 
room-hunter's mouth  water.  Note  that  the  central,  ec- 
centric, or  lateral  attachment  of  the  stem  to  the  cap  is 
a  matter  of  position  of  growth ;  the  caps  on  the  side  of 
the  log  have  lateral  stems,  those  on  the  top  central,  or 
very  nearly  central,  ones  (see  illustration,  page  402). 


Jack-o'-Lantern  by  night ;  but  this  is  the  limit 
of  its  interest  for  us.  As  an  edible  species,  it 
is  not  to  be  thought  of ;  for,  though  pleasant 
enough  to  the  taste  and  enjoyed  without  in- 
convenience by  some,  it  acts  as  a  powerful 
emetic  with  most  people.  Moreover,  recent 
chemical  investigation  of  the  plant  has  demon- 
strated the  presence  of  muscarin  in  its  tissues, 
the  same  substance  that  plays  such  an  impor- 
tant role  in  poisoning  by  Amanita  muscaria 
(see  text  on  this  page). 

Dense  clusters  of  this  Clitocybe  may  often 
be  seen  growing  on  or  about  old  stumps  of 
chestnuts,  oaks,  and  other  deciduous  trees. 
Occasionally,  such  clusters  contain  hundreds 


404 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Leeper 

THE  GLISTENING  COPRINUS  (Coprinus  micoceus} .    EDIBLE 

Soon  after  the  first  showers  in  April  this  tiny  ink-cap  emerges  from  the  ground  in 
clusters  of  hundreds  of  individuals.  The  best  harvesting  implement  is  a  pair  of  scissors. 
It  grows  at  the  base  of  old  trees,  stumps,  and  from  buried  wood  in  lawns.  Caps  tawny,  and 
glistening  with  minute,  mica-like  particles;  stems  white.  About  natural  size  (see  figure, 
lower  left,  Color  Plate  VIII). 


of  individuals.  It  should  be  looked  for  in  the 
autumn. 

The  caps  often  measure  as  much  as  ten 
inches  across,  the  stems  being  proportionately 
long. 

Pleurotus  olearius,  another  phosphorescent 
mushroom  that  parasitizes  the  olive  tree  in 
southern  Europe  and  is  also  poisonous  to  hu- 
man beings,  is  closely  related  to,  if  not  iden- 
ical  with,  this  plant. 

EDIBLE    AND    POISONOUS    FLESHY 
TUBE-FUNGI  (Various  species 
of  Boletus) 

(See  Color  Plate  IF) 

Though  similar  in  shape,  the  fleshy  tube- 
fungi  differ  in  one  important  point  from  the 
gill-fungi;  instead  of  gills,  the  under  side  of 
the  cap  exhibits  a  layer  of  small,  vertically 
placed  tubes,  on  the  inside  of  which  the  spores 
are  borne. 

The  Boleti  are  fairly  safe;  yet  the  beginner 


ought  to  be  forewarned  against  certain  species 
that  are  likely  to  cause  illness  when  eaten. 
Chief  among  these  is  a  group  collectively 
known  as  the  Luridi.  The  prime  distinguish- 
ing mark  of  species  belonging  to  this  group  is 
the  more  or  less  bright  red,  orange-red,  or 
maroon  coloring  of  the  tube-mouths ;  also,  all 
Boleti  that  show  the  slightest  tendency  to  as- 
sume some  shade  of  blue  when  broken  or 
bruised  should  be  avoided.  Bitter  species,  too, 
should  not  be  eaten,  especially  B.  fclleus,  a 
somewhat  robust  plant  with  pinkish  flesh- 
colored  tubes. 

The  edible  Boletus,  the  cepe  of  commerce 
(Boletus  edulis},  Plate  IV,  is  the  well  known 
and  much  sought  cepe  of  the  French.  Before 
the  war,  a  regular  article  of  commerce,  one 
could  purchase  it,  either  dried  or  canned,  at 
the  little  delicatessen  shop  "around  the  corner." 
Now  we  are  dependent  upon  our  own  supply, 
which  is  none  too  plentiful.  In  the  coast  coun- 
ties of  California,  however,  it  seems  to  be 
fairly  abundant,  for  the  writer  has  seen  Italian 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


405 


Photograph  by  Roland  McKee 

THE  INKY  COPRINUS  (Coprinus  atraiiiciitarius  VARIETY).    EDIBLE 

This  variety  lacks  the  fine  scales  on  the  top  of  the  cap,  which  are  prominent  in  the  typical 
form.  The  very  delicate  silvery  gray  luster  of  the  cap  vanishes  with  the  slightest  touch. 
The  "ink"  from  this  mushroom  makes  a  forgery-proof  writing  fluid  (see  page  439).  Natural 
size. 


residents  there  return  from  collecting  trips 
with  their  automobiles  laden  with  them. 

In  preparing  it,  either  for  immediate  use  or 
for  pickling  or  canning,  the  layer  of  tubes  and 
the  tough  portion  of  the  stems  should  be  re- 
moved. When  used  fresh,  the  cooking  should 
be  rapid  over  a  brisk  fire.  Frying  or  broiling 
with  butter  or  olive  oil,  with  the  usual  spices 
added,  seems  best  adapted  for  this  fungus. 
When  pickled,  add  cloves,  bay  leaves,  and  other 
spices. 

Except  for  the  stem,  which  is  at  times  much 
shorter,  and  club-  or  pestle-shaped,  the  illus- 
tration shows  a  fully  matured  plant.  When 
young,  the  tubes  are  pale,  creamy  white,  but 
as  the  plant  develops  they  become  greenish, 
and  when  touched  or  bruised  change  to  a 
greenish-ocher  color,  not  to  blue. 


The  species  is  extremely  variable,  both  as  to 
shape* and  color,  some  specimens  showing  a 
brownish-lilac  color  on  both  cap  and  stem. 
The  constant  features,  however,  are  the  colors 
and  color  changes  of  the  tube  layer,  and  the 
fine  mesh  of  white  lines  on  the  stem,  usually 
but  not  always  confined  to  the  upper  part. 

The  edible  Orange-cap  Boletus  (Boletus 
versipcllis)  is  much  coarser  and  larger  than 
the  cepe  and  not  so  desirable.  Still,  in  the  ab- 
sence of  something  better,  it  is  eaten  by  those 
who  must  have  their  mushrooms  (see  page 
406). 

It  is  quite  common  and  easily  recognized  by 
the  numerous  rough,  blackish  points  on  the 
stem  and  by  the  overlapping  margin  of  the  red- 
dish- or  orange-colored  cap.  Its  flesh  changes 
color  to  a  neutral,  reddish  gray. 


P.  2  a 


o    £ 

<j     PQ 


fjiS 

P"a5  "E 


so 


S     -0   g 


o     W      rt  —  — 

S    t/j  ^     S 

^*       cd   i— i • .  . 


o    .S  ^^2 
fri      bfl  ID'S 


o     o 

U'      . 

a 

W      rt 

w    <-> 

OT      <u 


^     X     U, 

"-     bog  w 

Y>  C  "O 

W      rt  a),  c 
«       O  +-   p 


2 
W 


^^-g 
"TD   rt  /_^  o 


Ei    ^S^^ 

^    •£  cu'So 
O      rt  yO  ^.i 


W 


H 
O 

W 


406 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


407 


Photograph  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Leeper 

THE  EDIBLE  BEEF-TONGUE  MUSHROOM  (Ftstnliiia  hepatita) 

Cap  blood-red,  pores  (on  under  side  of  cap)  creamy  pink,  flesh  streaked  with  red  and 
pink,  this  fungus  grows  on  chestnut  and  oak  stumps  from  July  to  October.  The  plant  is  so 
distinct  that  it  is  not  easily  confounded  with  other  species.  The  illustration  is  about  one-half 
natural  size. 


THE   HANDSOME   VOLVARIA    (Volva- 
ria  speciosa).     Edibility  doubtful 

(See  Color  Plate  V) 

Opinion  as  to  the  edible  qualities  of  the 
Handsome  Volvaria  diverges  considerably. 
While  some  speak  of  it  as  ''a  fine  edible  agaric," 
others  pronounce  it  "watery  and  unpleasant  to 
the  taste,"  or  even  poisonous.  -  Since  the  plant 
is  somewhat  variable,  and  therefore  not  clearly 
separated,  except  by  spore  characters,  from 
the  very  poisonous  Voh'aria  gloiocephala,  it  is 
advisable  to  let  it  alone. 

Only  recently  Prof.  W.  C.  Coker,  of  the 
University  of  Xorth  Carolina,  reported  a 
variety  of  V .  speciosa  from  the  sand  dunes 
of  Smith  Island,  North  Carolina.  His  plant 
had  spores  larger  than  those  of  the  type  and 
differed  in  other  characters. 

In  the  eastern  United  States  it  is  of  infre- 
quent occurrence,  but  on  the  Pacific  coast, 
especially  in  California,  it  is  so  abundant  dur- 
ing April  and  May  that  one  finds  it  wherever 
the  soil  is  rich  with  decaying  vegetable  matter. 

The  odor  of  the  fresh  plant  is  repellent,  re- 
sembling verv  markedly  that  of  rancid  lard. 

The  Handsome  Volvaria  is  gathered  from 
April  to  October ;  distribution,  temperate 
North  America,  Europe,  and  North  Africa. 


CORAL    MUSHROOMS    (Various    species 
of  Clavaria).     Edible 

(Sec  Color  Plate  V} 

"But  that  is  not  a  mushroom  !"  exclaims  the 
tyro,  seeing  his  first  Clavaria.  "Why,  it  looks 
like  coral." 

It  is  true  that  these  plants  show  no  differen- 
tiation into  cap,  gills,  tubes,  or  teeth,  but  they 
are,  nevertheless,  true  fungi,  the  spores  being 
borne  on  the  exterior  of  the  branches. 

With  the  exception  of  a  single  species,  all, 
so  far  as  known,  are  good  to  eat,  provided  the 
taste  is  agreeable  and  the  specimens  are  fresh 
and  free  from  insect  attack.  The  exception  is 
a  species  (C.  dichotoma)  in  which  the  branches 
are  rather  thin,  flaccid,  whitish,  and  divided 
regularly  into  twos. 

Clavaria  fiisifonuis  (see  Color  Plate  V)  is 
long,  bright  orange-yellow  with  a  delicate 
bloom,  dark-tipped,  and  usually  grows  in  tufts. 
The  interior  is  solid  at  first,  then  hollow.  Oc- 
casionally specimens  are  found  that  are  vari- 
ously bent,  twisted,  or  malformed. 

Clavarias  may  be  sought  in  both  deciduous 
and  coniferous  woods  from  July  to  September 
(see  illustration,  page  412). 

Other  edible  species  are  Clavaria  flava  and 
Clavaria  botr\tes. 


408 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


409 


Photograph  by  George  Shiras,  3d 

A  BRACKKT-FUNGUS  (Polyponis  applaiiatiis} 

Note  the  concentric  zones  marked  with  match-sticks.  Each  zone  indicates  the  limit  of 
a  year's  growth.  The  under  side  of  this  woody  fungus  makes  an  admirable  sketching  sur- 
face. A  sharp  twig  will  do  for  a  pencil.  The  bracket  fungus  is  the  fruit-body  of  a  destructive 
parasite  very  common  in  our  forests  (see  page  417).  You  do  not  rid  the  infected  tree  of  its 
fungus  parasite  by  removing  the  fruit-bodies.  The  disease  is  produced  by  the  mycelium  (or 
spawn)  threads,  which  (more  or  less  compacted  into  tissues)  permeate  the  wood  of  the 
tree.  This  particular  species  has  a  whitish,  porous  surface,  which  is  easily  embrowned  on  the 
slightest  touch — hence  its  use  as  a  sketching  surface. 


THE  DEADLY  AMANITA,  OR  DE- 
STROYING ANGEL  (Amanita  phal- 
loides  and  its  varieties).  Deadly  poison- 
ous ! 

(Sec  Color  Plates  V,  X,  and  XVI) 

"Do  not  eat  mushrooms  and  you  will  not  be 
killed  by  them." 

If  every  one  followed  this  injunction,  fur- 
ther advice  would  be  superfluous.  That  it  is 
not  universally  followed  is  certain,  for  each 
year  brings  new  records  of  poisoning  cases, 
most  of  which  are  caused  by  species  of  Aman- 
ita. The  first  duty  of  those  who  insist  on  eat- 
ing mushrooms  is,  therefore,  to  become  thor- 
oughly familiar  with  the  botanical  features  of 
this  genus.  These  once  impressed  upon  the 
mind,  the  danger  from  Amanita  poisoning  will 
be  much  reduced  if  not  entirely  eliminated. 

The  following  characterization  of  Amanitas 
should  be  memorized  by  the  beginner  as  he 
would  memorize  a  theorem  in  geometry : 

Any  white-scored,  more  or  less  free-gilled 
fungus  that  possesses  both  ring  and  rolra  is  a 


member  of  the  rery  dangerous  genus  Amanita 
(see  chart,  page  389). 

Extremely  common  in  all  parts  of  the  coun- 
try from  June  until  the  first  frosts,  the  deadly 
Amanita  grows  singly  or  scattered,  in  and 
near  both  deciduous  and  coniferous  woods,  in 
the  soil,  among  leaves,  particularly  where  the 
ground  is  low,  wet,  and  not  too  sandy ;  also  in 
places  where  woods  have  recently  been  cut 
down,  such  as  lawns,  pastures,  and  fields  in 
new  suburbs. 

The  symptoms  of  poisoning  from  this  fungus 
appear  much  later  than  those  due  to  Amanita 
muscana.  The  unfortunate  victim  remains 
quite  well  until  seized  suddenly  with  violent 
abdominal  pain,  in  from  six  to  fifteen  hours 
after  eating  the  fungi.  Excessive  vomiting, 
thirst,  and  either  diarrhea  or  constipation  ac- 
company the  abdominal  pain. 

The  paroxysms  of  pain  may  be  so  severe 
that  the  face  becomes  drawn,  pinched,  and  of 
a  livid  color  (Hippocratic  face).  The  attacks 
of  pain  and  vomiting  come  on  periodically,  the 
patient  loses  strength  rapidly,  jaundice  fre- 
quently sets  in,  and  coma  finally  develops,  fol- 


410 


COMMON   MUSHROOMS   OF   THE   UNITED   STATES 


411 


Photograph  by  George  Shiras,  3d 

AN  UNUSUALLY  BEAUTIFUL  CORAL  MUSHROOM  (Hydnitin  laciniatuni)  GROWING  ON 

A  PROSTRATE  TREE 

The  species  is  closely  related  to  H.  coralloides,  shown  on  page  410.    It  is  edible  when  white 
and  fresh.     Size :  Individual  clumps  up  to  10  inches. 


lowed  by  death.  Convulsions  may  or  may  not 
occur  toward  the  end. 

The  duration  of  the  illness  is  from  three  to 
eight  daj-s,  depending  upon  the  age  of  the 
patient  and  upon  the  amount  of  fungus  eaten. 
There  is  no  known  antidote  for  the  poisons, 
and  the  death-rate  is,  therefore,  very  high, 
ranging  from  60  to  100  per  cent. 

A  description  of  Atnanita  fhalloldes  and  its 
varieties :  Cap  2  to  6  inches  broad,  fleshy,  at 
first  egg-shaped  to  bell-shaped,  then  obtusely 
convex,  finally  plane  or  depressed  (concave 
when  old  and  overexpanded),  usually  a  little 
elevated  in  the  center,  but  not  umbonate,  white 
(in  the  spring  form,  A.  t-erna,  and  in  A.  ivrosa, 
the  latter  illustrated  in  Plate  X),  light  yellow- 
ish-white, dull  yellow  or  light  brown,  grayish, 
grayish-brown  or  olive-brown  (livid  purplish- 
brown  in  A.  porfhyria),  the  disk  frequently 
darker  in  some  individuals,  approaching  black 
(see  Plate  XVI),  citron-yellow  (A.  citrina, 
illustrated  by  the  figure  on  the  extreme  right 
in  Plate  V),  greenish  yellow,  green  or  olive- 
green,  occasionally  streaked  with  darker  shades 
of  the  prevailing  color  or  with  dull  reds. 

THE  HONEY-COLORED  MUSHROOM, 

OR  OAK  FUNGUS   (Armillaria 

mellea).     Edible 

(Upper  figure,  Color  Plate  ^7) 

Tete  de  Medusc  is  a  French  common  name 
for  this  agaric,  the  appearance  of  which  in  an 


orchard  is  as  much  feared  by  the  owner  of  the 
trees  as  was  the  Gorgon  head  of  old. 

Its  appetite  for  living,  ligneous  substance  is 
truly  astounding.  With  equal  zest  it  feeds 
upon  oaks,  chestnuts,  pines,  larches,  hemlocks, 
and  white  cedars,  reserving  for  dessert  the 
grapevine  and  most  fruit  trees.  When  times 
are  hard  and  "pickins'  -slim,"  it  turns  upon 
the  humble  potato.  Once,  so  far  as  we  know, 
its  attack  was  met,  and  this  by  an  orchid. 
After  a  battle  for  supremacy,  the  two  finally 
came  to  an  understanding  and  decided  to  work 
together  for  their  mutual  benefit. 

Like  most  successful  organisms,  it  has  a 
great  capacity  for  adapting  itself.  Equally 
at  home  on  plains,  mountain  peaks,  and  in 
mines,  it  pursues  its  prey  relentlessly,  its  rapid 
propagation  being  aided  by  blackish  cords 
(rhizomorphs)  that  do  reconnoitering  duty 
under  the  ground  and  under  the  bark  of  trees. 
Even  the  orchardist  plowing  over  the  site 
of  a  tree  killed  by  the  Armillaria  unwittingly 
assists  in  its  distribution  by  scattering  frag- 
ments of  these  rhizomorphs  over  new  feeding 
ground. 

Much  work  has  been  done  to  combat  this 
fungus  pest,  latest  among  which  is  that  by 
Prof.  W.  T.  Home,  of  the  University  of  Cali- 
fornia. 

As  might  be  expected  in  so  widely  dis- 
tributed and  adaptable  a  plant,  its  tendency 
to  vary,  both  in  color  and  in  structure,  is  al- 
most limitless  (see  pages  394  and  395). 


412 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


THE  HEDGEHOG  HYDNUM  (Hydnum  erinaceus).    EDIBLE 

Not  infrequently  the  assiduous  mushroom-hunter,  "new  to  the  game,"  finds  specimens 
that  do  not  tally  with  his  conception  of  what  a  mushroom  should  be  like.  This  is  one  of 
those  surprises.  Whitish  to  creamy-white  when  fresh.  Somewhat  under  natural  size. 


Photographs  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Leeper 

A  CORAL  MUSHROOM   (Clavaria  flava).     EDIBLE 

The  novice  seeing  this  remarkable  growth  for  the  first  time  finds  it  difficult  to  believe 
that  it  is  a  mushroom.  Branches  pale  yellow ;  base  and  main  stems  white.  Common  in  woods 
from  July  to  September.  .Somewhat  under  natural  size.  (For  another  Clavaria,  see  Color 
Plate  V,  middle  figure.) 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


413 


A   HUGE,   CONSPICUOUS   MUSHROOM    SOMETIMES   FOUND   IN    FORESTS 

herbstii).    EDIBLE 

This  rare  and  beautiful  fungus  should  be  looked  for  in  oak  woods.     About  one-half 

natural  size. 


Because  of  the  acrid  taste  that  is  usually 
present  in  the  raw  plant,  it  is  not  rated  very 
high  as  an  edible  species. 

This  mushroom  grows  wherever  there  is 
wood  to  be  attacked  in  the  open,  commonly  in 
woods,  on  the  ground,  or  on  decaying  stumps 
and  trunks  of  trees,  singly,  scattered,  or  in 
dense  clusters;  time,  mainly  in  the  autumn, 
though  it  may  occur  as  early  as  June;  distri- 
bution, cosmopolitan. 

THE  GARLIC  MUSHROOM  (Marasmius 
scorodonius).     Edible 

(See  Color  Plate  VI) 

Some  people  enjoy  the  flavor  of  garlic.  To 
these  it  will  be  interesting  news  that  they  may 
have  their  garlic  in  mushroom  form  if  they 
will  enter  a  pine  or  spruce  forest.  Here,  in 
vast  hordes,  covering  the  fallen  twigs,  sticks, 
and  needles,  grows  the  little  Marasmius.  One 
cannot  mistake  the  plant,  for  the  odor  is  so 
pronounced  that  the  "nose  knows"  it  before 
the  eye  sees  it. 

It  may  be  used  like  garlic,  in  dressings,  and 
as  a  flavor  for  roasts,  etc.  Since  it  occurs  in 
great  abundance  and  dries  readily,  it  can  be 
stored  for  use  in  the  winter,  when  it  will  also 
prove  a  reminder  of  the  pleasant  days  spent 
in  mushroom-hunting.  The  dried  plants  must 
be  steeped  in  water  before  they  are  employed 
in  the  kitchen. 


The. Garlic  mushroom  grows  in  woods,  espe- 
cially of  pines,  on  needles,  twigs,  etc.;  time, 
July  to  October,  very  plentiful  after  heavy 
rains ;  distribution,  temperate  North  America 
and  Europe ;  also  in  Siberia. 

THE  LITTLE  WHEEL  MUSHROOM 
(Marasmius  rotula).     Edible 

(See  Color  Plate  VI) 

After  a  summer  shower  it  pays  to  scrutinize 
closely  the  decaying  debris  of  a  near-by  wood. 
Almost  certainly  one  will  see  on  bark,  roots, 
and  old  leaves  tufts  of  this  delicate  and  mar- 
velously  made  little  agaric. 

Note  particularly  the  manner  in  which  the 
hair-like  stem  is  set  into  the  tiny  socket,  the 
sparsity  of  the  gill  development,  and  the  fine 
furrows  and  scallopings  of  the  margin  of  the 
cap.  A  Swiss  watchmaker  could  not  excel 
such  workmanship. 

During  dry  weather  the  plants  shrivel  into 
invisibility,  but,  like  all  members  of  the  genus 
Marasmius,  they  regain  their  pristine  freshness 
with  the  return  of  rain.  Sometimes,  as  if  fa- 
tigued from  the  production  of  so  much  minute 
workmanship,  the  plants  fail  to  produce  caps, 
and  the  stems,  too,  are  often  abnormally  grown 
together  in  a  branching  manner. 

For  culinary  purposes  this  species  is  used  as 
an  addition  to  gravies.  When  garnishing  veni- 


414 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Leeper 

THE;  GEMMED  PUFF-BALL  (Lycopcrdon  gemmatum)  FOUXD  EVERYWHERE 

Though  small,  this  "gem-studded"  species  is  much  sought  by  mushroom-eaters  and  may  be  dis- 
covered growing  scattered  or  in  tufts,  usually  on  the  ground.    About  one-half  natural  size. 


son,  it  adds  the  appropriate  touch  of  the  wild 
woodlands. 

This  species  grows  on  decaying  wood  (bark, 
roots,  and  stumps)  and  on  old  leaves  in  woods 
of  maple,  beech,  etc. ;  time,  June  to  Septem- 
ber; distribution,  temperate  North  America, 
Europe,  and  South  Africa. 

HEDGEHOG    MUSHROOMS    (Various 
species  of  Hydnum) 

(Sec  Color  Plate  VI} 

Not  infrequently  the  assiduous  mushroom- 
hunter,  "new  to  the  game,"  finds  specimens 
that  do  not  tally  at  all  with  his  conception  of 
what  a  mushroom  should  be  like.  He  has  soon 
learned,  of  course,  to  recognize  the  gill  tribes 
(see  page  390),  and  the  Boleti  (see  page  406), 
and  perhaps  the  Clavarias  (see  page  412),  but 
should  he  encounter  a  toadstool  with  "teeth," 
he  will  be  nonplussed,  until  assured  by  his 
mycological  mentor  that  there  are  such  "ani- 
mals," and  that  they  go  by  the  name  of  Hedge- 
hog mushrooms. 

They  are  not  as  frequent  as  the  others,  and 
therefore  all  the  more  of  a  surprise  when  met 
with.  Some  are  conspicuously  beautiful,  and 
the  story  that  the  great  Swedish  mycologist, 
Elias  Fries,  was  attracted  to  the  study  of  the 
fungi  on  beholding  in  his  youth  a  specimen  of 
the  snowy-white  coral  Hydnum  may  well  be 
believed  (see  illustration,  page  410). 


The  teeth,  varying  in  size  and  color  in  dif- 
ferent species,  clothe  the  lower  side  of  the 
fruit-bodies,  which  may  be  cap-like,  as  in 
agarics  and  boleti,  branched,  solidly  formed 
into  tuberous,  fleshy  masses,  or  spread  out  in 
a  flat  layer.  No  poisonous  species  are  known, 
though  many  are  tough,  bitter,  or  malodorous, 
and  thus  naturally  unattractive  to  the  my- 
cophagist. 

Hydnum  fennicuin,  the  Finnish  Hydnum  (see 
Color  Plate  VI),  is  too  bitter  to  be  eaten, 
but  its  general  aspect  gives  some  idea  of  the 
appearance  of  the  edible  H.  imbricattim.  The 
latter  species  has  a  more  umber-colored,  less 
reddish  cap,  no  blue  discoloration  in  the  flesh 
of  the  stem,  a  less  bitterish  taste,  and  coarser 
teeth.  Deer  are  said  to  be  fond  of  it. 

THE     CINNAMON     CORTINARIUS 
(Cortinarius  cinnamomeus).     Edible 


Plants  belonging  to  the  bulky  genus  Corti- 
narius are  very  numerous  in  our  forests  dur- 
ing the  autumn  months ;  yet.  except  for  a  few 
well-characterized  species,  one  and  all  are  left 
severely  alone  by  the  average  student  of  mush- 
rooms; this  not  because  of  any  fear  from  poi- 
soning— the  genus  is  a  fairly  safe  one — but 
because  of  the  difficulties  attending  their  study. 

It  is  easy  enough  to  say  that  one  has  found  a 
"Cort" — the  term  of  endearment  for  members 
of  this  "offish"  genus.  To  determine  the  plant 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


415 


Photograph  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Leeper 

GIANT  PUFF-BALL  (Calvatid  gigantea) 

The  best-known  of  all  puff-balls.  A  single  specimen  will  suffice  for  the  largest  family. 
Diameter  often  fourteen  inches  and  over. 

As  children,  we  have  all  squeezed  the  puff-ball  to  make  it  "puff,"  little  realizing  that  in 
doing  this  we  were  liberating  billions  of  spores,  which — if  everything  went  well  with  them — 
would  produce  in  turn  billions  of  puff-balls.  But  there  is  "many  a  slip"  in  the  life  of  a  puff- 
ball  spore.  Were  this  not  so,  the  whole  country  at  the  proper  season,  would  be  paved  with 
puff-balls. 

A  recent  investigator,  Professor  Buller,  computing  the  number  of  spores  in  a  single 
good-sized  specimen  of  the  giant  puff-ball,  found  that  it  contained  about  seven  trillions 
(7,000,000,000,000)  ;  and  yet  this  species  is  by  no  means  as  common  as  those  who  know  its 
delicious  flavor  would  like  it  to  be.  One  is  inclined  to  ask — as  we  do  about  the  fate  of  pins — 
what  becomes  of  them  all?  .  .  .  The  plant  grows  in  grassy  places,  in  August  and  Sep- 
tember, sometimes  in  "fairy-rings."  It  is  not  very  common,  we  regret  to  say. 

To  escape  acceptance  of  the  theory  of  the  spontaneous  generation  of  life,  it  has  been 
suggested  that  extraordinarily  minute  organisms  (bacteria,  for  example),  or  their  spores, 
propelled  alive  through  space,  might  be  capable  of  carrying  life  to  planets.  When  it  is  con- 
sidered that  the  vitality  of  some  spores  remains  unimpaired  after  prolonged  exposure  to 
liquid  air  and  even  liquid  hydrogen,  the  suggestion  seems  plausible. 

See  also  pages  392  and  402. 


416 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


Photograph  by  A.  G.  and  B.  Leeper 

THE  CUP-SHAPED  PUFF-BALL  (Calvatio.  cyathiformis)  COMMON  IN  FIELDS 

The  purplish-brown  surface,  cracked  like  an  alligator's  skin,  is  the  distinguishing  feature 
of  this  much-hunted  species,  which  grows  in  pastures  and  in  cultivated  lands  during  August 
and  September.  Less  than  one-half  natural  size. 


specifically,  however,  is  a  different  problem, 
largely  for  the  reason  that  it  is  essential  to 
have  more  than  one  specimen,  preferably  a 
whole  series,  covering  the  development  from 
extreme  youth  to  full  maturity. 

If  such  a  series  is  at  one's  disposal,  impor- 
tant notes  can  be  made — first,  on  the  difference 
in  the  gill-color  of  young  and  old  specimens ; 
second,  on  the  color  of  the  cobweb-like  veil, 
present  in  all  true  Cortinarii,  and  on  the  pres- 
ence or  absence  of  a  secondary  or  universal 
veil ;  third,  on  the  shape,  color,  and  general 
surface  characters  (including  degree  of  sticki- 
ness) of  the  plants. 

The  species  included  here  and  figured  in 
its  natural  colors  is  sometimes  found.  The 
change  in  the  color  of  the  gills  is  shown,  as  is 
also  the  difference  in  the  general  aspect  due 
to  growth.  The  amateur  would  scarcely  con- 
sider the  two  plants  as  belonging  to  one  spe- 
cies. To  complicate  the  situation  further,  this 
species  has  several  varieties,  one  of  which,  with 
blood-red  gills,  is  quite  common. 

Many  species  of  Cortinarius  exhibit  beauti- 
ful coloration,  the  light  lavender,  blue,  and 
violet-colored  ones  being  noted  in  this  respect. 
A  few  have  bright  red  bands  encircling  their 
stems,  as  in  the  common  C.  armillatus. 

THE  CHANTRELLE  (Cantharellus 
cibarius).     Edible 

(See  Color  Plate  VII) 

On  special  state  occasions  the  golden  Chan- 
trelle  graces  the  festive  board,  yet  there  is  no 


reason  in  the  world  why  it  should  not  be  on 
every  man's  table  throughout  the  land  and 
throughout  the  year.  Abundant  and  easily 
recognized,  any  one  may  gather  it  in  quantity 
and  without  fear  of  being  poisoned. 

Its  natural  habitat  is  in  forests  of  spruce, 
pine,  hemlock,  beech,  and  other  trees ;  com- 
monly found  growing  in  troops,  from  June  to 
October.  Long  cooking  over  a  slow  fire,  in 
a  covered  vessel,  improves  both  flavor  and 
consistency.  The  dressing  may  be  simple  or 
very  elaborate.  It  dries  readily. 

Though  a  somewhat  variable  fungus,  both  as 
to  shape  and  color,  its  characteristic,  dull- 
edged,  irregularly  forked  gills  render  identifi- 
cation easy, 

It  is  a  cosmopolitan  species,  but  limited,  as 
are  most  fleshy  fungi,  to  the  more  temperate 
regions  of  the  earth  (see  Clitocybe  illudens,  the 
False  Chantrelle,  Plate  III). 

THE  PERENNIAL  POLYSTICTUS 

(Polystictus  perennis) 

(See  Color  Plate  VII) 

When  in  the  woods,  "stalking"  the  edible 
fungi,  the  hunter,  sensitive  to  the  beautiful  as 
well  as  the  useful,  cannot  but  stop  to  admire 
the  little  cinnamon-colored  cups  of  various 
Polystictus  species  that  stud  his  pathway.  The 
present  species  is  one  of  the  commonest.  A 
West  African  species,  the  magnificent  Poly- 
stictus sacer  is  an  object  of  religious  worship 
with  the  natives.  Let  us  hope  that  it  is  merely 
a  worship  at  the  shrine  of  beauty. 


COMMON  MUSHROOMS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 


417 


The  genus  Polystictus  is  a  member  of  a 
large  family,  the  Polyporaceap.  Some  of  the 
bracket-  or  hoof -shaped  species  of  the  poly- 
pores  are  familiar  objects  to  the  forest  ram- 
bler. Unfortunately,  they  are  only  too  familiar 
to  the  forester,  many  being  very  destructive 
to  our  trees.  Polypoms  applanatus,  a  common 
bracket  fungus,  deserves  notice  because  of  the 
use  to  which  it  is  put  by  the  collector  who 
combines  artistic  proclivities  with  his  myco- 
logic  ones.  The  under,  or  hymenial,  surface 
of  this  fungus  is  almost  white.  Upon  the 
slightest  scratch,  however,  the  white  is  re- 
moved and  a  dark  line  appears. 

Provided  with  nothing  more  than  a  good 
fresh  specimen  of  this  fungus  and  a  stylus 
in  the  form  of  a  sharp-pointed  branchlet,  con- 
veniently picked  up  at  his  feet,  the  artist- 
mycologist  may  proceed  to  sketch  the  land- 
scape. If  he  has  the  ability  of  a  Seymour 
Hayden  or  a  Pennell,  the  result  will  compare 
favorably  with  a  good  etching.  After  the  fun- 
gus is  thoroughly  dry,  the  picture  is  perma- 
nently fixed,  and  it  mav  then  be  set  up  in  the 
summer  bungalow  to  recall  a  day  pleasantly 
and  profitably  spent  (see  page  409  for  illustra- 
tion of  P.  applanatus}. 

THE    EQUESTRIAN    TRICHOLOMA 

(Tricholoma  equastre).     Edible 

{Lower  left  figure,  Color  Plate  VII) 

The  Tricholomata  are  attractive  agarics. 
Clean,  trim,  often  of  elegant  stature  and  beau- 
tiful coloring,  they  have  become  known  in  some 
countries  under  the  attractive  name  of  Knightly 
mushrooms.  The  time  for  their  appearance 
is  rather  late  in  the  autumn,  when  the  air  is 
a  little  chill  and  the  forest  foliage  is  beginning 
to  glow  with  Titian's  tints. 

The  present  species,  the  Equestrian  tricho- 
loma,  is  one  of  the  better-known  examples  of 
the  genus.  It  is  edible  and  therefore  eagerly 
sought  as  soon  as  the  weather  is  propitious. 
The  taste  is  apt  to  be  a  little  unpleasant  in 
uncooked  plants,  but  this  is  true  of  a  number 
of  edible  species,  notably  of  Armillaria  mellea 
( Plate  VI)  and  of  Lactarius  piperatus,  a  very 
large,  coarse,  white,  "milk"-exuding  species, 
common  in  woods.  Conversely,  some  of  the 
deadliest  species  of  Amanita  give  no  forewarn- 
ing at  all  through  the  sense  of  taste. 

The  Equestrian  tricholoma  is  found  in  pine 
woods;  time,  September  to  November;  distri- 
bution, North  America  and  Europe. 

MORELS.     (Edible) 
(See  Color  Plate  VII) 

The  Morel,  or  Sponge  mushroom,  belongs 
with  the  Ascomycetes,  fungi  quite  distinct 
from  those  which  bear  gills,  tubes,  teeth,  etc. 
Not  only  is  there  a  marked  departure  in  the 
external  form,  but  the  microscopic  features, 
likewise,  show  a  fundamental